POLES OF POWER:
Mid-Century world Led
By Russia, United States
United States .,.
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>Russia . . . P
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THEMICHIGA .NIiL Y
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men from Dayton, Ohio, made the
first succesgful flight in a heav-
ier than air machine. For several
years, the results of the Wright
.s brothers experiments attracted
Now, the airplane has come
into its own as an important
method of military and cavilian
transportation. The use of jet
engines has opened up a swarm
of possibilities for future flying
The airplane and the outomo-
bile came into prominence largely
because of progress in engineer-
ing, which has turned many of the
discoveries of the "pure" sciences
into aids to everyday living.
* * *
"AT THE TURN of the century
engineering was considered an art;
it was dependent on previous ex-
perience," Dean Ivan C. Crawford
of the engineering college de-
"Since that time it has be-
come a handmaid of science,"
he said, in considering the pres-
ent-day status of his profes-
Among other things, engineer-
ing the 20th century has made
posible radio and radar, the ex-
tension of electricity to rural areas,
better irrigation and flood con-
trol, the skyscraper and newer
methods of food storage which af-
fect the life of every housewife.
BOTANISTS have also been ac-!
SUNDAY, JANUARY 15, 1950
tive in 20th century scientific af-
fairs. Their studies in the field
of genetics and plant breeding led
to the development of hybrid corn
and disease resistant wheat-big
boons for farmers everywhere.
Through the use of a series
of "wonder" drugs developed
largely by botanists and chem-
ists, medical science has achiev-
ed mastery over the infectious
diseases which were so terrify-
ing in 1900. Its use of effective
germ killing techniques has
pretty well wiped out the once
great danger of death from in-
fection following surgery.
Two great world wars have
spurred specialists in all fields of
medicine to make many new con-
tributions to the art of curing
physical 'and mental ills.
dressed himself to a strict policy
of economy which he dedicated to
raising farmers to more prosperous
The Hoover era, beginning in .
1928, was marked by the great
New York Stock Market crash
the following year. Pandemon-
ium reigned; postwar specula-
tion had at last caught up with
the people and government.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, elected in
1932, introduced sweeping New
Deal reforms in agriculture, fi-
nance and labor. He also passed
legislation aiding industry, com-
munications and conservation of
natural resources, during the per-
iod from 1932-36.
With the rising storm in Europe,
Roosevelt in 1939 proclaimed neu-
trality, but watchful administra-
tors kept munitions plants hum-
THE SPURT in preparedness
paid off as the nation, recoiling
from the Japanese sneak attack
on Pearl Harbor, ws plunged head-
long into a second world conflict.
The outcome four years later left
the Government with a monstrous
reconstruction job on its hands-
both at home and abroad.
Just before the war's end, the
Allied powers met in San Fran-
cisco to establish the United Na-
tions, a hoped-for solution to
postwar world problems.
And on Apr. 12, 1945, scant
months before V-J Day, Pres.
Roosevelt-the nation's leader for
the past 12 years-died at Warm
TWO EVENTS marked the 1946-
48 period-strained relations be-
tween the U.S. and the Soviet Un-
ion and Pres. Truman's smashing
upset over Dewey in the 1948 elec-
By joining the North Atlantic
Alliance, the U.S. assured the
Western European nations of
arms, in addition to Marshall
And in the courtroom, the na-
tion late in 1949 continued its
struggle against the rise of Com-
mun,ism as a Federal jury con-
victed 11 Red leaders of conspiring
to overthrow the Government by
AS THE CLASH of Communis-
tic and democratic ideology near-
ed a head, the U.S. began to set
its sights on formulation of a
workable non - aggression policy
bringing the two powers to per-
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sky had been the most powerful
factor in the lives of the people
before the revolution, was severe-
ly halted in the 1920's. Churches
were outlawed and church at-
tendance was discouraged by the
Prof. Lobanov said that the
Communists found this system
unsuccessful, so during the war
they set up an artificial church,
allowing the church to exist as
long as it did not oppose the
state. Thus, he pointed out, the
difference between U.S. and
Russian standards of "religious
The only important denomina-
tion in Russia is the Orthodox
church, although many Catholics
are to be found on the Russian
periphery, especially in Lithuania.
The Catholic church does suffer
some persecution, he said, chiefly
because of the expressed opposi-
tion of the Church to Commun-
Lenin, having fled Russia af-
ter the failure of the 1904 revo-
lution, returned to St. Peters-
burg in a dramatic trip across
Germany in a sealed car. He
took command of the Bolshe-
viks, who were trying to re-
place Socialist Revolutionary
the forces of Kerensky now in
power, with Communism.
Caught between trying to fight
a war and set up a democracy,
Kerensky was defeated. On No-
vember 7, 1916 when Lenin's forc-
es surrounded the Winter Palace
and took it, the establishment of
the Bolshevist government was an-
* * .
LENIN ACTED quickly to es-
tablish Socialism, seizing indus-
tries and property for the gov-
ernment. It was an attempt to
halt the destruction of the crash-
ing Russian economy. A much
criticized treaty with Germany
was signed at Brest-Litovsk.
By 1921, the Communists were
free to begin the building of
Soviet power and initiated the
New Economic Policy, a modi-
fied Communism, which allowed
for small business and created
a wealthy peasantry. When Len-
in died in 1924, he left behind
two factions, the Trotskyites
who wanted to suppress the
peasants and Stalin, who said
such a measure would leave no
one to produce much-needed
Because he wanted to build
Russia and shelve the revolution,
Stalin split with Trotsky and
ousted him from the government
in 1925. From then until 1935,
Russia's economy expanded under
a series of Five Year Plans, an
effort to rebuild industry, col-
lectivize the peasants and get
exports for a trade balance.
Fear of Japanese and German
ambitions forced Russia to swing
her economy to armaments in the
A SURPRISE reversal of policy
in 1939 gave Russia a nonaggres-
sion pact with Hitler, the result
of the snubbing of the Soviet by
the West at Munich, and soon
after the war opened in Septem-
ber she had taken Eastern Poland.
But on June :22, 1941, the
German army crossed the Rus-
sian border, and Winston Chur
chill welcomed Russia as an
ally. Cold winters, American
aid and the valiant defense of
Leningrad and Stalingrad stop-
ped the German invasion.
In the post-war world, Russia
and the United States stood face
to face as the two leading powers
of the world. On her side, Russia
had a string of Eastern Europe
satellites with Communist gov-
ernments. The United States was
the rallying point for the anti-
Communist capitalistic and social-
istic west. The United Nations
was the center of East-West con-
troversy, with the veto power an
obstacle to peace.
AS MID-CENTURY approached
Russia was trying hard to re-
cover from the ravages of war.
Under the impetus of a new Five-
Year Plan her industry was re-
But like the United States
she had her problems. The sate-
llite bloc was cracked by the
split of Tito and Stalin.
Her biggest consolations were
the obtaining of the atomic bomb,
in 1949, and the realization that
in the Far East, China was com-
ing under the control of pro-Rus-
sian Communist government.
Ahead lay the question of
whether the Soviet Union and
the United States could settle dif-
ferences and avoid a Third devas-
tating war in this century.
-Courtesy Ann Arbor News
EAT MY DUST-There were no worries about driving permits when this picture was taken of S.
State St. at N. University Ave. in the late 19th century. A lone buggy, approaching from the north,
raises the dust on the unpaved streets. To the left can be seen a member of a once-powerful tribe
-the Cigar store Indian-displaying his wares to the public.
(Continued from Page 1)
saw the formal organization of the
sumier school as a separate divi-
sion in 1900. It was not until 1902
that the School of Forestry was
established - then as a division
of the literary college.
After a reign of 38 years as
President of the University, Presi-
dent Angell resigned in 1909. He
left behind him an institution with
concrete educational and admin-
istrative foundations. It has been
said that it was Angell who gave
practical form to the state uni-
* * *
STILL, HOWEVER, the Univer-
sity was in need of vast physical
expansion, with classrooms jam-
med and equipment taxed to the
To accomplish these reforms
the Board of Regents elected
Harry B. Hutchins of the law
school. The first University
graduate to become its leader,
Hutchins was a vigorous far-
sighted administratorswell adap-
ted to the job of supervising the
expansion of the physical plant.
President Hutchins soon proved
himself an adept organizer of
alumni support. It was largely due
to his work and the work of his
predecessor, President Angell, that
a $195,000 contribution from
Michigan's great body of grad-
uates resulted in the building of
Alumni Memorial Hall in 1909.
HUTCHINS also cultivated the
support of Regent Arthur Hill who
contributed $200,000 for the con-
struction of Hill Auditorium in
Even more impressive was the
vast national campaign which
was conducted among students,
faculty and alumni to raise
funds for the construction of the
present Union Building.
Another significant development
during the early Hutchins regime
was the instiution of the Graduate
School as- another major division
of the University in 1912.
WHILE AN unhurried sense of
comfort and security marked the
tranquil years prior to World War
I, international events were soon
to force radical changes in the
tenor of University life.
As American entrance into the
war drew closer, students flocked
to join the reserve units of the
Army and Navy and regular of-
ficers were disfiatched by Wash-
ington to handle the increased
While the Navy went about its
unobtrusive way with shipshape
efficiency, the Army's Student
Army Training Corps (S.A.T.C.)
apparently set out to make its first
President Hutchins, mean-
while, was forced to stand by
helplessly and watch enroll-
ment drop by more than 1,000 as
the Army took over.
'Having sought to resign his posi-
tion in 1914, but persuaded to stay
on through the war, President
Hutchins retired in 1920.
His successor was red-haired,
golden-voiced Marion Leroy Bur-
ton, a former president of Smith
College and at the time president
of the University of Minnesota.
A DYNAMIC personality, a sup-
erb administrator and a tireless
and successful money-raiser, Bur-
ton succeeded in the few short
years of his administration in in-
itiaitng a' building program which
was to cost $19,000,000 over a per-
iod of 10 years.
Bowed down with the tremend-
ous job of handling 17 simultane-
ous building projects and admin-
istering dozens of endowments
and scholarship funds, President
Burton broke under the strain and
died in 1925 of a chronic heart
The University was now riding
the crest of the Roaring Twenties.
Students were sporting $400 rac-
coon coats and tearing up the
countryside with high-powered
UNKNOWINGLY, but very ap-
propriately, the Board of Regents
picked roaring Clarence Cook
Little, the 36-year old President of
the University of Maine to take
over the University helm.
The new chief executive came
rolling into town with a plan:
he wanted a "University College"
ifi which all students would take
their cotirses for the first two
Finally after a long period of
study and vacillation by the Re-
gents, Little became disgusted by
the whole proceeding and in 1929
* * *
HIS ADMINISTRATION, how-
ever, saw the institution of a
campus regulation which is still
rigidly enforced - the car ban.
Aghast at the unbelievable num-
ber of students killed or injured
in automobile wrecks, President
Little asked the Regents to clamp
down a ban on all student driv-
ing without special University
On October 4, 1924, Alexander
G. Ruthven, former Dean of
Admiistration, assumed his du-
ties as successor to President
In only 19 days the University
witnessed the "Black Thursday"
which was to plunge the United
States into the worst depression
in its history.
Most immediate effect of the
depression on the University was
a drop in enrollment of nearly
1,000 students, while thousands of
students who remained in school
suffered severe economic priva-
It was not until 1934 that a
surprising jump in student enroll-
ment signalled renewed expan-
sion of University facilities.
* * *
FROM THE outset of his ad-
ministration, President Ruthven
cautiously began to inculcate the
more practical features of Presi-
dent Little's "University College"
project and the present two-year
program of general study for un-
derclassmen, followed by concen-
tration in the junior and senior
years is an outgrowth of this plan.
Another outstanding accom-
plishment of the Thirties was the
inception of the present broad
system of men's dormitories.
In 193' the financial crisis had
been weathered and the Univer-
sity celebrated its 100th anniver-
sary in apparent tranquility.
IN DIRECT contrast to World
War I, the Army came to Michi-
gan in the second war in a calm
and orderly fashion. A dozen mil-
itary schools were located here-
including the Judge Advocate
General's School, whichdmoved
lock, stock and barrel from Wash-
ington and took over the Law
The University's research fa-
cilities were put at the disposal
of the Government and striking
advances in the atomic energy
field had their beginnings on
Following the war the Univer-
sity embarked on a building pro-
gram which paralleled that of
the post-World War I era.
* * *
The next 50 years will probably
see a continued expansion of Uni-
versity facilities, increased enroll-
ments, tightening of academic
standards with greater emphasis
being placed on graduate study
and gradual liberalization of ad-
ministrative attitudes toward stu-
War and depression and the
endless flow of time have left their
inevitable marks and a return to
the past is both undesirable and
WAGNER'S Store on Main St. during the "Eighties."
(on part of the present State Savings Bank site)
Established in Ann Arbor only a few years after the
University first opened its doors WAGNER'S has been
closely and pleasantly associated with the men of the
Campus [or over 100 years-truly a campus institution.
SINCE 18. .
STATE STREET AT LIBERTY
HAS BEEN SERVING
FOR 62 YEARS
Tailored Clothes That Fit and Stay Fit!
and keep up
with your work
CHOICE OF THE HOUSE.
Three Price Ranges $77.50, $67.50, $54.50
The '$77.50 Range includes all suitings and overcoatings originally priced
$102.00, $95.00, and $85.00.
Standard Office Machines
Wide Carriage Machines
fountain pen repair work by a
factory trained man
The $67.50 Range includes all suitings and overcoatings originally priced at
$76.50 and $72.50.
The $54.50 Range includes all suitings and overcoatings originally priced at
You have the choice of the Finest Worsteds, Sharkskins, Flannels and Gab-
ardines the Market produces. NOTHING RESERVED.
.This is a splendid opportunity for you to secure your Spring Clothing needs
at extremely attractive Prices.
OF THE EXPERTS"
f wg ._____