THE MICHIGAN DAILY
THURSDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1951
A CHARGE has recently been made that
"the present grading and examination
system at the University does not fulfill its
avowed purpose of being a valid educational
Starting with the hypothesis that grad-
ing and the examination system are po-
tential educational devices, it is worth-
while to consider why they fall into this
category and where they are falling short.
Although grades are supposedly a secon-
dary part of the student's college education,
they are nevertheless important. They ac-
cent competition, which is an integral part
of our present day society, they present a
scale by which a student may evaluate him-
self, and they provide prospective employers
with some bases for evaluating jobseekers.
Under existing conditions at this Univer-
sity, examinations are important only as
they contribute to the grading system. This
is not an adequate function to justify their
continuation. To make them a part of the
learning process, to place them in their
proper perspective and to make the grading
system more meaningful, the University
should adopt a program in which:
(1) Examination grades would be
standardized in all departments. The
curve system would be abolished and all
students in every course would be marked
on a flat percentage-wise basis.
(2) Final marks would not rest in the
greatest part on the final examination grade.
To eliminate this, professors would give
more blue books in class and weigh the
final exam in the light of the grades received
throughout the semester. In this manner,
the student who is not in good physical con-
dition, iwho is overly nervous about the final
Editorials printed In The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writer only.
This ntust be noted in all reprints.
NIGHT EDITOR: CAL SAMRA
(Continued from Page 1)
exam, would not ruin a whole semester's
work by one "bad day."
(3) Questions on the final exam and on
blue books would vary between objective
and essay types. Many students have diffi-
culty in expressing themselves in essay form
or are unable to correlate their knowledge
in an acceptable composition. Because their
writing background has been neglected, they
should not be penalized in all their subjects.
However, objective questions frequently are
ambiguous in nature, so a balance of the
two types of question would let them serve
to counteract each other's weak points.
(4) After each blue book, the instruc-
tor would hold a "post mortem" and
arrange for individual conferences with
students receiving an unsatisfactory grade.
(5) Before taking a final examination,
and this is the most important change in
stimulating the learning process, students
would receive a skeleton outline of each
course. This would serve to organize the
material covered, would emphasize the im-
portant phases of the course and would give
the student an indication of the things he
really must understand. The final examina-
tion would be taken from this outline, while
lesser phases of the course would be covered
earlier in the semester in blue books.
Although an objection might be raised
that such a plan would put every student
in the "A" bracket, this is hardly a fault.
In addition, the objection is ungrounded.
Such an outline would provide only a gen-
eral frame of the course, the filling in of
which would rest on the student's shoul-
ders. Such an outline has been utilized in
the past by, among others, certain courses
in the philosophy department.
To put into effect an overall program of
the preceding nature, only a few adjust-
ments would be necessary. Most of these
points are already utilized in varying de-
grees by some departments. By adopting it
throughout the University, examinations
would take their place as a learning process
and a fairer means of evaluation, and the
grading system would become a more honest
means of recording student accomplishment.
_-- _ -- _ -- - 11
IVIT DREW PEARSON
W ASHINGTON-A lot of people these days
are asking how corruption got started in
the U.s. government. The answer probably
goes back to three main roots.
ROOT NO. 1-Got started during the war
years when Roosevelt concentrated so in-
tensely on winning the war that he paid
little attenrtiov to domestic policy.
ROOT NO. 2-Got a deep hold in 1944,
when Roosevelt was so anxious to be re-
elected that he threw control of the Demo-
cratic party over to the big-city bosses.
That was the year that Bob Hannegan of
St. Louis, Frank Hague of Jersey City,
Ed Kelly of Chicago, plus Ed Flynn of the
Bronx put, across Harry Truman for vice-
president, even going to the extent of de-
ceitfully changing FDR's letter regarding
Truman and William O. Douglas in order
to do so.
ROOT NO. 3--Got growing in May of 1945
when President Truman, then in office one'
month, kicked out Francis Biddle, the At-
torney General, who insisted on rewarding
the U.S. Attorney in Kansas City who had
convicted Boss Pendergast.
The full inside story of how Truman
fired Biddle, a strait-laced U.S. circuit
judge from Philadelphia, has never been
told. It goes to the bottom of the little-
realized fact that today the Justice and
the Treasury Departments have become
the great patronage plums of the party in
There was a time when the Post Office
Department supplied the patronage to the
party. But today, with postmasters largely
under Civil Service, the party bosses look to
the Treasury, which controls taxes, and the
Justice Department, which has the power to
prosecute. For the power to tax and the
power to put people in jail or save them
means far more to the city bosses than any
other single thing in Washington.
--BIG BOSSES STEP IN-,
ONE MONTH after Truman took office.
therefore, Bob Hannegan and the city
bosses who finessed him into the White
House decided they wanted a Justice De-
partment which would do their bidding.
Few people knew it, but the new Presi-
dent was under great obligation to Francis
Biddle. He had handed Senator Truman
much of the inside research on the Nazi
cartels' links with Standard Oil of New
J e r s e y, the Aluminum Corporation,
Bausch and Lomb, plus other amazing re-
velations which put the Truman Commit-
tee in the headlines and started the little-
known Senator from Missouri on his way
to the White House.
On the other hand. Biddle had flatly re-
fused to appoint Tyuman's old army ser-
geant, Fred Canfil, as U.S. Marshal in Kan-
sas City. He also blocked the appointment of
Truman's pal, ex-Congressman Dick Dun-
can of St. Louis, to be a federal judge inm
Missouri, refused to parole Tom Pendergast
and insisted on reappointing as U.S. Attor-
ney, Maurice Milligan, the man who had
sent Pendergast to jail.
Perhaps this was why the new President
was ashamed to fire Biddle and asked his
"May I ask," continued Biddle, "who my
successor is going to be?"
"Tom Clark," replied Truman.
-CLARK, THE POLITICIAN-
BIDDLE COULDN'T conceal his amaze-
ment. A few days before he had decided
to fire Clark as Chief of the Criminal Di.
vision because of his easygoing attitude to-
ward criminal prosecution.
Remonstrating with Truman, he des-
cribed Clark as a 'fixer," urged him not
to take his word regarding Clark's lack of
qualifications, but to consult Jim Mc.
Granery, then no. 2 man in the Justice
McGranery went to see Truman, but is
reported to have pulled his punches on
Clark. Shortly thereafter McGranery be-
came a federal judge in Philadelphia.
Thus Tom Clark became Attorney Gen-
eral. He turned out not to be a "fixer"-as
a matter of fact he brought more antitrust
cases than Biddle-but he was easygoing,
politically minded, and cooperated with the
In many respects his, record was brilliant
compared with the drift and decay which
However, there is no question but that,
under Clark, Justice Department disinte-
gration gradually set in. One by one,
forthright men departed. There was noth-
ing dishonest about the Justice Depart-
ment. It merely inaugurated an era of
friendship. The watchword of the day
was: "take care of your friends."
The amiable Justice Department under
Clark, however, was almost a crusading bea-
con compared with the Treasury, the agency
which collects the taxes. It must be remem-
bred that only a small fraction of tax cases
come to the. Justice Department for crimi-
nal or civil action, the great majority being
handled by the Treasury. So it became the
No. 1 wire-pulling target for the party
-UNPOPULAR HENRY MORGENTHAU-
UNDER UNPOPULAR, honest Henry Mor-
genthau, the Internal Revenue Bureau
had been one of the most forthright agencies
of government. Its commissioner was an
old-fashioned gentleman from Kansas, Guy
Helvering, who would no more have fixed a
tax case than he would have jumped into
the Missouri River.
Even if Helvering had wanted to fix a.
case, "Henry the morgue," as FDR called
his Secretary of the Treasury, kept such
an eagle eye on tax collections that it
would have been difficult.
Guy Helvering, however, wanted to become
a Judge. And when he returned to Kansas in
1943, as a judge, Bob Hannegan, Pender-
gast's Collector of Internal Revenue for Eas-
tern Missouri, took his place. The down-
grade regarding tax collections started then
One of Hannegan's greatest faults was in
the men he picked for the key jobs of In-
ternal Revenue collectors-the Finnegans
and the Delaneys. Most of them were the
choice of the big-city bosses, 'and as such
nn+.n11ruaVn i ~m " to h v - c .h r -
In short, as a leading anthropologist said,
it means that religion is to be viewed as a
"People who hear voices from the burning
bush-would be tossed in a psycho ward to-
day," another anthropologist said bluntly.
"In ancient times and in some more back-
ward cultures today, ignorance of the sci-
ence of psychology allowed the abnormal to
assume positions of mystical religious lead-
ership. Even today throughout this nation
there are men claiming to be God who are
accepted as God by their followers."
According to psychologist James Strang,
these people, as well as their ancient pre-
decessors, are either insane or knaves prey-
ing on the superstitions of their disciples.
SEVERAL STUDIES of religious leaders
seems to add weight to this argument. Sir
E. B. Tylor, noted British anthropologist, af-
ter conducting a study of primitive oracles
and medicine men, decided "that in all quar-
ters they seemed really diseased in mind and
body." R. H. Lowie in his Introduction to
Cultural Anthropology concluded after a sim-
ilar survey that these leaders were often
given to epilepsy and nervous instability.
And Ruth Benedict says in Patterns of Cul-
ture that numerous members of the early
Puritan clergy in New England were neurotic
To sum up this whole view, Sigmund
Freud termed religion a mass delusion.
"All gods are figments of the imagination,"
one scientist declared. "And allgods are
He pointed out that even today where the
level of intelligence is high the social neu-
rosis is in full effect. "Religion serves num-
erous psychological and social needs. For one,
it is a means of doing the impossible-
achieving success in war, calling rain, mak-
ing crops grow. And it answers the impos-
sible questions, such as the exact origin of
the cosmos. The savage and the modern
theologian will have the answer to every-
thing even if the scientist doesn't.
"Then too, religion is a means of social
organization and integration. It is great
means of social control."
Another scientist noted that at times the
church is used by governments as a tool for
social control. "Basically religion then ceas-
es to be even theological."
HOW DOES THE scientist feel about the
idea that, aside from any supernaturalism
connected with it, religion is needed to pro-
vide man with a moral code of life? The
strict anti-religious scientist sums it up in
one word: hogwash.
Prof. Hightower of the University of
Iowa said that there appears to be no re-
lationship of any consequence between
biblical information and the phases of
conduct which he has studied. Lyle John-
son reported that members of so-called
character building organizations with a
religious basis tended to cheat slightly
more than non-members in a study that he
conduced. Frank Steiner, who conducted
an Investigation of religious backgrounds
of inmates of American prisons, claimed
that only 150 of 85,000 prisoners said that
they had had no contact with religion.
And Carl Murchison noted that there
were proportionately more church mem-
bers in the Maryland Penitentiary than
in the free citizenry of that state.
In The History of European Morals W. E.
H. Lechy points out that the whole tradition
of the Christian church in the Middle Ages
was one of indifference to the truth based
on forgeries, lies, and legends "pushed on
mankind as honest fact."
The view of philosopher A. N. Whitehead,
of Harvard University, is that history has
shown that religion is the last refuge of hu-
man savagery-cannablism, slaughter of
humans (especially children) for sacrifice,
sensual orgies, abject superstition, race hat-
red, bigotry, hysteria and degradation.
* * *
BUT MINUS the idea of divine creation
and ultimate direction, what is the purpose
of the universe and man?
The scientist says that man is kidding
himself if he thinks the cosmos exists for
his particular edification. As man himself
is an expression of natural forces, so are
the stars, glaciers, volcanoes-the whole
"As it is the purpose of the sun to shine,
the river to flow, so it is man's purpose to
NOW LOOK! Really! If I were Sonja Henie
do you think I'd be locked up here, try-
ing to get an education? Hardly! I'd be ice-
skating on a spacious rink in Madison
Square Garden where everyone could appre-
ciate my skill and grace.
Obviously it isn't appreciated here. This
I surmised from the jeers and laughter
which greeted the failure of my earnest
endeavors to stand upright on the diagon-
Surely a plant department, such as ours,
that can erect a pep-rally platform for only
150 dollars might have cleared the ice from
campus at least a week after it was formed,
Very dutifully, plant department men con-
tinue to brush the newfallen snow from the
sidewalks, only to uncover a slab of ice;
which seems to have taken permanent for-a
mation beneath. Personally I prefer wading,
thrnogh three fnt drifts tos liding to ,laose
"Gee - I Was Afraid Maybe He Wouldn't Be Cleared"
- ~ O t
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN~
IetteP4 TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes commntnications from its readers on maitters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good .taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed. edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent
in TYPEWRITTEN form to Room
2552 Administration Building before
3 p.m. the day preceding publication
(11 a.m. on Saturday).
THURSDAY, JANUARY 20, 1951
VOL. LXIV, NO. 74
General Library. A University regu-
lation requires that all students leaving
Ann Arbor for extended vacations must
return Library books before their de-
parture. The purpose of this regula-
tion is to insure the availability of
books for scholars who wish to use them
while the University is not in session.
In accordance with this rule, students
planning to spend Christmas vacation
outside of Ann Arbor must return Li-
brary books to the Charging Desk of
the General Library (or the proper Di-
visional Library) before leaving the city.
Special permission to charge books
for use outside Ann Arbor may be
given In case of urgent need. Arrange-
ments must be made at the Charing
Desk for books from the General L-
brary or with Librarians in charge of
Students taking library books from
Ann Arbor without permission are liable
to a fine of $1.00,
Library Hours - Christmas Vacation.
During the University vacation Decem-
ber 21 - January 6 the General Library
will bexopen from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. with
the exception of the following days,
when it will be closed:
Saturday and Sunday, December 22
Saturday and Sunday, December 29
Saturday and Sunday, January 5 and
Tuesday, December 25 and January 1
The Library will close at 5 p.m. on
Monday, December 24 and December 31.
The Divisional Libraries will be open
on short schedules, the usual hours be-
ing 10-12 am. and 2-4 p.m. They will'
be closed Saturdays, December 22, De-
cember 29, January 5, and Tuesday, De-
cember 25 and January 1. Schedules
will be posted on the doors, or infor-
mation as to their hours may be ob-
tained by phoning the Associate Di-
rector's Office, Extension 652.
AUTOMOBILE REGULATIONS: Notice
is hereby given that the Automobile
Regulations will be lifted from 5 p.m.
Fri., Dec. 21 to 8 a.m., Jan. 7.
Social Chairmen and Program Chair-
men of Student Organizations. Activi-
ties, including social events must be
calendared so as to take place before the
tenth day prior to the beginning of a
final examination period. Final exam-
Inations for the current semester begin
on January 21, therefore, no events can
be approved which are scheduled to take
place after January 10.
Bureau of Appointments Registration:
The Bureau of Appointments and Occu-
pational Information is now accepting
registration of February and June
graduates, and graduate students, who
nave not registered and want a position.
Registration material may be picked ip
and turned in Monday thru Friday, 9-12
noon; 2-4 p.m. at 3528 Administration
Summer Position-Swimming Instruc-
cor: The Detroit Civil Service Commis-
sion announces an examination for
women Swimming Instructors for next
summer. Last date for filing applica-
tion is December 31, 1951. Requires min-
imum of two years of college; age, 20-35;
must be resident of Detroit. For further
information contact Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Occupational Information,
3528 Administration Building.
Reynolds Metals of Richmond, Virgin-
ia is in need of a man to fillna position
as a Personnel Trainee. A Business Ad-
ministration student with a major in
either Personnel or Psychology is eli-
gible or an Industrial Enginer. This
firm also has positions open for Ac-
countants.rThey need men for Travel-
Life Magazine, in Detroit requests a
man to fill the position as Retail Repre-
sentative for the Detroit area. A Feb-
ruary graduate interested in advertis-
ing, veteran preferred, between the ages
of 24-26, and with his own car, is eli-
Swift and Company, of Chicago, Illi-
nois has a position open for men gradu-
ating in February. They need Engineers
(Architectural and Civil), Accountants,
men for Sales work, and for Standards
Checkers (for this position a wide range
of courses is acceptable). Students who
are interested may contact this firm
during the Christmas holidays.
The Stewart-Warner Corporation of
Chicago, Ili. has openings for Account-
antshand Mechaneial Engineers. Any
of those who are interested are invited
to call on this firm during the Christ-
The Randye Sales Corporation, of New
York has an opening for a man inter-
ested in Sales work to carry on while
attending school. Those individuals in-
terested must contact the New 'York
office during the Christmas holidays.
Macy's of Kansas City is bolding its
first annual Career Open House for Col-
lege Seniors during the Christmas holi-
days. This will furnish a excellent op-
portunity to those seniors who are in-
terested in obtaining information about
Macy's Executive Training Squad. Open
House will be from wednesday, Decem-
ber 26 to-Saturday, December 29.
The Civil Service Commission of De-
troit announces examination for Jun-
ior Welfare Investigator to be given
on April 30, 1952. Applications for the
examination can be filed up until
March 31, 1952. Materials Laboratory
Aid examination will be held on Janu-
ary 7, applications may be filed until
December 28. The examination for
Chemistry Aid will be given on Janu-
ary 7, 1952, the filing period ending
December 28. The age limits for this
particular position are 20-25 years. A
B.S. degree is necessary with speciali-
zation in analytical chemistry or chem-
ical engineering, preferably w I t h
courses in bacteriology. Students ob-
taining degrees in February are
The Chicago Midway Laboratories, of
the University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.,
is interested in coming to the campus
to interview students for positions in
their laboratories. If there are suffi-
cient students who would like to see
them please contact the Bureau of Ap-
pointnients so a time can be ar-
One of the Nation's leading depart-
ment stores has openings in their Ex-
ecutive Training Program for young
men who are graduating in February.
For further information call the Bu-
reau of Appointments, 3528 Adminis-
Doctoral examination for Harrison
Bruce Tordoff, Zoology; thesis: "A Sys-
tematic Study of the Avian Family
Fringillidae, Based on the Structure of
the Skull," Thurs., Dec. 20, 3013 Mu-
seums Bldg., 9 a.m. Chairman, J. Van
Doctoral examination for Howard S.
Gordman, Economics; thesis: "Financ-
ing the Highway Function, in St. Louis
County: A Case Study in the Financial
Practice of Government at Mid-Cen-
tury", Thurs., Dec. 20, 105 Ecqnomics
Bldg., 3 p.m. Chairman, R. A, Mus-
Doctoral examination for John Vin-
cent Falconieri, Spanish; thesis: "A
History of Italian Comedians in Spain;
A Chapter of the Spanish Renaissance",
Fri., Dec. 21, East Council Room, Rack-
ham Bldg., 4 p.m. Chairman, F. San-
chez y Escribano
Doctoral examination for Mohammed
Kashif Al-Ghita, Physics; thesis: "The
Effect of the General Mixed Beta Inter-
action on the Shape of Forbidden Beta-
Spectra and on the Beta Angular Dis-
tributions Functions," Mon., Jan. 7,
West Council Room, Rackham Bldg. 2
p.m. Chairman, G. E. Uhenbeck.
Geometry Seminar: Thurs., Dec. 20,
4:10 p.m.. 3001 A.H. Mr. Jesse B. Wright
will continue his talk on "Monoproec-
School of Music Examinations in Ap-
plied Music are being posted on the
bulletin board in the Maynard Street
building, with the exception of Wind
Instruments, which are assigned in
Harris Hall. Please check the boards
for the scheduled examinations.
String Quartet Class Program, origi-
nally scheduled for Thursday evening,
IN HIS LETTER yesterday Gene
Mossner, '52, president of the
Young Democrats, criticizes State
Auditor General John Martin,
candidate for the Republican sen-
atorial nomination, for his speech
to the Young Republicans.
Mossner scoffs at Martin's "va-
gue generalities," such as "Foreign
policy is tremendously important"
and "We must lead with.strength."
The Democrat admits he read
these statements in The Daily's
four-inch story, his only source of
information on Martin's speech.
Actually, in his hour-long ad-
dress Martin took very definite
stands on controversial issues and
pointedly answered questions from
the audience, The Daily's quotes
amounted to only topic headings
of the speech.
The Daily couldn't do a more
thorough job because of space
limitations. But Mossner can do a
better job of knowing his enemies.
He-and everyone else-has a per-
manent invitation to Young Re-
Next speaker, Jan. 10: Secretary
of State Fred Alger, candidate for
the Republican gubernatorial no-
* * *
To the Editor:
A T FIRST Mr. Aldo Canonici's
artices left me with a fuzzy
feeling of discontent. But the De-
cember 12th article takes the
cake. He makes so many gener-
alizations without any real sub-
stantiation. For instance, from an
ad in the Union, "Get engaged for
only $60.00. My diamond ring for
sale," he draws the conclusion that
in our country women are articles
for sale on a market. The con-
clusion just might be correct (al-
though I don't think so) but he
has taken a very tenuous instance
to illustrate it. I really think that
a series of articles by a foreign
student on our way of life is a
good idea, but The Daily could
have been more discriminating in
their choice of a writer.
Xmas Decoratiors .
To the Editor:
LET US ALL join with the bus-
iness men of Ann Arbor in
celebrating the first month's anni-
versary of the erection of their
rather appropriate city decora-
tions Perhaps in a few years time
we will be conditioned to begin
our Christmas shopping with Hal-
loween, Columbus Day or even the
start of school in September.
* * * .
To the Editor:
I SUBMIT the following to M.
Laframboise and anyone else
who has never taught school. The
scene is a schoolroom full of "ten-
der-aged" children somewhere in
TEACHER: Children, from now
on before we begin our lessons we
are going to spend a few minutes
December 20, was given Monday, De-
BARF Caroling Party: Leave Lane Hall
7:3 p.m., and return for refreshments.
Deutsche Kaffeestunde. German Cof-
fee Hour, 3 to 4:30 p.m., Round-Up
International Center Weekly .Tea for
foreign students and American friends,
La p'tite causette meets from 3:30 to
5 p.m. in the south room of the Union
U. of M. Sailing Clulf. Meeting, 7:30
p.m., 311 West Engineering. Shore
school for new members.
Roger Williams Guild. 'Meet at 8 p.m.
to go caroling. Refreshments at the
Michigan Arts Chorale will broadcast
on NBC at 11:30 p.m. tonight. Meet at
Hill Auditorium at 10:30. Girls will be
granted late permission.
Those who wish to carol Thursday
meet at Lane Hall at 7:30 p.m.
Motion Pictures, auspices of the Uni-
versity Museums. "Trees for Tomor-
row," "The Lumberman," and "Winter
on the Farm." 7:30 p.m., Fri., Dec. 21,
To the Editor:
praying together. I see a hand-
BOBBY: What's praying?
TEACHER: Why when you pray
you close your eyes and say "We
acknowledge thy supreme power
and thank . . .' [See newspapers
for complete script.]
BOBBY: Would you say that
TEACHER: I s a i d - Look,
haven't you ever prayed for any-
RUTH: I prayer for a sled once
only I didn't get it.
TEACHER: Well maybe you
didn't pray hard enough.
RUTH: You mean louder?
BOBBY: (writing) hat comes
after 'knowledge thy supreme'?
TEACHER: 6ne .at a time,
please. What's all that commo-
tion back there?
MAHMUD: I think I'm sup-
posed to face the other way when
JOHNNY: I want to turn around
CHORUS: So do I! Me! Me!
(Begin moving desks.)
TEACHER: (finally restoring
order) None of the rest of you
need to face the other Way.
SALLY: Why not?
TEACHER: Because Mahmud
doesn't pray the same way as the
rest of you do.
CHORUS: I want to pray Mah-
mud's way! I want to ... !
TEACHER: (restoring order)
Well you can't. You don't believe
in the same God as Mahmud does!
[I leave the rest of this particu-
lar interlude to thereader's im-
agination. We continue after, a
DICKY: Daddy says this is silly'
and I don't have to pray if I don't
ALICE: If Dicky doesn't have to
I don't either!
CHORUS: Neither do I! Nei-
ther ... !
[As a matter of fact I'll leave
the whole rest of the morning to
your imagin'ation. I don't want to
think about it.]
OUR AIM should be a clear,
well-defined creative policy
that can bring into balance our
objectives and our resources. We
must take into account what we
want to do in relation to what we
have to do it with, otherwise we
will overreach ourselves and end
up with confusion and futility.
--Paul G. Hoffman
IN A VERY REAL sense, the
strength of a nation is a com-
posite of the strength of its indi-
vidual citizens. We are strong to-
day because our political institu-
tions and economic system have
given us as individuals extraordi-
nary opportunity to grow and de-
velop materially and spiritually.
-Paul G. Hoffman
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