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VOL. LIX, No. 132 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 13, 1949
PRICE FIV E NTS
Testifies at N.Y.
Com nminist Trial
NEW YORK - (/P) - American
Communists were taught to incite
civil war in the United States if
this country became embroiled in
war with Russia, a government
witness testified yesterday.
The witness, Herbert A. Phil-
brick, said such instructions were
given at a five-member Commu-
nist Party unit to which he be-
longed in the Boston area.
PHILBRICK, F.B.I. informant
in the Communist movement for
nine years, told the jury in the
Communist conspiracy trial that
the discussion leader for the unit
was "Martha Fletcher" of Beacon
Hill in Boston.
Using "The History of the
Communist Party of the Soviet
Union" as a text, she defined an
"unjust war" as one occurring
between the United States and
Russia, Philbrick said.
"She pointed out," he testified,
"that in such an incident it would
be the duty of the Communist
Party to fight against an unjust
war and in such a case the impe-
rialist war should be converted
into a civil war."
The defense objected strenuous-
ly to the testimony, which came
on re-direct examination by the
government after cross-examina-
tion had been completed.
DEFENSE ATTORNEYS con-
tended the 11 defendants, top of-
ficials of the American Commu-
nist party, could not be held re-
sponsible for discussions at which
they were not present.
But Federal Judge Harold R.
Medina overruled the objections,
remarking that "the government
cannot prove all the links in the
chain at one time."
By AL BLUMROSEN and
Judge Medina sat back in his
chair, sad and resigned, defense
attorneys pounded constant ob-
jections, Assistant Attorney Gen-
eral Frank Gordon doggedly threw
question after question at star wit-
ness Herbert Philbrick while two
Daily reporters looked on last
In the corridor leading to Room
110 of the New York Federal
Court Building, three policemen
stood, legs spread, forming a bar-
ricade and checking all who tried
to enter. .
CROWDS FORMED to get into
the courtroom two hours before
the sessions began. A dozen people
paced out front with signs con-
demning the "Trial of the
Twelve." (Only eleven Commu-
nists are on trial since William
Z. Foster was too ill to be in
A lone ill-dressed man carried
a sandwich board condemning
the "red Fascists." Scattered
city police watched impassively,
kept people moving.
Inside the courtroom, govern-
ment surprise witness Philbrick,
New England advertising manager
who had been in both the Com-
munist Party and the FBI for nine
years, elaborated on his earlier
Document after document, used
by Philbrick in his teaching career
with the party was passed into evi-
dence over objections of defense
* * *
THE JURY, tired after ten days
of testimony, listened passively.
As a result of eight weeks of de-
fense haggling over the "Blue
Ribbon" jury, it now numbers
three men and nine women, in-
cluding four Negrces.
Most of them followed the
testimony closely, but a balding
white haired man in the front
row appeared to be asleep dur-
Bloc Vote Return
Bloc voting is apparently back in town.
The Association of Independent Men and the West Quadrangle
yesterday announced plans for "educational newsletters" to be cir-
culated to all their members, listing only candidates from their own
groups and giving statements from each.
* * * *
THEN, LIKE a keg of dynamite, bloc voting seemed to explode out
into the open last night as Inter-Fraternity Council president Bruce
Lockwood, '49, promised that IFC would. get out a newsletter "within
'six hours of AIM.".
And charges flew back and
forth all along the line. Inde-
pendent students told The Daily
bloc voting was going on full-
force but undercover throughout
the Greek groups.
Lockwood said his group was not
"fostering" bloc voting and coun-
ter-charged that AIM's action
f :"did not confirm their original
PROF. W. A. ROBSON
N.I Vot Sought,
By ART BRAVERMAN
"Socialism is not synonymous
with great national monopolies,"
according to Prof. William A.
Robson, professor of public ad-
ministration in the London School
Speaking at Rackham amphi-
theatre last night, he declared
that the English face the same
problems of finding and utiliz-
ing the most efficient size of
administrative set-up as do other
* * *
"THERE IS A great deal of di-
versity in nationalization," he
said, "and no attempt is made to
make all industries conform to
one type of organization."
"The elimination of stock-
holders is the quintessence of
nationalization," he added.
Prof. Robson explained that na-
tionalized industries have been
taken out of private hands and
put under control of public cor-
* * *
THE DEVICE of public corpor-
ations was used, he said, in order
that the industries might not be
responsible to parliament for' day
to day work.
"The corporation directors
and staff are not members of
the civil service," he added,
"and the industry is not subject
to Treasury control over fi-
"The industry sets its own pric-
es, and the consumer can effec-
tively influence production and
distribution through the price
* * *
working to further the public in-
terest instead of making profits
for the owner is the main differ-
ence between private and public
corporations, he said.
Prof. Robson called the public
corporation, "the most impor-
tant innovation evolved in Eng-
land in the last forty years and
destined to play as important
a part in 20th century as the
capitalistic corporation played
in the 19th."
* * *
(ACCORDING to the Associat-
ed Press, the Labor Party said
yesterday that it would put five
more big }businesses under public
ownership if it wins Britain's 1950
Candidates for Student Legisla-
ture posts will meet at 4:15 today,
in Rm. 3A, of the Michigan Un-
stand against bloc votng"-which
was credited with eventually forc-
ing IFC to abandon bloc voting.
Lockwood said he would be
"crazy to do nothing" in the face
of the flurry of newsletters.
BOTH AIM and West Quad of-
ficials explained that they felt that
the letters would not constitute
AIM will send 1,000 copies of
its letter to all independent
dormitories and private housing
units on campus, according to
Barry Driggers, chairman of
AIM's campus action committee.
"Students in private housing
units wouldn't be caught dead vot-
ing for a fraternity candidate any-
way," Driggers said.
HE EXPLAINED that the letter
was meant only to inform them
who the independent candidates
are. It would contain a statement
to the effect that AIM "is against
bloc voting," he said.
Thoburn Stiles, president of
West Quad, explained that 750
copies of the WQ letter would
be distributed in the quadrangle
and that he did not believe that
it constituted bloc voting.
"We don't expect students to
take the letters with them when
they vote," he said.
STILES commented, however,
that the newsletter hasn't gone to
press yet and "we will think it
NEW YORK - The United
Nations Assembly turned aside
Soviet protests yesterday and ap-
proved a full airing of the trials
of Josef Cardinal Mindszenty and
15 Bulgarian Protestant clergy-
The vote was 30 to 7, with 20
* * *
WASHINGTON - President
Truman urged the Senate to
help western Europe ward off
"brutality and aggression" by
pledging United States partner-
ship in the Atlantic Pact.
* *' *
ATHENS, Greece - Themistok-
les Sophoulis, 88-year-old Prem-
ier, handed in the resignation of
his cabinet today as the result of
an alleged scandal involving a
Greek party leader.
The Premier was commissioned
at once to organize a new gov-
* . * *
SAN MARINO, Calif. - Final
homage will be paid today to
three - year old Kathy Fiscus
whose tragic death in the depths
of an abandoned well shocked a
of the Army Royall yesterday
blasted the present armed services
unification law as too weak and
a cause for "serious alarm" in
event of war.
Further, Royall told Congres,
the law cost the country one bil-
lion dollars in savings this year
because it did not give the Sec-
retary of Defense enough author-
ity over the Army, Navy and Air
* * *
IN FACT, he said, it is "worse"
than no unification at all.
"We are worse prepared today
to meet an eiergencythan be-
fore we had unification," Royall
told the Senate Armed Services
The committee is considering
changes in the compromise act
passed in 1947. In effect, Royall,
asked that he be demoted. As
one step in giving the Secretary
of Defense more power, he urged
that the secretaries of the
Army, Navy and Air Force be
Royall said that what is needed
is strong one-man direction of the
defense establishment. He said the
secretary of defense should be
given power-with approval of the
President-to effect "real unifica-
tion" for better security and econ-
THE SECRETARY said this
should include power to "abolish
the Marine Corps and make it
part of the Army" if necessary,
and to settle the air power battle
between the Air Force and the
When he mentioned that a
billion dollars could have been
saved this year by such a pro-
Mass.) asked whether Royall
was questioning the wisdom of
existing unification under the
"I more than question it. I
think it's undesirable," Royall shot
* * *
SPEAKING OF savings that
could be effected, Royall differed,
however, with former President
Herbert Hoover's criticism of de-
fense planning and spending. Hoo-
ver told the committee yesterday
that there was waste, duplication
and lack of proper planning and
control in the defense set-up.
Hoover is head of a commission
studying reorganization of gov-
ernment agencies and depart-
The first of two lectures on in-
fant care and psychology, design-
ed to supplement the marriage
lecture series, will be offered at
8 p.m. today in Rackham lecture
Dr. Ernest H. Watson, associate
professor of pediatrics and com-
municable diseases at the Uni-
versity, will discuss "The Care and
Feeding of Young Infants." Dr.
Watson is a recognized authority
on nutrition. The talk will be
open to all students. Admission
will be free.
The second lecture will be given
April 26. Dr. Ralph M. Patterson,
University professor of psychiatry,
will speak on "The Social and
Emotional Relations of Parents
The lectures are sponsored by a
University committee which is in-
vestigating the problems of family
life education at the University.
The committee is headed by Prof.
Robert C. Angell, chairman of the
STUDENTS CLASH WITH POLICE-A near-riot broke out Monday at New York City College, as
students battled police and onlookers in fist-fights on the streits and campus. The NYCC stu-
dents were picketing in protest against two faculty members they accuse of racial discrimination.
Police arrested 18 of the embattled students. Yesterday, however, spring fever slowed the pace of
the student strike, according to the Associated Press. About 300 student pickets basked in the sun,
listened languidly to band music and made friends with the same police with whom they brawlwd
the day before. One student, Fred Scheiner, 22 years old, was ticketed and his loud-speaking equip-
ment ruled out of the area by the 75-man police detail.1
Special Church Services
Mark End of Holy Week
By JANET WATTS
Christians all over the world
will honor the memory of Christ
in Holy Week services this week
as the six week Lenten season
draws to a close.
Campus churches have listed
special programs for Maundy
Thursday, Good Friday and Easter
Housing is becoming a major.
problem in Israel, Lt. Shosana
Adomi, of the Haganah, said yes-
terday at the United Jewish Ap-
peal campaign kickoff program at
"This is because thousands of
Jewish refugees are rushing into
Israel each month. They are con-
See Interview and Picture, Page 5
tent to live in emergency provi-
sions now, but adequate housing
must be provided," she explained.
* * *
LT. ADOMI pointed out that
UJA funds would be used to pro-
vide such housing. The campus
campaign goal is $9,000.
One thousand refugees enter
the Jewish state each day to cre-
ate a greater and greater ref-
ugee problem, Lt. Adomi de-
"So many are coming to our
land that we may have to restrict
immigration though we have
fought this kind of measure for
years," she said.
* * *
THE INTELLIGENCE officer of
Israeli army described life behind
the lines in Jerusalem, before the
Burma Road was, built as a supply
Sunday. The University Choir will
present a Good Friday Choral
SAINT ANDREWS' Episcopal
church and Saint Mary's Catholic
Church will hold daily commun-
ion services all week. St. An-
drews' services are scheduled at
7:15 a.m. and 10 a.m. and St.
Mary's masses are at 7, 8 and 9
The Methodist Church senior
choir will present their annual
Lenten music program at 8 p.m.
today at the church. Lester Mc-
Coy will direct the choir in Per-
golesi-Howorth's "Stabat Ma-
Maundy Thursday communion
services will be observed at the
University Lutheran Chapel-Mis-
souri Synod, the Methodist church,
the Congregational church, St.
Andrew's, St. Mary's and Zion and
Trinity Lutheran churches.
* * *
ANN ARBOR PROTESTANT
churches will observe a special
community Good Friday service
from 12 to 3 p.m. at the Meth-
odist church. The Ann Arbor
Youth Council will conduct wor-
ship for the first hour, sacred
music will be presented the sec-
ond and the Rev. Leonard Parr,
of the Congregational Church, will
preach the sermon at 2 p.m.
Maynard Klein, of the School
of Music, will direct the Uni-
versity Choir in a program of
sacred music at 4:15 p.m." Fri-
day in Hill Auditorium. The
program will include the music
of Palestrina, Bach and Hein-
St. Andrew's and St. Mary's
have also scheduled three hour
Good Friday services.
The choir of Christ's Church,
Cranbrook, will present Brahms'
Requiem at 8 p.m. Friday at St.
Elaborate Easter worship serv-
ices will climax Holy Week Sun-
day at all churches.
Teaching is not a "matrimonial
Commenting on reports of
anonymous letters, which have
been received in 16 states, attack-
ing schools of education as "old-
maid factories," Dean James B.
Edmondson of the education
school said the writer's conten-
tion is not supported by the facts.
* * *
THE LETTERS, postmarked
Seattle and signed "One Who Has
Observed," were sent to women
to urge them not to enter the
teaching profession. The letters
touched off an investigation by
the FBI, according to the current
issue of Time magazine.
Dean Edmondson said educa-
tion, like politics and religion,
has "a fair share of cranks."
The letters "shouldn't be taken
As a matter of fact, he said,
"many women who have been
trained as teachers marry before
they enter the profession; this
contributes to the shortage of
Opera Song Hit
One of the hit songs from
"Froggy Bottom" will be heard at
10 a.m. today on the Fred Waring
show, over Station WWJ.
"'Til the Dawn,'." written by
Ed Chudacoff and Ann Hussel-
man, will be aired on the Waring
program, Bill Zerman, Union
Opera publicity director, an-
Orders for special recordings of
"'Til the Dawn," as well as other
Union Opera numbers, will be
taken from 3 to 5 p.m. today and
tomorrow at the ticket booth in
the Union lobby.
$5 Billion 1Aid
Bill Now Awaits
Presid ent's Okay
WASHINGTON - (P) - By a
vote of 354 to 48, the House yes-
terday passed a $5.380,000,000 bill
to continue the Marshall Plan of
European recovery for another 15
The vote came after 13 hours of
debate. It took the Senate 13 days
to pass a similar measure setting
a $5,580,000,000 limit on the spend-
ing. The Senate vote was 70 to 7.
* * *
House, with some Republican sup-
port, beat down every attempt to
strike millions of dollars from the
bill or write in other major
The House measure would au-
thorize continued U.S. aid until
July 1, 1950, subject to possible
later cuts by the Senate and
ouse Appropriations Commit-
tees. It also provides $272,000,-
000 to encourage Amerocan pri-
vate business to invest in re-
covery projects abroad. Such In-
vestments would be guaranteed
against loss by confiscation of
Differences between the Senate
and House versions-a- matter of
$200,000,000 plus some minor
amendments-will now go to a
* * *
T HE COMPROMISE version
will then be subject to a new vote
in each chamber.
As the next step, the appropri-
ations committee will recomd
the actual money bill for approval
by both Houses.
'Before final passage, four and
one-half hours after the Houe
met at 11 a.m., the lawmakers
rejected an amendment by Rep.
Fogarty (Dem., R.I.) to with-
hold Marshall Plan funds to
England as long as North Ire-
land is held separate from Ire-
The lopsided final vote came af-
ter Majority Leader McCormick
(Dem., Mass.) pleaded against a
GOP-led economy drive with a
warning that the world is looking
"either to Washington or the
The earth's shadow dimmed the
full moon last night as millions
of Americans watched the first
total lunar eclipse since 1945.
And, by dormitory and sorority
thresholds, hundreds of University
students engaged in scientific ob-
servation of the satellite as it en-
tered its darkest phase at 10:26
p.m.-four minutes before the
women's closing hour.
Other scientifically-minded ob-
servers posted themselves at van-
tage points on Long Island, the
Associated Press reported. About
150 persons crowded the observa-
tion deck atop the Empire State
Building in New York.
To Aid Refugees
Two Ann Arborites and the
former director of the Workers
Education Service were appointed
yesterday by Gov. Williams to a
committee to aid in resettling Eu-
ropean refugees in Michigan.
They are Prof. William E. Haber
of the economics department, Dr.
Howard Y. McClusky, president of
the Michigan Council of Churches
and Arthur Elder, former director
of the now-defunct WES, accord-
ing to the Associated Press.
I-_ l Oi m rn_ N-
STUDENT LEGISLATURE EVOLUTION:
SLHistoryPoints to Greater Growth
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first
in a series of interpretive articles de-
signed to acquaint students with the
Student Legislature-to wvhich they
will elect 25 representatives Aprii
W- l 7 A TI" TTT Qfl1T
students are fully willing to elect
representatives that are capable
The path is open as it has
never been since January, 1946,
more than 3,000 students voted in
an election which saw the later
system-still in use-the winner.
* * *
TIIF FTRRT ni'eside~nt nf SIT, was
in slashing the committees to
six and then five. '
With a workable mechanism,
legislators went ahead toward a
student hook exchange. faculty
the admitted Communist was
snow-balled by students during
an abortive attempt to make an
off-campus speech. The request
was flatly denied and Eisler is