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February 26, 1952 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1952-02-26

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The McCarran Act Reviewed

... oc ette to 1/ic Ccitor .. .

THE delay in allowing. English author
Graham Greene entrance into the
United States has once again spotlighted
public attention on one of the most mis-
construed bills of recent times, the Internal
Security Act of 1950.
More commonly known as the McCar-
ran Act, the omnibus anti-subversive
bill which passed Congress over a presi-
dential veto 18 months ago, has been the
cause of much heartache, a good deal of
government expense, red tape operations
and little really constructive action
against the Red menace, the enemy it
supposedly is fighting.
One of its most well known provisions,
the one which temporarily kept Greene
from coming here, blandly states that any
alien who has ever professed a connection
with a totalitarian organization is barred
from the country. Thus, devoutly Catholic
Greene, who, in his youth once joined the
Communist party on a dare (and withdrew
within a few weeks) was closely "investi-
gated" before he was permitted a visa for
United States travel.
His name is on a list which includes
such notables as Dr. Ernst Chaim, German-
born Englishman who possesses a Nobel
prize for his work in biochemistry and re-
nowned professor Marcus Oliphant of Aus-
tralia, (neither of whom have received the
special compensation granted Greene in
finally allowing him to enter the country).
Arturo Toscannini, who once backed Musso-
lini in pre-Ais days, was in danger of similar
treatment. The list of lesser known, equally
"dangerous" characters turned away or de-
tained grows each month.
So many and , obvious have been the
injustices and ridiculous occurences
which have been perpetuated because of
this broad edict, author Pat McCarrqn
himself, a legislator known for mu -
slinging tactics, has suggested a slightly
more liberal substitute. Embodied in a
yet-to-be considered immigration bill, the
new restriction would permit entry for
any former subversive who had recanted
at least five years previous to his request
for a visa, provided he had actively :cam-
paigned against totalitarianism.
But this is as far as Sen. McCarran has
ventured. He is suggesting merely a super-

ficial change in a bill which needs a com-
plete revamping.
* * *
CLOSELY related to_ the immigration rule
is one which forces aliens with any
former totalitarian affiliations out of the
country. This, like the entry ruling, is very
apt to punish people for affiliations they
have long since retracted, or which were
considered harmless at the time they held
them. Since the act was effected in 1952,
it has caused the deportation of many
harmless persons and brought trouble to
many who had sought refuge here when
they fled from totalitarian, states. A great
deal of money has been spent, uselesslyf
trying to contest national eviction notices.
I am not suggesting that the doors be
wide open, to allow any and all real sub-
versives to infiltrate the country. But the
rules as they stand on these two points
right now are far too extreme; the trouble
and expense they cause. cannot be justi-
fied. The McCarran provisions catch no
more people than the acts previously en-
acted to protect against subversives.
Another misdirected ruling is one which
demands that all Communist and Commun-
ist front organizations register as such
with the attorney general. None have regis-
tered. Resulting administrative hearings
aimed at establishing the legal identity of
offending organizations hake been going
on for 10 months, with no success.
Fighting the first test case is the Com-
munist party, which is reputedly talking
of .another year of hearings. Barring inter-
national complications, their plans do not
seem impossible.
On the other hand, the administrative
fight looks like it could stretch out through
eternity. Each organization on the subver-
sive list must get individual treatment, as
in the case of the CP. And if things were
to get too hot for one group or another,
nothing in the bill would stop leaders from
disbanding their organization and then
reinstituting it with a new name and/or
publicly stated aim. If ever, then, the ad-
ministration hearings appear dangerous,
the turnover in organizations would be over-
All this would serve only to drive the
Communists further underground, rather.
than pulling them into the open, as Mr.
McCarran claimed his act would do.

This open - underground consideration
brings up another provision which will
never even get to be exercised, for it hinges
on the registration process. But it shows up
what appears to be the kind of naive-
rambunctiousness which characterizes the
act throughout. It would have, once regis-
tered identity had been established for a
subversive organization, all their propa-
ganda, oral or written, marked by a. big
It might be very nice if everything we
read or hear could be nicely labeled and
catalogued for the benefit of gullible per-
sons. But of what real value it would be
is unfathomable. Even if the groups could
find no loophole through which they could
slip the odious label away, it is doubtful
if the mere presence of the label would
make it untouchable. It could conceiv-
ably provide some goods with an added
aura of interest by taking on the nature
of forbidden fruit.
In short, the only really good fight against
such propaganda is active, living repudia-
tion of the arguments which the CP and
their cohorts periodically put out. A label
is merely a superficial and certainly a ques-
tionable weapon.
THESE are the main provisions of the
McCarran Act. There are others, which
provide safeguards against Communists in
the federal government, against Commun-
ists getting easy visas or passports, against
Communist groups acquiring tax dispensa-
tions, against totalitarian workers over-
throwing the government. But all of these
dangers had been checked in legislation
enacted previous to 1950, and without the
benefit of nefarious McCarran padding.
It is important these days that we do
safeguard our nation from the grasping
feelers of Communism. But it is impor-
tant, too, that we safeguard the ideal
which we still like to lop together under
the title, Democracy. The mentors of the
McCarran masterpiece probably pride
themselves on doing just that. But they
have not.
They have constructed a bill which is
more of a threat than a safety precaution-
more of a nuisance than an aid.
They should take a good look at it. And
put in some changes.
-Donna Hendleman


i 1 11 11 I l i



F OR a number of years the country's edu-
cators have been decrying the inadequacy
of our elementary and secondary school
system. The most immediate cause of its
deficiences has been the shortage of teach-
ers, and particularly, the shortage of good
The college student with more than
average ability has always had good rea-
sons for not choosing a teaching career.
Most important among them is the feel-
ing that teaching colleges, with their
emphasis on cut and dried education
courses, do not offer the intellectual
stimulation and development that the
good liberal arts colleges do.
As a possible remedy for this situation,
Harvard, cooperating with twenty eastern
colleges, is offering a one-year teacher-
training program to graduates of liberal
arts colleges, with fellowships from a liberal
Foi'd Foundation grant going to first-rate
This new plan makes it possible for pros-
pective teachers to acquire the vital educa-
tion in the arts, social sciences, and sciences,
taking a bachelor's degree in one of those
fields, and in a year of intensified training
at Harvard complete the specialized courses
needed for a teacher's Certificate.
The prestige and financial aid provided
by the fellowships will undoubtedly draw
many students into the program who
otherwise would not consider going into
either education or a fifth year of college.
The Harvard system, backed with a good
scholarship plan, might well become the
formula for supplying the nation's public
school system with the alert and intelligent
teachers it needs so badly.
-Bob Holloway
TV Hearings
W HILE the last minute ban of the tele-
vision cameras from the Detroit un-
American Committee hearings this week
may have disappointed a lot of entertain-
ment-hungry people, it appears to be a wise
True, the televising of the Kefauver
hearings aroused more public interest in
corruption and government activities than
anything had done in years. But it did
something else. It placed a stigma upon
everyone who was grilled before the
The people who are asked to testify be-
fore congressional committee hearings are
not on trial for anything. They are merely.
being questioned to aid the committee in
obtaining information on which to base
future legislation.
However, the mere fact that these people
are questioned about communism stamps
them as subversive in the minds of the same
Americans who consciously or unconsciously
blacklist anyone whose name pops up in
one of Joe McCarthy's tirades.
This is not a blanket condemnation of
TV coverage of public affairs. Events such
as the forthcoming national party con-

"° 1

At The Orpheum . . .
MANON, starring Cecile Aubry
THE TIP-OFF on this sexy French import
is that about 95% of the audience is male.
That's about all there is, folks. La Belle
Cecile might teach our co-eds something
about handling men, but don't expect to
leave this one in any agony of passion, emo-
tion, or what-have-you.
One cannot get into either of the main
characters, and because of this and a very
skimpy plot, it is impossible to be carried
away by the tragedy of it all. As far as
this type of movie goes, you.might as well -
get your 50c worth of escapism here as
an~ywhere, but don't expect to see Good
As for the plot itself-it leaves the gate
awkwardly, picks up briefly at the far turn,
stumbles in th stretch, and collapses into a
slow walk coming into the wire. Because of
the uninspired acting, as well as poor direct-
ing, we get none of the tense inner conflict
which probably besets our two protagonists
(never say "heroes").
Perhaps, though I doubt it, there was a
brilliant irony underlying the whole thing
-there was certainly every opportunity
for some. But they played it so "straight"
that this seemed only to be my wishful
When Prevost wrote the novel on which
this movie is based (albeit two centuries
ago) he portrayed America as the promised
land. In the movie, it's Palestine. This fact
alone is not enough to change what was
once a novel of manners into a movie of
tragic import.
-Eric Heckett
DURING the presidential election year
political activity reaches a peak. Though
the majority of students on campus cannot
vote this year, it 'is still necessary for them
to be aware of the issues involved and to
have an outlet through which they can
express their own points of view.
We have, here on campus, organized
groups representing the two major parties.
They are ready to support the candidates
and policies which are decided upon at
the party conventions this summer. We
also ,have some small unofficial discus-
sion groups representing the extreme left-
ist ideas.
However, there is no outlet for the politi-
cal philosophy known as liberal, which does
not conform to ideas of a particular group
but stands between the Democratic party
and the political left.
Realizing this lack, a group of Univer-
sity students is attempting to organize a
chapter of Students for Democratic Ac-
tion. This group will not follow a party
line. They will probably not endorse any .
one candidate, but will concentrate on the
issues involved in the November elections.
The success of SDA on this campus is up
to the interest shown by the students at

At The Michigan .
erick March.
BRINGING Arthur Miller's "Death of a
Salesman" to the screen has been ac-
complished the easy way. Stanley Kramer
and Director Lazlo Benedek have taken
the play, practically intact, moved a camera
over in front of it. and shot with an almost
untouhced script. Their material, generally
recognized as the finest American play in
recent years, has inevitably produced a sen-
sitive and compelling film.
Certain incalculable conesquences, how-
ever, result with the change in mediums.
Whereas the movie version has clarified the
motivation of the play and made even more
enjoyable the doom of Willy Loman, it has,
to my mind, lost some of the impact of the
protagonist's plight., Generally, the charac-
ter was pictured on the stage as a tired old
man whose mind played tricks. Still, when
Willy shouted, you were frightened. Atten-
tion had to be paid.
Frederick March, on the other hand
gives Willy only moments of lucidity in a
mind already far over the brink. He is
the symbol of something that was once a
"salesman", is now little more than a
noisy lunatic,
March does it this way, I think, not out
of any particular willfulness on his part,
but rather because, done otherwise, the
medium itself would make certain situations
like the night-planting scene, ludicrous.
The symbolic actions of the stage conse-
quently become odd manifestations of in-
sanity in the film. Flashbacks into the past
may be no more than fond recollections in
a stylized stage setting. Movie sets, how-
ever, have, by convention, become so hard
and inflexible that only the hallucinations
of a crazy man can violate their sacred
Supporting roles, notably those of Biff
(Kevin McCarthy) and the mother (Mil-
dred Dunnok) are very well handled. The
reconciliation between Biff and Willy in
the kitchen packs the same wallop here
that it did on the stage or in print. Miss
Dunnock has her only difficulty with the
"attention must be paid" speech. This
along with the final thematic epitaph of
Uncle Charlie are given with a flatness
that makes their poetry curiously obtru-
This is perhaps again symptomatic of the
director's inability to exploit all the possi-
bilities of his own medium.
-Bill Wiegand
Detroit, 19--
"HE, (the 'subpoenaed defendant) has de-
livered his usual venemous attack upon
the doctrines of the Party. He has abused
Big Brother, he has denounced the dicta-
torship of the party, he has demanded the
immediate conclusion of neace with Eurasia.

The Daily welcomes communica-
tions from its readers on matters or
general interest, and will publish all
letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding
300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for
any reason are not in good taste will{
be condensed, edited or withheld
from publication at the discretion or
the editors.
Loyalty Boards ...
To the Editor:
N his editorial, "Loyalty Resig-
nations" (Daily, Feb. 15).
Harry Lunn endorses the present
system of federal loyalty investi-
gations, and urges us to "rely on
the (loyalty) board to pass con-
sidered and fair judgment on each
loyalty case." I do not feel that:
such reliance is justified in light
of the manner in which loyalty
boards operate. Specifically. I ob-
ject (1) to the deficient hearing
given the accused, and (2) to the
apparent criteria of disloyalty
adopted by the boards.
1. The hearing. Loyalty Boards
accept as evidence of disloyalty
reports given to the FBI by pri-;
vate persons. The testimony of
such informants is nt given
under oath, nor is it subject to
cross-examination. Indeed, the'
accused knows neither his accuser
nor the evidence against him.
Frequently, the loyalty board it-
self does not know the identity
of the accuser. "The Loyalty
Board convicts on evidence whichl
it cannot even appraise. The criti-
cal evidence may be the word of1
and unknown witness who is 'a
paragon of veracity, a knave, or
the village idiot.' His name, his
reputation, his prejudices, his
animosities. his trustworthiness
are unknown both to the judge
and to the accused." (Justice1
Douglas concurring in Joint Anti-1
Fascist Refugee Committee v
McGrath, 341 U.S. 123 at 180
2. Criteria of disloyalty used byt
loyalty 'boards. "In loyalty hear-1
ing the following questions have
been asked of employees against'
whom charges have been brought
'Do you read a good many1
books?' 'What books do you read?'
'What magazines do you read?'
. .'How do you explain the fact1
that you have an albumn of Paul
Robeson records in your home?'1
'Do you entertain Negroes in
your home?' . .. 'Did you ever
write a letter to the Red Cross
about the segregation of blood?'!
. . .An accused employee was
taken to task for membership in
Consumers Union and for favor-1
ing legislation against . racial dis-:
crimination." (from the dissent-
ing opinion in Bailey v Richard-
son, 182 F.2d 46 at 72, 73 (1950))
To my mind, a loyalty board'
which fails to afford a proper hear-
ing to an accused employee, and
which considers, among other I
things,' a belief in racial equality
as some evidence of disloyalty is
not competent to pass upon any-
one's loyalty. In fact, I would go
one step further and say that the
entire Federal Employees Loyalty
Program, established by President
Truman under Executive Order
9835, constitutes a greater threat
to democracy than do the dis-
loyal persons the Program seeks,
to separate from government ser-
vice . .
-Mort Simons
S * * *
Detroit Subpoena ...
To the Editor:
THE Un-American Committee,
which has "raised" the art of
slander to new "heights," has sub-
poenoed a number of outstanding
citizens of Detroit 'to appear be-
fore it at its current visit.
Coming before this inquisition,
what kind of ideas do' these De-

troit citizens have to display in
order to be declared 100 per cent
American? What is necessary in
order not to be slandered?
First, they must outdo each other
in upholding the glorious policies
of jim crow. In the words of the
Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux
Klan, the Un-American program
"so closely parallels the program
of the Klan, that there is no dis-
tinguishable difference between
Next, they must crawl all over
one another to see who can best
expound the doctrine of anti-sem-
itism. As Committee Investigator
Chester Nickolas said: ". . . the
Jews in Germany stuck their necks
out too far and Hitler took care
of them, and the same thing is
going to happen here unless they
watch their step . .."
And finally, 'they must be firm
in asserting that World War III
is inevitable, and that any effort
towards peaceful relations with the


Soviet Union is treasonable. They
must answer such questions as
Rankin asked former Ambassador
Bullitt in the affirmative-i.e., "Is
it true that they eat human bodies
in Russia?"
But-woe to these Detroit citi-
zens! - should they believe that
jim crow is a terrible crime against
15,000,000 Americans, should they
believe that anti-semitism ought
to be rooted out of American life,
and should they believe that it is
a duty to mankind to make every1
possible effort for peace-then-
they will be slandered by an end-
less line of labor spies, foreign
agents, ex-convicts, fascist propa-
gandists, racketeers, and political
renegades, all presented as "ex-
pert witnesses" on "Communist ac-
The very ideas which the Com-
mittee calls Un-American are the
ones of which most Americans are
the proudest. We students should
make clear that we want no smear
"hearings" on this campus, in De-
troit, or anywhere else.
Let us invite the Un-Americans
to keep their paws out of Detroit,
Ann Arbor and Wayne by writing
to The Daily and to the Detroit
-Mike Sharpe
r a s
Correction .. .
To the Editor:
A LETTER appeared in your
columns on Friday stating a
resolution supporting the campus
Civil Liberties Committee in its
stand on the speakers ban. The
letter also went on to state some
not so obvious conclusions. The
letter may have been the opinion
of the majority of the Young
Democrats, as the resolution
stated was. However, I didn't sign
this letter nor give my permission
to anyone to use my name. It
was inaccurate to attribute the
opinions stated after the resolu-
tion to me, and I wish to repudiate
them as my opinions.
-Marvin L. Failer '53L
Marriage Series.
To the Editor:
YOUR analysis of the "Marriage
Lecture" problem (Editor's Note
Feb. 22) warrants a reply so far
as Student Legislature is con-
You begin by terming SL's dis-
cussion Wednesday night of the
discontinuance of the 1952 Mar-
riage Lecture series a "regrettable
argument." There was no argu-
ment in SL. A factual report of
what took place at the two meet-
ings of the Marriage Lecture com-
mittee was presented. Questions
were asked and answered concern-
ing the position which the Michi-
gan League took on the problem.
A motion was presented which cas-
tigated no one but simply asked
(on the merits of the lectures and
the interest shown in them thus
far) that another meeting of the
Marriage Lecture committee be
held to reconsider the wvhole prob-
lem. The motion passed with but
one dissenting vote.
I heartily agree with you that
the topic did not require such "vio-
lent treatment." With the excep-
tion of the comments of one legis-
lator, the discussion in SL was cer-
tainly not out of the ordinary or
uncalled for. But the zest with
which The Daily ate the story up

was out of proportion to its im-
portance and to the usual cover-
age of SL debate. As to the point
that our "anger was misdirected,"
it was The Daily, and not the Leg-
islature that attributed the dis-
continuance of the program to the
vague "Administration." SL knew
precisely where the blame should
rest. Finally, as to your observa-
tion that the most outspoken legis-
lators didn't really know what they
wanted, I can offer only the hum-
ble opinion of one who was at the
meeting and participated in the
debate and vote. In my mind, the
issue was very clear: An appar-
ent misunderstanding of the opin-
ion of a student group (Michigan
League) had unduly influenced a
somewhat disinterested committee
into discontinuing a student ser-
vice, and the Legislature was now
asking that the committee recon-
sider the problem.
However, the whole affair,
though it had some unsavory as-
pects, has an obvious moral in it
for student leaders: when asked
to attend a University committee
and represent constituent Qpinion,
it's a healthy practice to show-up.
-Bob Baker
* * *
Un-American Committee
To the Editor:
ON FEB. 25 the Un-American
Activities Committee is coming
to Detroit. Thirteen years ago the
same committee was in Detroit.'
At that time its program was to
intimidate liberal labor-leaders
and intellectuals. Walter Reuther
and Governor Murphy were slan-
dered and even our own retired
dean, Hayward Keniston, was hit
by the committee then.
The committee comes again to
this area with the same intentions
it did thirteen years ago. Its ac-
tions are anti-labor, anti-liberal,
and anti-progressive. Its reaction-
ary character can be seen by its
attack on those who have sought
to extend Negro rights. Rev. Hill,
militant Detroit minister, and Wil-
liam Hood, head of National Negro
Labor Council have both been sub-
poenaed for appearance in De-
Instead of discovering actual
subversives the Un-American Ac-
tivities Committee is attempting to
silence voices in discord with our
present rearmament policy and
the Smith and McCarran Acts. If
the Un-American Activities Com-
mittee is truly interested in ferret-
ing out subversives it should inves-
tigate the Klan and the Florida
bombings, and the murder of Har-
ry Moore and his wife outside of
Miami. Yet never has the com-
mittee even glanced at anti-Semit-
ism, anti-Negro terror, or terror
of any kind.
Since it is possible the commit-
tee will strike at the U. of M. it
is important that we students here
should protest strongly its slan-
derous attacks.
-Stephen Smale
Speakers Petition . .
To the Editor:
AT LAST we have a positive an-
swer to the widespread con-
cern over student "apathy." This
answer is the proposed referendum
concerning the Lecture Committee,
- which has gained wide distribution
and enthusiastic response by at
least 400 students to date. Finally

ONE DAY this week as I went
to a one-o'clock I passed in the
arch a number of young people
who looked like students and were
selling some strange periodical. An
hour later as I came back through
the same arch whereout I went,
they were still peacefully trying to
sell their papers.
Where was the Spirit of Michi-
gan? Those people (excepting of
course the lady) came down here
expecting to be man-handled and
to be lucky if they got home each
in one piece. At some time in the
afternoon they went away disap-
pointed and hurt in the pride Now
in Mr. Yost's day I might have
found the yard littered with dis-
membered Spartans, the air full
of embattled Gargoyles, a platoon
of SL police getting the situation
in hand, and the last of the enemy
sinking in a pool of green and
whispering a message: "Oh, Lace-
demonians, see how far we got!"
Where were we? Perhaps the
followers were waiting for some
person to follow and the leaders,
were locked in a protest session
lamenting the discrimintatioj of
bias-clauses, the injustice of deans
and faculty committees, te ne-
cessity or the sufficiency of lec-
tures on maritals, the plight of
fraternities, and who is going to
play at Caduceus? My dear, I
hear they areJ actually going to
bring half a cadaver.
Ubi sunt qui ante nos in mundo
-N. Anning

"We'll Now Read The Minutes And The
Train Schedules"


K .; JCOW I -

students are realizing that it is
our education which is at stake;
part of that education is the free
dissemination of ideas;- one of the
roads to ideas is having .speakers.
When we realize this, we have
gained an important foothold in
achieving real maturity. We are
now active members of the Uni-
versity community, no longer ad-
hering to the "we throw it out--
you sop it up" theory of education
and administration.
Petitions to place the ref eren-
dum on the SL ballot are now be-
ing circulated. These petitions, in-
itiated by the Civil Liberties Com-
mittee and supported by the Young
Democrats, state: "I hereby favor
placement of the following refer-,
endum on the Student Legislature
ballot: 'Do you oppose the empow-
ering of the Lecture Committee to
restrict any recognized campus or-
ganization in its choice of speakers
and subjects?"'
We all have here an opportunity
to positively assert our belief in
ourselves as students with suffi-
cient judgment to demand a demo-
cratic education.
--Diana Styler
Sylvia Diedrich
Virginia Darroch
Sanctus Spiritus
To the Editor:


r~ ~/



Sixty-Second Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board of Control of
Student Publications.


Editorial Staff
Chuck Elliott ........Managing Editor
Bob Keith ..................City Editor
Leonard Greenbaum, Editorial Director
Vern Emerson........Feature Editor
Rich Thomas .........Associate Editor'
Ron Watts .............Associate Editor
Bob vaughn ...........Associate Editor
Ted Papes..............Sports Editor
George Flint ... .Associate Sports Editor
Jim Parkern...Associate Sports Editor
Jan James............Women's Editor
Jo Ketelhut, Associate Women's Editor

Business Staff


Bob Miller..........Business Manager
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Circulation Manager ........Milt Goetz
Telephone 23-24-1
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The Associated Press is exclusively
entitled to the use for republication
of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited to this newspaper.
All rights of republication of all other
matters herein are also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann
Arbor. Michigan, as second-class mail
Subscription during regular school
year: by carrier, $6.00; by mail, $7.00.


Barnaby, m'boy, if your poor Fairy
Godfather goes away, you will never
see ANY of our dear friends again-

Gone forever! Amiable Atlas the Mental
Giant, McSnoyd the invisible Leprechaun
hiding his heart of gold, the other old



UM. 1,--

And Gus the Ghost here. o
'Lovable old Gus! Gone-





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