PAGE rom~ W~X~NESD~IY, NOVEM~E~ ~, 1~4~
The Case of Yamashita
GENERAL TOMOYUKI YAMASHIITA,
"Tiger of Malaya" and conqueror of
Singapore, was tried, convicted and executed
in 1945 as a war criminal in one of the most
glaring miscarriages of justice in modern
American history. Now, four years later,
General Douglas MacArthur's Supreme
Command of Allied Powers has seen fit to
suppress the sordid facts surrounding Yama-
shita's trial from the Japanese people.
Captured In the Philippines in 1945,
'Yamashita was ordered to stand Imme-
diate trial as a war criminal by General
MacArthur. The charge against Yama-
shita was that he had "unlawfully dis-
regarded and failed to discharge his duty
as commander to control the operations
of the members of his" command, per-
mitting them to commit brutal atrocities
. . thereby violated the Laws of War."
The charge itself laid down a new princi-
pal-that a commander is a criminal if his
men violate the Laws of War, whether he
ordered or even knew of the violations.
The trial was conducted by a military
commission of five generals. None of the five
had any legal background. The commission
handled Yamashita's defense with an air
of patient disinterest: the prosecution was
allowed a great deal of latitude.
Much of the testimony was based on
opinion and rumor. U.S. propaganda films
were shown as part of the evidence. Yama-
shita was blamed for rape and murder
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: JANET WATTS
committed by Japanese troops trapped by
American forces in Manila. His defense
proved that at the time he was far away
in the hills and had lost touch with the
units responsible for most of the outrages.
Urged by a radiogram from MacArthur,
the trial ended a month after it began. An
appeal was made but the U.S. Supreme
Court refused to accept jurisdiction, al-
though a grave dissent was entered by the,
late Justices Frank Murphy and Wiley Rut-
ledge. Yamashita was hanged.
This year "The Case of General Yama-
shita," written by A. Frank Reel, a former
U.S. Army captain who helped defend Yam-
ashita, was published. It is a clear, lucid and
damning report of a terrible fumbling by
our country and Army of the right of any
individual to a fair and unbiased trial.
Not long ago a Tokyo newspaper publish-
ed a review of Reel's book. *CAP, which
MacArthur declares does not interfere with
freedom of the press in Japan, informed
Japanese publishers and editors that it
would not be "advisable" to mention or pub-
lish the book. The dictum has been scrupu-
The fact that Yamashita was executed
on such seemingly insufficient evidence is
regrettable. Under stress of war, however,
men do strange things and our army's ac-
tion might possibly be explained in this
What should be of greater concern to ev-
ery American is the withholding of the facts
of our mistake from the Japanese. Some-
time the truth will get out, possibly before
we withdraw our troops from Japan, cer-
tainly afterward. When it does, our re-
pressive acts under the Occupation will not
have enhanced its beauty.
WITH DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON-Harry Truman and Har-
old Ickes, both men of positive opinions
and quick tempers, had a long and friendly
talk the other day. There was a time when
the two almost spit in each other's face over
the question of making oilman Ed Pauley
Undersecretary of the Navy, but the other
day all past unpleasantness evaporated as
the two discussed New York politics and
It was because of Ickes' interest in In-
dians that he was first made Secretary of
the Interior 17 years ago. He had been
recommended merely as Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, but at the last minute FDR
made him Secretary of the Interior in -
One of the things Ickes talked to Truman
about was the plight of the Navajos and the
veto of a bill just passed by Congress putting
the Navajos under the state laws of Arizona
and New Mexico.
The Catholic Church has been worried
over the divorce and remarriage systems
of the Navajos by which they merely ap-
pear before their own tribal authorities
if they wish to divorce.
However, both Ickes and Truman felt that
the Indians were entitled to their ancient
tribal customs. Furthermore, Ickes was sus-
picious that the move to put the Navajos
under state laws, while sincere on the part
of the church, was a blind on the part of tlie
politicians to take over their water rights.
He suspected the big New Mexican cat-
tlemen and ranches-most of them Re-
publicans, but some of them contributing
nonetheless to Democratic senator Clinton
Anderson-of engineering this part of the
bill through Congress. Anderson, inci-
dentally, had telephoned Secretary of the
Interior Julius Krug during the Senate
debate urging Krug to accept the amend-
ment putting the Indians (and their water
rights) under state laws. Krug agreed and
the amendment stayed in.
However, President Truman took the un-
usual step of slapping down his Secretary of
the Interior and vetoing the Navajo bill.
WHAT'S WRONG WITH NAVY
NO BATTLESHIP ADMIRAL is more pro-
Navy than Ferdinand Eberstadt, close
friend of Secretary Forrestal and long a
power in the civilian circles behind the Navy
Yet in 1945, Eberstadt wrote a realistic re-p
port that gives some idea what Secretary of
the Navy Matthews and Chief of Naval Op-
erations Sherman are now up against in try-
ing to keep the admirals in line.
No one can accuse Eberstadt of being
prejudiced against the Navy. Yet here is
what he reported to then Secretary of the
Navy Forrestal in 1945:
"There is, always has been, and always
will be as long as the principle of individual
responsibility and exclusive authority is con-
tinued, a centrifugal force in the depart-
ment of the Navy that the usual secretary,
possessed of fragmentary knowledge, cannot
withstand. What all this means superficially
is that the Navy department is a defective
administrative mechanism - it provides no
adequate device by which subordinate agen-
cies may be made immediately responsive to
the will of a central intelligence ...
"Under such conditions," continued
Eberstadt, "it is inevitable that the admin-
istration of the Navy has been entrusted
primarily to the individual bureaus. The
Supreme civil authority in ordinary times
is, in practice, isolated from the real activ-
ity of the organization over which he pre-
sides .. .
"At the best, as one secretary recently
pointed out, he has acted ordinarily as an
umpire between the bureau chiefs when they
disagree; but it should be added, he has per-
force to act as an umpire with no very cer-
tain grasp of the rules of the game."
* * *
ADMIRALS' VESTED INTEREST
"IT IS INTERESTING," Eberstadt added,
to investigate the reasons why the Navy
department has been held on an adminis-
trative dead center; to discover the sources
of the tremendous inertia that has opposed
successfully the centralization of authority
in the department for a century.
"First, there is the attitude of naval.,
officers, themselves. Those men associated
with the bureaus have traditionally and
naturally found it desirable to preserve the
integrity of their vested interests . . .
Each knows, almost by instinct, where
sources of authority can be found; where
roads to promotion lie, where he fits in
the scheme of things. Within this rigid
framework all officers know how to deal
with each other, with secretaries, with
Congressmen, and with the public ... "
Yet, even though Eberstadt pointed out
the pitfalls, Forrestal was never able to re-
form the Navy. And the continued bickering
of the admirals was one thing that con-
tributed to his nervous breakdown.
PRESIDENT TRUMAN has received in-
formation-so far not conclusive-that
the Russian atom bomb went off premature-
ly-probably by accident.
Most effective tactic against Louis John-
son in the opinion of Navy men is to pro-
mote him for President in 1952. This, they
figure, is the easiest way to get Truman
Secretary of the Treasury John Snyder
holds four honorary degrees, but he nevet
graduated from college. The highest school
he ever completed was Jonesboro high school
of Jonesboro, Ark.
Chief G-Man J. Edgar Hoover, whose
business is hunting criminals, also hunts
for antiques in his spare time. He has an exL
pert taste for old bronzes.
(copyright, 1949, by the Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
"Prosperity and civilization are far from
being synonymous terms. The working com-
munity that is suddenly glutted by an af-
flux of work and wages is in exactly the
same position as the savage who is sudden-
ly enabled to fill himself with a rich mass
of decaying blubber. It is prosperity; it is
in "The Task of Social Hygiene"
By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP
ASHINGTON-If the cabled exchanges
W which led up to the current Paris meet-
ing.of the American, British, and French
foreign ministers were published, they would
reveal two deeply significant facts. The first
is that British Foreign SecretaryiErnest
Bevin takes an extraordinarily serious view
of what is happening in Germany.
The second fact is that Secretary of State
Dean Acheson has now made the project
for continental economic union, first put
forward by E.C.A. chief Paul Hoffman, th
number one objective of American foreign
policy. Taken together, these two facts ex-
plain what the conference is all about.
* * *
THE TONE of Bevin's cable to Acheson
and French Foreign Minister Robert
Schuman, proposing the conference, is re-
markably somber. He stated flatly that the
moral authority of the allies in German was
being rapidly destroyed. And he went on to
say: "We cannot afford to wait until our
whole dismantling policy collapses about our
ears and the Western powers are publicly
humiliated in front of the Germans."
Bevin called on his American and French
opposite numbers to face and deal with
this deteriorating situation before it got
completely out of hand. As an interim
measure, he proposed that the dismantling
program be suspended almost entirely,
until a rational substitute program could
be worked out with the West German gov-
ernment of Dr. Konrad Adenauer. But in
his cable Bevin made it clear that he con-
siders dismantling of German plants only
the most immediate German issue to be
Bevin called for a review of all the basic
issues of allied policy in Germany- a peace
treaty for Western Germany, German par-
ticipation in the international control of the
Ruhr, the relation between Western Ger-
many's economy and the rest of the conti-
nent's, and so on. In short, what Bevin has
proposed is a root-and-branch recasting of
Western policy in Germany.
* * *
THIS IS GOING pretty far. But Acheson
undoubtedly intends to go even further,
as a message which he sent to Bevin shortly
before he left for Paris suggests. Acheson
intends to discuss, not only the future of
Germany, but the future of Western Europe.
For in his message to Bevin, Acheson put the
greatest possible emphasis on continental
economic union. He told Bevin that the
American government believed it absolutely
essential that the economies of the Western
European continental nations be meshed
into each other.
He went on to say that he fully under-
stood that the economy of Britain itself
could not be integrated into that of the
continent. This important statement by
Acheson reflects a major American policy
decision, first reported in this space-that
for all sorts of reasons British participa-
tion in a European economic union is im-
However, Acheson informed his British
opposite number, he was disturbed by the
apparently negative attitude which the Brit-
ish were taking to the continental union
project. This attitude, he implied, was un-
dermining the whole project. Active British
leadership and support for the project was
essential to its success.
* * *
THIS TWO-WAY exchange indicates the
major issues with which the three for-
eign ministers must come to grips in Paris.
The British and Americans are agreed that
some way must be found to strengthen the
West German regime against the challenge
of the Soviet Union's East German puppet
state. Yet the French (although Schuman
himself does not categorically oppose an end
to dismantling) deeply fear a revival of Ger-
The Americans propose both to restore
the economy of Western Europe, and to
meet these French fears, by promoting an
economic union of the continent. This un-
ion would consist at first of Italy, France,
and the Benelux countries. But ultimately
Western Germany would be brought in as an
integral part of the union, thus becoming
part of a larger whole.
The French favor the union idea, and in-
deed have been its principle continental
sponsors. But the French fear that a un-
ion including Germany but. excluding Brit-
ain would be dominated in the end by Ger-
many. As for the British, they want no part
of the union for themselves, and further-
more most of the British policy-makers pri-
vately consider the whole idea, to put it
Thus a kind of circular impasse between
the three major Western nations has come
into being. It is this impasse which is occu-
pying Acheson, Bevin, and Schuman in
Paris. Certainly it will not be broken in a
mere two or three days. But at least the
fact of the widening breach between the
three allies is being faced, and the attempt
to deal with it has begun.
(Copyright, 1949, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)
XZetteP4 TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited, or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
"Want Me To Help Unify You Again?"
7 BJTA FtMII 6.t: .4/
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Co-op Bookstore .. .
To the Editor:
A FER READING the item in
Friday's paper about Mr. Hugh
Greenberg's opinion on the co-
operative bookstore, I had to
laugh. Obviously, Mr. Greenberg
doesn't know much about coop-
eratives, bookstores, or coopera-
It might be enlightening to him
to know that although coopera-
tive bookstores do charge the reg-
ular price for new books, at the
end of each semester they can
pay dividends in the form of re-
bates in cash, running as high as
20 per cent of all purchases made
by the student during that semes-
ter. (I refer you to the Co-op
Bookstore, University of Texas,
Austin, Tex., where they also give
very good service to their custom-
ers, which seems to be unexpected
of the privately-owned bookstores
It really is too bad that Mr.
Greenberg is so set against the
cooperative bookstore, for I feel
that there is a definite need here
for an efficient bookstore.
-Charles R. Carlton
* * *
To the Editor:
IWOULD LIKE to extend my
congratulations to the staff of
the Gargoyle on their recent sell-
out. And after reading only one
issue, I'll bet two bits that they
don't sell out again for another 26
-J. M. Clark, Jr.
* * *
Voting Plan .. .
IN HIS editorial yesterday Jim
Brown supported the system of
vote counting for the J-Hop elec-
tion which the SL adopted last
Yet last week Jim was one of
several SL members who declined
to vote on the question because he
felt, as many others did, that the
proposal was rammed through the
SL meeting in the closing min-
utes without any pretext of ade-
quate discussion and without any
opportunity for those who favored
the substitution of the Hare sys-
tem to present that suggestion.
Some of us believe that SL has
a responsibility to intelligently
discuss a major election rule
change such as this before making
a decision. We will seek to have
the question reconsidered tonight.,
Certainly, as Jim Brown pointed
out, the old system encouraged
block voting. Under it 35% or less
of the voters could determine the
selection of all nine committee
A choice between the system SL
adopted last week and the Hare
system depends upon the objec-
tives a system seeks to achieve.
I believe that a representative
body such as SL or the J-Hop
committee which act in behalf of
a constituency should contain an
accurate cross-section of the vot-
ers who select it.
The Hare system of proportional
representation accomplishes just
that. Its basic principle is that
everyone's vote counts and counts
only once. Thus if 1800 juniors
voted, each J-Hop member would
have had the support and be repre-
sentative of 200 different people.
The weighted vote supporters
claim their method allows your
vote to count more than once. But,
as in the old system, it may not
count at all.
They do not explain that as the
voter gives 9 points to his second
choice, 8 to his third, etc., he is
actually detracting from his first
place vote. Consequently we can
expect campaigns to get candi-
dates' friends to vote only once so
as not to detract from the support
given the first place vote. If he
still doesn't win, the votes are lost.
Weighed voting supporters urge
its use as an "experiment." It is
a very confusing arnd uncertain
experiment. SL, I believe, has a
duty not to experiment but to
Tea 'n Talk: 4-6 p.m., 3d
lounge, Presbyterian Church.
4-5:30 p.m., Do-Drop-In. Infor-
6:30 p.m., Pot Luck Supper.
7:30 p.m., Bible Study Seminar.
8:30 p.m., Program committee
Michigan Christian Fellowship:
Prayer meeting, 7 p.m.; Bible
study groups, 7:30 p.m., Lane Hall,
Orthodox Student's Society:
Business Meeting, 7:30 p.m., Lane
(Continued from Page 2)
Strawinsky, Charles Jones, and
Schumann. Open to the public.
Organ Recital: The first in a se-
ries of four Wednesday afternoon
organ recitals by Robert Noehren,
University Organist, will be pre-
sented at 4:15 p.m., Nov. 9, Hill
Auditorium. Program: Bach's Toc-
cata, Adagio and Fugue in C ma-
jor, Franck's Choral in E major,
Vierne Stele pour un enfant de-
funt, and the Sonata entitled "The
84th Psalm," by Reubke. The pub-
lic is invited.
Student Recital: Edward Trou-
pin, violinist, will present a pro-
gram in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
Master of Music at 8:30 p.m.,
Thurs., Nov. 10, Rackham Assem-
bly Hall. Mr. Troupin is a pupil
of Gilbert Ross. Program: works
by Beethoven, Bach, Piston and
Ravel. The public is invited.
Agenda for Engine Council
Meeting: 7:30 p.m., 302 W. Engi-
A. Cabinet report
B. Committee reports:
C. Old business
Change of grading system
D. New business
Introduction of new consti-
tution for consideration
Social Ethics Discussion: 7:15
p.m., Lane Hall.
ulty: Tea, 4 to 6 p.m., 4th floor
U. of M. Radio Club: Organiza-
tion Meeting, Thurs., Nov. 10, 1084
E. Engineering. Amateur radio en-
Delta Sigma Pi presents Joseph
P. Wolff, Commissioner of Build-
ing and Safety Engineering, De-
troit, speaking on "Management's
Responsibility for Safety in In-
dustry." 8 p.m., Thurs., Nov. 10,
130 Business Administration.
Graduate Outing Club: Party
at the Intramural Bldg., Fri., Nov.
11. Meet 7:15, N.W. entrance of
Rackham Bldg., or 7:30 in lobby
of I-M Bldg. Bring bathing suits
and/or gym clothes.
Visitors' Night, Department of
Astronomy: 7:45 p.m., Nov. 11,
Angell Hall. Dr. D. B. McLaugh-
lin will give a short talk entitled
"The Nature of Stars" in 3017 An-
gell Hall. Following the talk the
student observatory, fifth floor,
Angell Hall, will be open for ob-
servations with the telescopes
provided the sky is clear. Children
must be accompanied by adults.
U. of M. Hostel Club: Meeting,
7:30 p.m., Lane Hall, Thurs., Nov.
10. Ski pics. Everyone welcome.
Hillel Social Committee: Meet-
ing, 4:15 p.m., Thurs., Nov. 10, Rm.
3K, Union. Final arrangements
for this Saturday night's big
dance. All welcome.
Hillel - I.Z.F.A.: Hebrew class,
8 p.m., Thurs., Nov. 10, League.
Mich. Dames: General Meeting
will not meet on Nov. 8, but will
meet Nov. 15 in the General As-
sembly Room, Rackham Bldg.
"Recess Time" Party: 8 p.m.,
Thurs., Nov. 10, Ballroom, League.
Sponsored by professional educa-
tional organizations of the Uni-
versity of Michigan.
Student-Faculty Hour: 4-5 p.m.,
Thurs., Nov. 10, Grand Rapids
Room, League. Honoring the his-
tory dept. Refreshments.
American Society of Civil Engi-
neers: Student Chapter will hold
a joint meeting with the chapters
of Michigan State, Univesity of
Detroit, University of Toledo, and
Wayne University, 8 p.m., Thurs,,
Nov. 10, Architecture Auditorium.
Speaker: Franklin Thomas, A.S.-
C.E.'s national president.
International Center Weekly
Tea: 4:30-6 p.m., Thurs., Nov. 10,
for all Foreign students and Am-
Michigan Crib: Meeting, Thurs.,
Nov. 10, 7:30 p.m., Kellogg Audi-
torium. Guest speaker: Edward N.
Barnard, trial lawyer from De-
troit. Reception will follow, Rm.
1Midt gn Z iI
Student "Chat": 4:30 to
Roger Williams Guild
choose the best possible
* * *
'Slush Bowl' , .
To the Editor:
YUGOSLAVIA will remain for a
long time a classic example of
the hypocritical blunders of our
There are those who need pencil
and paper to add one-digit num-
bers. Unfortunately this group is
in the majority and probably will
remain so until the end of the next
Yugoslavia under Tito six
months ago was reported as the
"butchering tyrant" by many
American newspapers. Three years
ago he shot down five American
aviators. But now, very recently in
Congress, Tito was referred to as
an "enlightened despot." What
kind of "slush bowl" is this?
Again I repeat,.this is for those
who need pencil and paper to add
one-digit numbers-the majority.
Our government will take any
"ism" under their bosom regardless
of their internal structure and
nourish it with guns, ammunition
and capital investment. The only
qualification needed is a gun
pointed at Moscow.
The moral of the story, and a
very sad one, is not a fight against
Communism or any other ism; but
rather, a fight against Russia
(which will inevitably eventuate
in another war.)
IMPORTANT: I am not imply-
ing to any degree that Russia is
100 per cent correct, and we have
been absolutely wrong; nor am I
implying as a solution complete
appeasement. I am saying, how-
ever, that we too have blundered.
And to put myself on the spot I'll
say-equally. And as a possible
solution, I will quote Nehru: "We
can prevent war by working for
Canterbury Club: 7:30-10 p.m.;
Rev. and Mrs. Burt are at home,
702 Tappan, to all Episcopal stu-
Union Membership Cards: For
the benefit of men unable to se-
cure Union Cards during regular
office hours, 3-5, the student of-
fices will be open tonight from
.7-8:30 to issue membership cards.
Cashier receipts are necessary.
Student Legislature Meeting: 8
p.m., Rm. 3G, Union.
I. Committee reports
II. Old business
Report on suggestions from
III. New business
Proposal for referendum on
Arts Chorale: Regular meeting,
7 p.m., Rm. B, Haven Hall. All
members should be present. Con-
cert will be Nov. 29.
Folk and Square Dance Club:
Meeting, 7-9:30 p.m., W.A.B. Spe-
cial guests: Chi Psi, Camp Coun-
selors, Chicago House. Everyone
Flying Club: Meeting, 7:30 p.m.,
1042 E. Engineering. Election of
West Quad Radio Club: Meet-
ing, 7:30 p.m., "shack", 5th floor,
U. of M.
Sailing Club: Meeting,
311 W. Engineering
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the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board- in Control of
Leon Jaroff........Managing tor
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Philip Dawson.......EditoriaV Director
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Jo Misner...........Associate Editor
George Walker.......Associate Editor
Don McNeil.......... Associate Editor
Alex Lmanian......Photography Editor
Pres Holmes........Sports Co-Editor
Merle Levin.........Sports Co-Editor
Roger Goelz.....Associate Sports Editor
Miriam Cady........Women's Editor
Lee Kaltenbach..Associate Women's Ed.
Allan Cdamage......Assistant Librarian
Roger Wellington.... .Business Manager
Dee Nelson.. Associate Business Manager
Jim Dangi......Advertising Manager
Bernie Aidinoff...Finance Manager
Ralph Ziegler......Circulation Manager
Member of The Associated Press
The AssociateduPress is erclusively
entitled to the use for republication
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otherwise credited to this newspdpe
All rights of republication of all other
matters herein are also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ana
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Subscription during the regular school
year by cu*rier. $5.00, by mail, $6.00.
U. of M. Rifle Club: Postal
Match with U. of Washington, 8
p.m., ROTC range. Practice 7-9:30.
Young Progressives: Education-
al meeting, 7:30 p.m., 1018 Angell
Hall. Discussion on racial discrim-
U. of M. Theatre Guild: General
meeting, 7:30 p.m.
Scabbard and Blade: Meeting,
7:30 p. m., North Hall.
Women of the University Fac-
., ..But first, a word about t abberaosties---
Mr. Saarks! My
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