THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1948
KNOW THE REASON WHY:
Splinters and Schism
By LYMAN H. LEGTERS
N LAST WEEK'S column two criticisms
of campus politics were mentioned: (1)
That, the campus political scene is charac-
terized by "splinter" organizations and
schism within the left-wing groups, and
(2) that campus political ventures bear little
relation to the political world outside.
Oversimplified but pertinent analysis
has it that both shortcomings are due
to the idealistic level on which the groups
operate. A vital factor is that here we
have no patronage to distribute, whereas
in national politics every move is made
with an eye to jobs for the winner. Fur-
thermore, it is contended, students are
politically naive; they think that rational
persuasion is the key to salvation, and
that every shade of viewpoint must have
its organic channel of expression.
The best answer to such charges is an
invitation to an AVC meeting. An unusual
AVC gathering last week amply demon-
strated the fallacy of these criticisms. To be
sure, idealism was present; in fact a more
pragmatic approach might have saved much
stupidity. But it is not the presence of ideal-
ism that is wrong. If campus politics can
be conducted on such a level, so much the
better. The only mistake would be an at-
tempt to be effective in national politics
on the same basis, for idealism is too often
wasted and courageous effort ignored on
the national scene when it is not tem-
pered by practical considerations. That is
not to say that national politics has no
need for idealism, but there is greater need
of intelligent methods for making liberal
views felt. It would be a shame to think
that the campus should be a replica of the
nation politically; rather the student should
Editorials published in The Mirhigan Daily
are written by memhers of The Daily staff
and reprewent the viewk of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: CRAIG H. WILSON
adjust to changed conditions when he moves
from one sphere to another.
At the AVC meeting, in addition to a
measure of idealism which swung many
well-meaning members to an emotional
extreme, there was a great deal of very
effective pre-meeting caucusing. Any po-
litical party could have been proud of the
effective tactics employed by one faction
at least. The meeting was poorly run on
the one hand, and the victorious faction
was not intelligent enough to stop beating
its vanquished opponent after the triumph
was assured. Consequently the organiza-
tion suffered. But method is the subject of
discussion and those used were effective, to
say the least. A certain amount of out-
right stupidity seems to be a concomitant
of political enterprises, but what was seen
at AVC was no different from that which
is all too common off campus as well.
The "splinter" criticism will be answered
if the defeated faction comes back to try to
regain control. AVC is probably near death,
both nationally and locally, but there is
little excuse for sulking in a corner or for
replying to defeat with a new organization.
A Committee for the Redemption of AVC
would be no answer. It would only confirm
the charge that students are too naive or
sensitive to stomach personal differences
for the sake of larger issues. Any such Com-
mittee had better work within the present
organization or not at all.
It is most unfortunate when the cam-
pus gains structure at the expense of
substance. And that is what has happened
so many times when every issue gives rise
to a new committee or a new organization.
It is admittedly futile at times to try
to work with certain factions in control,
but usually there is already an organiza-
tional channel for work on an issue with-
out formation of a new group.
The AVC meeting may not have been typ-
ical, but it was symptomatic of what students
are capable of doing in a political situation.
Whichever side was right, and there was
much valid criticism on both sides, the
larger question is: "What course will they
BECAUSE of the critical situation in the
nation and the world, it will be essen-
tial that America's President during the
next four years be a strong leader.
A strong leader should be able to for-
mulate plans which will solve existing
problems and which will prevent serious
future problems. Besides making these
plans, a good leader is one who is able to
see that they are put into effect.
After three years of President Truman's
,_Qdership, the country finds itself in serious
difficulties regarding foreign affairs, hous-
ing, inflation, and labor-management rela-
tions. These difficulties have not been solved
by any plans which Mr. Truman has sub-
mitted. Many of his plans. have been at-
tacked by members of his own partybas being
ineffective. For example, Marriner Eccles of
the Federal Reserve Board described his in-
flation control program as being completely
unworkable. Mr. Truman, when he has for-
mulated plans, has often been unable to
persuade Congress to support them. Obvious-
ly, such plans could not be put into effect.
A strong leader should take the lead in
formulating policies during crises. Yet
right now we find Mr. Truman absorbed
in campaign tours while the country seems
on the verge of a possible war because of
the Berlin crisis. Presumably, our policy
in Berlin is being determined by the Sec-
retary of State, or perhaps our United Na-
tions delegates. Walter Lippmann, writing
on the Berlin situation, states that "there
is not even an attempt to pretend that
the President is directing affairs, is mak-
ing the decisions, is forming or conduct-
A strong leader must be able to inspire
confidence among his followers that he is
capable of solving their problems. This Mr.
Truman has generally failed to do. Prior
to the recent Democratic convention, many
leading Democrats seemed to have little
confidence in his abilities, judging from the
attempts which were made to block his re-
On the other hand, Gov. Dewey has a
reputation for being a skilled, tactful, and
relatively strong leader. He has considered
the opinions of expert subordinates in
formulating plans for his own state, and
has generally succeeded in putting them
into effect. Judging from his past per-
formance, he would take an active part
in formulating policy, and would coordi-
nate the activities of his subordinates so
that this policy would be reasonably clear.
If elected, Gov. Dewey should be able to
carry on more friendly relations with Con-
gress than has Mr. Truman, especially if
the Republican Party retains its Congres-
sional majority. There would be some hope
of avoiding legislative stalemates such as
we have faced during the past two years.
Gov. Dewey has at least secured the con-
fidence of his own party, which is no small
achievement, considering the vigorous pre-
convention campaigns waged by various
Gov. Dewey may be able to provide thMk
leadership which America so urgently needs
during these difficult times. At least he
would show "some improvement over the
present occupant of the White House.
LAST THURSDAY a young Negro was
convicted of manslaughter in the shoot-
ing of a Southern provocateur. The case has
implications that should be examined.
Early in the evening of July 30, Duane
Witherspoon, slight 20-year-old Negro
veteran, boarded a Benton Harbor city
bus. He had just quit the night training-
school he attended after working hours.
In a brown paper bag he carried the con-
tents of his locker: a cap, a legally reg-
istered .22 target pistol, a 25-cent novel
and a couple of bottles of medicine.
He had hardly seated himself beside an-
other Negro boy when a voice behind him
snarled drunkenly, "Where I come from a
nigger ain't allowed to set in front of a
white man." The voice continued, "If you
were in the South you would be dead." Duane
turned and asked if the man were speaking
"Yes, you black son-of-a-bitch." As Duane
rose to move, the intoxicated southerner
struck him in the face. He fell back; the
larger man gripped his throat. In a panic
Duane reached for his pistol and began
hitting the drunk across the head with the
barrel of the weapon. The southerner tight-
ened his hold.
The frightened passengers began scram-
bling off the bus. Before the driver could
make his way to the fight, Witherspoon
fired, fatally wounding his assailant. And
then he fled.
Later apprehended at home, he confessed
to the killing of Edward Stowe, migrant
southern fruit-picker. Asked by police if he
had anything further to say, Witherspoon
"Once when I was a small boy a white
man who said he didn't like niggers threw
me over the bluff by the warehouse where
my father worked, and another time a white
man put cigarette ashes down by back."
When the case was brought to trial, the
testimony agreed as to the men's acts and
In summing up for the State, County
Prosecutor Joseph E. Killian pointed out
the special problems created by the race
issue. He said Witherspoon was charged,
with manslaughter rather than murder
because he acted under extraordinary
provocation. (Manslaughter includes un-
premeditated killing "in the heat of pas-
sion and without malicious intent," he
Killian said Witherspoon's claim of self-
defense was invalidated because "he used
more than the amount of force necessary
to repel the assault." He called on the
jury not to give Witherspoon special con-
sideration, but to recognize that "he has
the same rights as any other man-no more
and no less."
In an eloquent summary for the defense,
Attorney Charles W. Gore pointed out that
Stowe's words, "If you were in the South you
would be dead," constituted a threat that
would put Witherspoon in fear for his life.
He reinforced this legal argument with a
penetrating account of all the elements of
personal and cultural conflict surrounding
Although Witherspoon was tried before
an all-white jury, we are certain "beyond
reasonable doubt" that they convicted
him purely on grounds of conscience. No
trial could have been fairer. The racial
issue was not buried. Its implications in
the case were squarely faced and thor-
oughly evaluated by both prosecution and
Some people who discussed this case
seemed to assume that Witherspoon would
get a fair trial as a matter of course. The
fact that the trial actually was fair isn't
an excuse for complacency; but it proves
that in the North the law can be used for
Fortunately Duane Witherspoon doesn't
live where Edward Stowe came from.
It's easy to say that, oh well, we're in the
North. But Southern attitudes aren't con-
fined to their source. The existence of people
like Duane Witherspoon is difficult enough
without the addition of further tragic bur-
dens. Too often the ethics of the Edward
Stowes seep through that great selective
membrane, the Mason-Dixon Line.
MATTER OF FACT:
Talk With Tito
By STEWART ALSOP
W ASHINGTON-A remarkably interest-
ing conversation took place very recently
in Belgrade, stronghold of Marshall Tito.
Tito asked an old acquaintance, the extreme
Left-wing member of the British Parliament,
Konni Zilliacus, to luncheon. Their talk
was the most important and significant
indication of Tito's real position that has
become available since his declaration of
independence from the Kremlin in June.
In fact, Tito bluntly volunteered the opin-
ion that the Soviets had intended to humble
him and bring him to heel and that they
had not succeeded. He admired, he said,
the Soviet state and the Soviet system. But,
he continued, the relations between Yugo-
slavia and Russia must be the normal rela-
tions between any two sovereign states.
And here Tito made his most remarkable
statement of all. Emphatically he complain-
ed of the Soviet policy of setting one nation
n _rn __o. _ F1t
.P of SAP j __
' I (t
The Daily accords its readers the
privilege of submitting letters for
publication in this column. Subject
to space limitations, the general pol-
icy is to publish in the order in which
they are received all letters bearing
the writer's signature and address.
Letters exceeding 300 words,, repeti-
tious letters and letters of a defama-
tory character or such letters which
for any other reason are not in good
taste will not be published. The
editors reserve the privilege of con-
To the Editor:
There is a certain young man
(hair color unknown), who walks
the campus of the University of
Michigan almost every day. This
man, whom for the sake of identi-
ty we shall call Mr. Daniel Elya-
char, is a man in whose body is
represented the evil of not defin-
ing his terms.
Mr. Elyachar, on first sight,
gives the appearance of a kindly
young scholar, who to many of us
brings back memories of our own
fellow students; however, if we
should stop and read what this
person writes we would soon find
out that he has a great love of
clarity - CLARITY FOR HIM-
SELF but none for anyone who
was not born with his methods of
reasoning and exposition.
Having read Mr. Elyachar's let-
ter to The Daily I began wonder-
ing actually how many ambiguous
thinkers we have amongst us. It
is an old truth that claims that
only out of the mouths of the
qN."oTft W-J*t wba rasra
News of the Week
United Nations ...
The Berlin story took up most of the week's session of the
General Assembly in Paris. The plot read like this:
Russian commandant in Berlin, Marshal Sokolovsky said that
the dispute could not be settled in the UN, but only by direct
negotiation. Later, in Paris Vishinsky restated this view.
On Tuesday, Vishinsky acted. As the UN agreed to face the
Berlin issue, he announced that he would boycott the session.
The U.S. stood on its insistance that the issue be aired and as
the weekend approached, several small UN members prepared to ask
Russia to drop the blockade. Argentine Foreign Minister Bramuglia
conferred with Vishinsky. There was no sign of a letup of the
tension that had gripped the world since the Russians instituted
Charles De Gaulle demanded that he be given a chance to
straighten out the problems of France by a general election.
Atom Bomb ...
In Paris Vishinsky, who was a busy man last week, asked that
international controls be put on atomic energy and that the U.S.
simultaneously destroy its atom bombs.
Later, Secretary of State Marshall ordered a campaign to "debunk"
the Russian plan.
Secretary of State Marshall, another busy man, asked that
the UN rescind its resolution against Franco Spain. London re-
ported that Franco and the Royalists had reconciled.
* * * *
With the first round in the campaigning over, the hopefuls still
were talking, and saying nothing new. The only unusual development
was Harold Ickes' telegram to Gov. Dewey, asking that the GOP stand
on conservation be explained.
At weeks end, Washington was buzzing with an unconfirmed
and undenied rumor that Truman was going to send Chief Justice
Fred Vinson to talk over the Berlin Crisis with Joseph Stalin.
Return . . -.
Marshall came home to report to Truman on the situation in
Berlin and the UN.
World Series .. .
Lou Boudreau's Cleveland Indians inched their way into a
two-games-to-one lead in the World Series as they allowed the
Boston Braves a pair of tiny runs in three games.
The two contests this weekend may determine the champion of
all baseball for 1948.
* * * *
Chairman Babson walked out on a stormy session of the campus
AVC after watching a resolution condemning Communist participation
in AVC go down to defeat 91 to 54.
In a meeting - that drew the largest attendance in local AVC
history and lasted a full four hours, Babson's resignation as chairman
was accepted without censure.
Earlier the group backed up the AVC resolution of two weeks
ago to fight the University ban on proposed speaker Carl Winter,
indicted Communist, and agreed to hold off-campus the Civil
Liberties Forum at which he was to speak.
* * * *
Diag Politics -. -
Wallace Progressive Chairman Max Dean found himself on the
carpet when crowds of from 50 to 500 students cut loose with an
open political debate around the group's recruiting table on the Diag.
Dean Erich Walter defined the discussion as a political rally
and called attention to Regents' rulings which prohibit political
activity on the campus outside organized clubs.
The debaters, who worked on a sun-up to sun-set basis in irregular
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in The Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all
members of the University. Notices
for the Bulletin should 1be sent in
typewritten form to the office of
the Assistant to the President, Room
1021 Angell Hal, by 3:00 p.m. on the
day preceding publication (11:00
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1948
VOL. LIX, No. 18
Bureau of Appointments: The
Atlantic Refining Company, Dal-
las, Texas, will haverepresenta-
tives here Oct. 13 through Oct.
15 to interview senior and grad-
uate geologists, senior and grad-
uate chemical engineers, mechan-
ical engineers, and electrical en-
gineers interested in seismograph
field work.Appointments and ap-
plication blanks may be obtained
by calling at the Bureau, 201
Mason Hall, or by calling Ext. 371.
School of Business Administra-
tion. Faculty meeting Tues., Oct.
12, 7 p.m., Rm. 170 B.A.
Tau Beta Pi Graduates: Please
send names, addresses, and tele-
phone numbers to Bob Vlasic, 719
University Community Center
Willow Run Village
Sun., Oct. 10, 10:45 a.m. Vil-
lage Church Fellowship (interde-
nominational). Nursery at same
hour; 4:30 p.m. Fellowship and
discussion. Pot-luck supper,
Mon., Oct. 11, 8 p.m. Faculty
Wives' Club; 8 p.m. Organization-
al meeting-Class in beginning
Tues., Oct. 12, 8 p.m. Wives of
Student Veterans' Club. Program
-"Entertaining Without a Maid."
Wed., Oct. 13; 8 p.m. Ceramics.
Thurs., Oct. 14, 8 p.m. Ceramics
Oratorical Association Lecture
Series. Robert Magidoff, NBC cor-
respondent in Russia, will speak
on the subject, "Why I Was Ex-
pelled from the Soviet Union."
8:30 p.m., Tues., Oct. 12, Hill Aud-
itorium. Tickets for this lecture
and the lectures by Raymond
Gram Swing, Rebecca West, and
John Mason Brown will go on sale
at 10 a.m., Mon., Oct. 11, Audi-
torium box office.
Organic Chemistry Seminar. "The
Structure of Cholesterol." Speak-
er: Mr. Samuel Kaufman, Mon.,
Oct. 11, 2308 Chemistry; 7:30 p.m.
Orientation Seminar. Wed., Oct.
13, 4:30 p.m., Rm. 3001 Angell
Hall. Mr. Kenneth Wood will dis-
cuss Factor Analysis.
History Language Examination
for the M.A. degree: Fri., Oct. 15,
4 p.m., Rm. B, Haven Hall. Each
student is responsible for his own
dictionary. Please register at the
History Department Office before
taking the examination. r
Carillon Recitals: 2:15 p.m.,
Sun., Oct. 10, by Prof. Percival
Price. The program will include
four chorales, three American ca-
rillon compositions, and a group
of songs by Stephen Foster.
Lutheran Student Association.
Joint meeting with the University
Lutheran Student Foundation, at
5:30! p.m., Zion Lutheran- Parish
Hall. Supper; 6 p.m., followed by
a talk by Provost James P. Adams.
Unitarian Student Guild. Snack
supper and program at 6:30 p.m.
Mr. Clare Lahti will speak on "De-
sign as Communication."
(Continued on Page 7)
"Don't Expect Me To Get This Real Accurate, Bub"
young scholar or old professor do
we hear exactly what men think.
If we could only have more young
scholars in this world of ours we
might at least know where our
enemies are. Under existing con-
ditions though, not one of us, not
even Mr. Elyachar, will survive in
our present form if we have too
many of his type to contend with.
Our university is a large one and
we must use all our energy to see
that it is not disturbed from the
outside; let alone from the inside.
I am all for the principle of
having anyone think anything
anywhere, but I also believe that
it has now come to a point where
we must demand clarity of
thought and logical exposition
based on definable premises.
Why should a reader suffer be-
cause of another individual's pre-
rogative to stand behind the
staunch defenses of our great uni-
versity and betray in writing ev-
erything that serious thinking
Yes, let us listen to all our Mr.
Elyachars; let us attempt to an-
swer them; let us try to reason
with them and, if we must, let us
also find a way to end their mis-
use of one of our so-called basic
I seriously invite Mr. Elyachar
to forgive this satiric paraphrase
of his letter of October 8th. and
present us with his definition of
freedom of speech.
Letters to the Editor.
Fi fty-Ninth Year
ID RATHER BE RIGHT:
A miable Doctrine
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
GOVERNOR WARREN has been receiving
a great deal of praise for the speeches
in which he has been saying blandly that
both the Republican and the Democratic
partiesbare good parties, that the country
needs both of them, that while it is only
natural that we should transfer our ad-
ministration from one to the other as the
years pass, it is important that both remain
sound and vigorous, etc. The Governor
feels that a period of serving as the "loyal
opposition" sort of refreshes a party, and
enables it to regain its unity and effective-
ness, and prepares it for going back into
This is amiable, relaxed doctrine; it
shows a commendable lack of bile, and it
is by no means inept of the Governor to
try to make a virtue of the lack of essential
differences between the parties at a time
when a good many people feel this to be
a sort of fault.
But it must also be said that the Gover-
nor's description of our political system
,..,.a c 1 41 ]ilea n .. r f n a .
shopping, and in spite of all human ten-
dency toward error.
As a matter of fact, the substance of Mr.
Warren's amiable position is that there are
no issues, that all our problemsarehprob-
lems of efficiency and unity within the two
parties, that it's just a question of which
dry goods store you want to take from.
I believe there is a curious but under-
standable tendency at work among us to
try to get politics out of politics, to ration-
alize our political system as we have our
industrial system, to make it a matter of
complete registration, of course, and of
complete voting, but with, perhaps, a di-
' minishing sense that there are vital dif-
ferences between the directions in which
one can cast one's vote. It is an effort to
put our political activity into the hands
of a couple of sound organizations and
then forget about it, as we have done with,
say, the matter of steel production.
But in this process all the blood drains
out of our political activity. For there re-
mn the nn awhn. 11Th n ,vs. 'tha a, u 0a
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* * *
But off-campus, political debate continued as Democrat Preston
W. Slosson, and Republican Harold Sponberg teed-off in an old
fashioned free-for-all, in the Washtenaw County Courthouse.
Both sides of the inflation question, labor problems and the
housing issue, were discussed.
Campus Election ...
Student Legislature officials blamed lack of knowledge and a
cashier's receipt requirement for one of the lightest votes ever recorded
in campus history.
Only 322 ballots were cast in the athletic board election which
was won by Wolverine halfback Walt Teninga.
Did you see Barnaby's story Yes, and the
of the fire drill! SIGNED! editorial with
See? "By Barnaby Baxter"- it dramatizes
Mrs. Ross of the PTA says it's wonderful
publicity. The town council will have to
buy that sIrip of land for the annex now.
I've almost finished my news flash
on the fire, m'boy. How's this lead?