f HE MICHIGAN DAIL3
California's Loyalty Oath
A LOYATY ath appears to be a harmless
little thing. -
But when men of principle are involved
an oath can lead to all sorts of difficulty.
Witness the case of the University of Cal-
California's Board of Regents in 1949 re-
quired its employees to sign an anti-Com-
nist oath. Many faculty men refused. Both
sides have long since conceded that there
are no known or suspected Communists on
the University staff, and everyone seems
agreed that the loyalty oath wouldn't have
much effect even if there, were. (Commu-
nist party members bent on infiltration
would have no qualms about signing the
Nevertheless, the Regents have stuck
to their guns, mostly as a matter of prin-
ciple (the principle apparently being:
"We're boss here and we won't back
Among many faculty members, refusal to
sign likewise became a matter of principle.
In part, theirs is also an attitude of stub-
bornness and sheer reluctance to give in.
Underlying this attitude, however, is the
defense of one of the prime requisites of
education and research in a democratic so-
. Academic freedom, it is called. Unfet-
The professors feel that the loyalty oath
comes dangerously close to dictation of
The oath Itself is not the central prob-
lem. It is of small importance compared to
a much more objectionable situation:. the
attitude of those who advocate the oath.
It is an attitude of hysteria. It is di-
rected against Communism, but it has led,
at least at California, to actions out of line
with the end in view.
The purpose of the loyalty oath exponents
is, of course, to rid the school of Commu-
nists, preserve the country and maintain
freedom and democracy. But what they real-
ly are doing perhaps inadvertently, is at-
tempting to limit thought and study to the
acceptance of day to day political beliefs or
The professors believe that such limita-
tion is detrimental to general progress and
well-being. They want the freedom to ex-
plore problems and issues thoroughly and
come up with solutions of their own.
Such things as the right to be a Commu-
nist and subvert the U.S. Constitution have
nothing to do with what faculty members
at California are seeking. All they want is
freedom of thought within the framework
of the Constitution.
They see the oath as an initial step in cur-
tailing this freedom.
They want to halt the unfortunate tide
of hysteria now, before it becomes a flood.
It is to this end, fundamentally, that they
are opposing the oath.
They need and deserve support. Their
fight is ours also, for the mis-directed hys-
teria is as prevalent in the Middle West as
it is on the Pacific Coast. Fortunately the
Regents of this University have not suc-
cumbed, and we can be thankful that they
are wiser and more principled than their
THE YEAR OF THE OATH by George
R. Stewart, in collaboration with other
professors of the University of California.
WHEN THIS book was written, the Uni-
versity of California professors who
compiled it thoughtt the controversy on their
campus about Signing special loyalty oaths
had abated. They did not consider the is-
sue closed, but they thought that the active
battle with the Regents about signing the
oath had been decided. That time has since
proved them pathetically wrong magnifies
the present importance of their book.
The book is both a highly personalized
and carefully documented account of the
oath'controversy and its effect on the fac-
ulty. It records case histories, interviews,
tabulated responses to a questionnaire sent
to 302 faculty members, a brief history of
the controversy, an outline of the issues
involved, and a short account of cases of
a similar nature at other schools through-
out the country. The authors warn peo-
ple at other institutions that this case is
not something peculiar to California, g'ut
that "you too can have a loyalty oath."
They are at the front line of a far-reach-"
ing battle rather than as the isolated vic-
tims of local circumstances.
* * *.
A GOOD PORTION of the book deals with
the damage to University morale during
the year of the oath. California professors
felt the negative effects of the oath at least
three ways. First, the disputes within the
faculty camp, causing suspicion, distrust,-
and breakdown of long-standing relations:
"Of men we had known twenty years, we
heard it said, 'You can't be sure of him.'
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
LEONARD GREENBAUM: NIGHT EDITOR
Second, the frustration of trying to fight
on the principle level, but often finding their
principles submerged in considerations of
"next month's bills, or the daughter to be
kept in college."
Finally, the damage caused by the loyalty
oath question to a once outstanding univer-
sity. As one faculty member explained, "If
I sign the oath, I can still teach my classes
and I can even do my research. What I do
not see is how I can aid in the recruiting of
the department. I cannot conscientiously
ask other men to come here . .. if (some-
one) writes me to know whether he should
come, I shall be forced to write to him that
I believe he should not come."
TEACHING AT THE university must have
suffered greatly during the year discuss-
ed here, and even more since then. With
most of the faculty embroiled in a battle
to uphold their own freedom, they must
have strained in the task of educating stu-
dents to live in a free society.
The book's organization is not com-
pletely satisfying. It would seem that be-
fore writing, the authors ased themselves
"where shall we begin?" No one seems to
have suggested that place should be at the
start. As a result, the reader feels as if
he is sampling bits of a pattern without
ever seeing the whole cloth. The difficulty
probably spring from the fact that dif-
ferent people worked on various sections of
the book, but the resulting lack of conti-
nuity and completeness hampers the
book's effectiveness. This is especially un-
fortunate since it is a feeling for the to-
tal situation and an understanding of the
atmosphere in which the oath operated
that the authors seem most interested in
But whatever its shortcomings, "The Year
of The Oath" is an extremely readable lit-
tle volume. It has special significance for
citizens of another University community.
It Seems to Me
By DON NUECHTERLEN
AMERICA'S greatest problem in this world
crisis is the political immaturity of a
large segment of its population.
The foreign policy debate in Congress
is not simply the result of a few con-
gressien protesting the Administration's
handling of foreign affairs; it is evident
that a considerable number of Americans
still think that we can hide ourselves be-
hind two oceans and leave the rest of the
world to shift for itself.
The issue isn't stated in just these terms,
although Herbert Hoover came close to it.
Rather, the argument runs along the line
that we cannot put much faith in our al-
lies, that we can't fight the Soviet Army
anyhow, that we are spreading our strength
too thin to make it effective.
There is, of course, some truth in each of
these contentions. But the important ques-
tion is whether we will let these difficulties
deter us in our determination to carry the
leadership of the free world. The defeatists
use these arguments to back their isola-
tionist views, rather than trying to solve the
* * *
WHAT MANY Americans fail to recognize
is that whether we like it or not, our
nation has had the responsibility for the
entire free world thrust upon us since the
During the 1930's we could remain aloof
from European war preparations because
Great Britain and France were still con-
sidered great powers capable of taking
care of militarist Germany. In fact, until
we became embroiled in that conflict, there
was a good deal of feeling against Eng-
land, the traditional suspicion which has
existed since our Revolution.
But in 1940 we could criticize because we
didn't carry the responsibility; today we
rather than Britain and France, are in the
driver's seat. And we need allies, and bases
and strategic materials and manpower.
IF WE THROW off this responsibility now,
there is nobody to take our place. The
Communists would have an easy time over-
running Europe and subduing Asia. And
where would we gain support to throw off
this overpowering concentration of force?
Certainly not within the North American
hemisphere. Even the Rock of Gibralter has
become vulnerable to attack from the air.
The significance of the present foreign
policy debate is that this country is un-
dergoing a great change, one which will
probably alter the life of every person in
this country. In every such period of
change, there are those who do not wish
to face the situation boldy, who like the
"good old days" so well that they don't
want to change their living patterns.
These people are found in every society
and they have as much right to be heard as
anyone else. But the great majority of Amer-
ican people, when the facts are put before
them, are willing to make the necessary
sacrifices in order to do the job that has to
*R * *
HOWEVER, Americans are impatient.
When they become convinced of some-
thing, they want action and they want it
The danger in this national trait is that
the present struggle may be impossible of
any quick solution. It is entirely possible,
for example, that there will be no war for
several years, perhaps not for ten years.
The question is whether the American peo-
ple have the patience and the understanding
to bear up under a huge military budget,
high taxes, and scarcities for that many
years without becoming disillusioned.
Secretary of State Acheson has stated
on many occasions that the future road
for this country will not be easy. There is
a strong likelihood that we will never en-
joy such good living as we have in the past
It is a severe challenge to us as a nation.
The question is not whether we will accept
the challenge, but rather whether we are
spiritually-strong enough to carry the future
of the whole free world upon our shoulders.
At The Michigan ..
NEVER A DULL MOMENT!, with Irene
Dunne, Fred MacMurray and Andy De-
W ITH A TITLE like "Never a Dull Mo-
ment," a picture has to be sharp, or the
movie-going public will lose its faith in
Hollywood. The producers of this film did
their darndest to live up to the title.
In fact, they threw in not only the kitchen
sink, but a rodeo, a dust storm, a Shivaree
and just about every plot that great novelists
and Hollywood writers have ever thought
up. And they got them all in one movie!
The result is several substantial chuckles
and much of the kind of laughter after
which you stop and wonder about your-
Plot one-Hard riding cowboy woos and
wins slick Manhatten songstress.
Plot two-New wife woos and wins two
Plot three-slick city girl painfully tri-
umphs over "life in the country."
Plot four-Slick city girl, now hardened
The Week's News
. . . IN RETROSPECT . .
"I, Professor Meyer Schultz, solemnly swear that I will not over-
throw the government of the United States during the current
THE NATION continued to buckle down this week. In Washington,
officials looked around for some emergency measures to spring on
the public, and they came up with several of rather far-reaching
President Harry S. Truman led off Monday with a plea for a
vast mobilization effort, capable of producing 50,000 planes and 35,000
tanks a year if needed. In a rousing State of the Union message,
Truman called on the new 82nd Congress to support preparation for
the possibility of a "full-scale war." For "we will fight, if fight we
must," the President declared. Solemnly, he pledged that the United
States will forsake neither Western Europe nor other free nations in
the struggle against Red aggression.
As for sending more U.S. troops to Europe, Truman gave his
position later in the week. In his Thursday press conference he as-
serted his authority to send troops anywhere he pleases, but tempered
this with a promise to consult Congressional leaders before doing so,
at least as far as Europe is concerned.
At the same time the president definitely promised that wage
and price controls are "on the way."
On Friday Truman presented Congress with his annual economic
message. In the face of greatly increased spending, the President
said he still wants to maintain a balanced budget. This meant, of
course, "much higher taxes."
As a post script, Truman told legislators that 1,000,000 more men
-and women-may be added to the armed forces within a few
LEWIS-As a critic of middle class American life, novelist Sin-
clair Lewis had few superiors. His Main Street and Arrowsmith won
wide acclaim throughout the country, and 'Babbitt brought him the
first Nobel Prize to be awarded an American. Lewis spent many of
his later years in Europe, and while in Florence last December he
became ill. Wednesday morning, in a clinic in Rome, he suffered a
serious heart attack. A few hours later Sinclair Lewis was dead.
BUDGET REQUESTS-On Dec. 19 President Ruthven announced
that the University had requested the Legislature, to grant a record-
breaking $16,337,000 to operate for another year. Last Monday, Gov-
ernor G. Mennen Williams asked the new Legislature for $37,000,000
to clean up some of the state's unfinished business. Included in this
sum would be about $3,000,000 earmarked for the completion of the
Angell Hall addition and the new Out-patient Clinic. On Friday,
Williams made his formal budget request to the Legislature, in which
he slashed the University budget by two and a half million dollars.
He explained that the University enrollment would probably drop by
about 3,500. University officials, in planning their request, had esti-
mated a drop of only 1,500 students.
VANDENBERG-A few months ago, Sen. Arthur Vandenberg lay
on the verge of death in a Grand Rapids hospital. Today the veteran
Michigan Republican is out of the hospital and plans to return to the
Senate floor. "as soon as possible." If the senator should suffer a
relapse, however, its quite likely that he will resign his post and allow
Gov. Williams to appoint a successor. Among possible candidates for
the job, according to Washington gossip, are two University faculty
men, Prof. John P. Dawson of the Law School and Prof. James K.
Pollock, head of the political science department.
HAYWARD-Ralph A. Hayward, 55-year old University Regent
and Kalamazoo industrialist, died Thursday afternoon in University1
Hospital eight days after an operation to relieve intra-cranial pres-
sure. As an educator and administrator, Hayward had few peers, and
his death was considered a tremendous loss to the University. Within
a few days Gov. Williams is expected to appoint a successor; but the
vacancy will be a difficult one to adequately fill.
Around the World.. .
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official pliication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the Uni-
versity. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 252
Administration Building, by 3 p.m. on
the day preceding publication ( a.-
SUNDAY, JANUARY 14, 1951
VOL. LXI, No. 81
Attention February Graduates:
College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts, School of Education,
School of Music, and School of
Public Health-students are ad-
vised not to request grades of I
or X in February. When such
grades are absolutely imperative,
the work must be made up in
time to allow your instructor to
report the make-up grade not
later than 11 a.m., Thurs., Feb. 8.
Grades received after that time
may defer the student's gradua-
tion until a later date.
Recommendations for Depart-
mental Honors: Teaching depart-
ments wishing to recommend ten-
tative February graduates from
the College of Literature, Science,
and the Arts, and the School of
Education for departmental hon-
ors should recommend such stu-
dents in a letter sent to the Reg-
istrar's Office, Room 1513, Admin-
istration Building, by 11 a.m.,
Thurs., Feb. 8.
University Lecture, auspices of
the Department of Biological
Chemistry. "The Mode of Action
of the Proteolytic Enzymes." Dr.
Joseph S. Fruton, Professor of Bio-
chemistry, Yale University School
of Medicine. Mon., Jan. 15, 4:15
p.m., 1400 Chemistry Bldg.
Bennett Cerf, noted humorist
and publisher, will be presented
Tues., 8:30 p.m. in Hill Auditorium
as the fifth number on the Lec-
ture Course. Author of such suc-
cesses as "Shake Well Before Us-
ing" and the new best-seller
"Laughter Incorporated," Mr. Cerf
is well qualified to speak on
"Changing Styles in American
Humor." Tickets go on sale to-
morrow, 10 a.m. in the audito-
rium box office.
Seminar (Zoology): Tues., Jan.
16, 7:30 p.m., Rackham Amphi-
theater. Mr. Colvin Gibson, "Par-
asitological Studies on Onchocer-
clasis in Guatemala."
Game Theory Seminar: Mon.,
Jan. 15, at 7:30 p.m., Room 3001,
Project M720-1: Meeting, Mon.,
Jan. 15. 4 p.m., Room 3001, An-
Doctoral Examination for Sam-
uel Daniel Conte, Mathematics;
thesis: "Thin Plate Problems In-
volving B i p o l a r Coordinates,"
Mon., Jan. 15, 247 W. Engineer-
ing Bldg., 3 p.m. Chairman, G. E.
Doctoral Examination for Har-
riett Behm Kraemer Beck, Edu-
cation; thesis: "Relationship of
Emotional Factors in Early Child-
hood to Subsequent Growth and to
Achievement in Reading," Tues.,
Jan. 16, East Council Room, Rack-
ham Bldg., 1 p.m. Chairman, W.
Mathematics Colloquium: Prof.
G. E. Uhlenbeck, Physics Depart-
ment, will speak on "Some basic
problems of statistical mechanics"
Tues., Jan. 16, 4:10 p.m., Room
1025, Angell Hall.
Geometry Seminar: There will
be no meeting ofte Semiar thi
ference being held in Ann Arbor,
Jan. 12-14. The program will fea-
ture Keig Garvin, Trombonist,
and Vincent Melidon, Clarinetist,
with Don Gillis, guest conductor.
Mr. Gillis 'will conduct his work
"This Is Our America," with the
band and members of the Uni-
versity Choir. Other compositions
on the program are Symphony in
C minor (First Movement) by
Williams, Morceau Symphonique
by Guilmant, Gould's Rhapsody
Jericho; the Finale "The Pines of
Rome" by Respighi, and Scenario
from "South Pacific," by Rodgers.
Open to the public without
Student Recital: Joyce Heeney
Beglarian, Organist, will play a
program at 8:30 Sunday evening,
Jan. 14, in Hill Auditorium, in
partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the Bachelor of Music
degree. A pupil of Marilyn Mason
Brown, Mrs. Beglarian has chosen
works by Sweelinck, Bach, Effing-
er, Messiaen, and Alain, for her
program. The public is invited.
Rackham Galleries: Paintings,
drawings, and water colors com-
pleted during and since the sum-
mer of 1949 in Paris, by Gerome
Kamrowski. Jan. 8-20 10 a.m.-10
Museum of Art, Alumni Memo-
rial Hall. Societe Anonyme Col-
lection and Michigan Water Color
Society, Jan. 8-29. Galleries open
ta the public weekdays 9-5, Sun-
Congregational, Disciple, Evan-
gelical and Reformed Guild. Sup-
per meeting, 6 p.m., Memorial
Christian Church. Mr. Harold
Fey, guest speaker at the Dedica-
Roger Williams Guild: 10 a.m.,
Bible Study at Guild House. 6
p.m. Cost supper and discussion.
The Rev. Joseph Smith, Pastor
of Christian Memorial Church:
"Communism's Challenge to Chris-
Lutheran Student Association:
5:30 p.m., Zion Lutheran Parish
Hall. Speaker: Prof. Ralph W.
Hammett, School'of Architecture.
Slides: "Solomon's Temple."
Wesleyan Foundation: Sunday
morning Seminar, Pine Room, 9:30
a.m. Supper, 5:30 p.m. Program:
Films of Iran, 6:30 p.m.
Michigan Christian Fellowship:
4 p.m., Lane Hall (Fireside Room).
Rev. Clarence Boomsma, Pastor of
the Calvin Christian Reformed
Church, Grand Rapids: "Seek Ye
Canterbury Club: 9 a.m., Holy
Communion followed by Student
Breakfast. 5 p.m., Evening Pray-
er followed by supper and meet-
ing. William Hawley, Dean, Chi-
cago Divinity School, "The En-
mity of God."
(Continued on Page )
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
THOMAS L. STOKES:
Con gressional Applause Meter
WASHINGTON - It is usually possible
to tell something about an audience
from its reaction to a speaker. Politicians,
at least, rely a lot on that.
The Congress of the United States sat
in the role of audience to hear President
Truman deliver in person his annual mes-
sage laying down his broad policies. Its
attitude is rather important today, times
being what they are.
A close observer from the galleries, just
over the head of the President as he was
speaking, could get certain general impres-
sions about the "feel" and temper of the
new 82nd congress from its reception of the
President's Address. It is the applause-me-
ter technique here used, not necessarily con-
clusive, but apt, however, to be more reli-
able than the studied statements members
later hand out themselves. In the case of
politicians, these usually aim at political
APPLYING such a technique, it is apparent
that t h e Hoover-Taft doctrine of
reliance chiefly upon our own strength, with
little dependence upon Europe, has gained
much headway among Republican: in con-
n',.aC...Pta ..1 nn ,, n 4 w 'fh 1..if4' arv ,fpt., nY-I
It was clear, though, that in dealing
with congress in European aid the Presi-
dent will do well to lean heavily on Gene-
ral Dwight D. Eisenhower, now in Europe
on a preliminary survey of his big job of
organizing a unified Western army of de-
fense. Republicans contributed warmly to
the applause when the General's name was
first mentioned by the President. This
seemed to indicate that the chief execu-
tive was politically astute in selecting that
popular figure. It indicated, also, that
General Eisenhower will become the key
in promotion of the administration's poli-
cy with Congress.
There was complete silence all through
President Truman's explanation and defense
of our Korean operation in cooperation with
the United Nations, which he declared had
"tremendous significance for the world" as
"it means that free nations, acting through
the United Nations, are fighting together
This frigidity contrasted with the exul-
tation with which congress greeted the
UN challenge to North Korean Commu-
nist aggression six months ago. President
Truman then was widely applauded for
initiating the UN action.
KOREA-The retreat continued this week in a choppy fashion. The Don Cossack Chorus, Serge
The badly out-numbered UN troops were forced to give up the stra- Jaroff, Conductor, will be heard
tegic towns of Osan and Wonju on the Western and Eastern fronts, Monday eveAng, Jan. 15, at 8:30,
respectively, on Monday. The next day, Allied counterblows blasted concert of the Extra Series. The
back to within two miles of Wonju, finally taking it momentarily on group will be heard in an interest-
Wednesday. The Reds massed forces for a new attack, and the small ing program of religious and folk
UN salient in Wonju drew back, and with hard fighting stabilized the songs, as well as Cossack songs'
line just south of that town. This line had resolved itself into a and dances.
wedge by yesterday, however, as a large Communist spearhead swept Tickets are on sale daily, ex-
past to the east, driving south to rail centers of Chechon and Tan- cept Sunday, at the offices of the
yang. Elements of the Red spearhead began a wild battle Friday to University Musical Society; and
destroy the UN wedge by flank attacks, will be on sale at the Hill Audi-
EISENHOWER JAUNT - Gen. Dwight Eisenhower travelled torium box office preceding the
through Europe last week for a series of conferences with high mili- concert at 7 pm.
tary and civilian officials in North Atlantic Alliance nations. The University Symphony Band,
recently appointed chief of the Atlantic Pact Command stopped in William D. Revelli, Conductor,
Paris on Monday and in Brussels on Tuesday to discuss ways of get- will be heard at 4:15 Sunday af-
ting more fighting men to guard Western Europe. Then he followed ternoon, Jan. 14, in Hill Audi-
through by going north to Denmark and Norway. torium, as the concluding feature
--Chuck Elliott and Bob Keith of the Annual Mid-Western Con-
Edited and managed by students, of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Jim Brown..........Managing Editor
Paul Brentlinger........... City Editor
Roma Lipsky........Editorial Director
Dave Thomas............Feature Eidtor
Janet Watts............Associate Editor
Nancy Bylan .......... Associate Editor
James Gregory ....Associate Hditor
Bill Connolly............Sports Editor
Bob Sandell.....Associate Sports Editor
Bill Brenton.... Associate Sports Editor
Barbara Jans.........Women's Editor
Pat Brownson Associate women's Editor
Bob Daniels.......Business Manager
Walter Shapero Assoc. Business Manager
Paul Schaible.,... Advertising Manager
Bob Mersereau......Finance Manager
Carl Breitkreitz....Circulation Manager
Member of The Associated Press
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entitled to the use for republication
of all news dispatches breditea to it or
otherwise credited to this newspaper.
All rights of republication of all other
matters herein are also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann
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Subscription during regular school
year: by carrier. $6.00. by mail, $7.00.
There's nothing odd or mysterious here,
O'Malley. Things have been delightfully
peaceful and serene. Until you arrived-
It's iust an ordinary
Maybe I've been trying
too hard to unearth a
mystery. Many private But you
detectives just sit in
their offices and let' haven't
No, but-SAY!:...Gus, have
you ever given any thought
to he deaof sub-letting
te font room? To a nice
quiet business enterprise?