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Reform Is Overdue
T WOULD take a Ph.D. in legal history to
find a better example of the necessity for
reform in the State Legislature than the
spectacle of confused, petty government
which the Legislature itself furnished in its
last session before adjournment early yes-
terday (Thursday) morning.
Before the legislators was an assortment
of measures, including Governor Sigler's
program of administrative reforms designed
to streamline the State executive branch, as
well as appropriations bills for State insti-
tutions, including the University.
Both these bills were of vital importance
-so important that they required the im-
mediate, intelligent consideration of an or-
derly legislative body acting in accordance
with parliamentary principles.
But the Legislature-particularly the
Senate-was in a bull-headed, tempera-
mental mood-largely because of Sigler's
demand for immediate action on his leg-
islative program, and an end to pigeon-
holing and stalling.
As a result, the Senate session finally
tabled the measure and adjourned, after a
night of stubborn refusal to compromise on
the two bills-a night also filled with group
singing, and tossing books at each other.
Sociable as group singing and playing
games may seem, it can scarcely be denied
that the people of Michigan placed their
trust in the present Legislature to intelli-
gently consider laws on their merits-and
this same body has consistently dropped the
ball on this score.
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
ire written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: HAROLD JACKSON
No better example of this could be cited
than the current Senate plan to try MSC
student James Zarichny for the shocking
crime of holding his own political views,
and having the guts to tell Senator Matthew
Callahan-the Great Capitalizer on the cur-
rent Red Scare-that his (Zarichny's) opin-
ions are his own business.
This poses the problem, but it still
doesn't answer the obvious question, "flow
does the Legislature acquire incompe-
tents, and what can we do about it?"
One might peer into the political crystal
ball, and come up with a variety of ex-
planations for the uniformly poor perform-
ance (with a few exceptions) of our law-
makers-such reasons as pressure groups,
poor legislative organization and confusion
between Legislature and Governor.
But the two really basic reasons might
best he phrased in the form of a direct
question to ourselves: "What would we
do if we were placed in a situation in
which we made the starvation wage of
$3 per day and constantly received lucra-
tive offers of generous help from other
persons desiring in return that we render
them small favors contrary to the in-
terests of our boss, while the boss nor-
mally took so little interest in our activ-
ities that we knew we could get away
That is the dilemma of that rarity, the
honest state legislator-caught between the
niggardly allotment from the State, pow-
erful pressure groups well supplied with
money, and a supremely apathetic voting
public. Is it any wonder that our Legisla-
tures-the very heart of the democratic
process-turn out records like the ones cited
-Russell B. Clanahan.
By PHIL DAWSON
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Phil Dawson, a member of
The Daily staff, is in Greecet eompaying Iis
father, Prof. John Dawson, on leave fromt the
the Universit to work in Greece for the gov-
ATHENS-A 2.7 per cent drop in the offi-
cial value of the drachma this week was
hardly noticed by a public anxiously con-
centrating its attention on Italian devel-
As Italy's imminent national elections
loomed darkly on the horizon, there was a
widespread intensification of the fear and
pessimism with which Greeks generally view
the world future.
An indication of this attitude, and a basic
reason for lack of concern over the drach-
ma devaluation, is the fact that Greeks now
look to the British gold sovereign for their
standard of value.
The universal acceptance of this gold
coin, which has widely replaced the drach-
ma, is one of the unique problems of
There has been a steady trickle of gold
sovereigns into Greece since they went out
of use in England in 1914; many more were
brought in by the 1.5 million Greek refugees
from Turkey in 1922; and the trickle turned
suddenly into a flood during the German
occupation, when the British imported large
quantities to arm resistance groups.
During the occupation, which the Ger-
mans financed by the printing press, the
gold sovereign became what the drachma
was not, a trustworthy and fairly stable
standard of value.
At present, gold is often bought rather as
a safeguard against an uncertain future
than as a convenient medium of exchange.
Because its value is recognized by everyone,
gold seems to be the safest form of ready
money with which to pay for an escape from
the country, which many Greeks are con-
vinced will inevitably be necessary.
But any important business deal, such as
the purchase of a house or a car, is invar-
iably arranged on the basis of a price in
gold sovereigns, which is then translated in-
to a drachma price at the existing rate.
In this situation, the government has
had only fair success in meeting the two-
fold problem: to adjust the drachma,
dollar and gold sovereign values to each
other so as to prevent a rush to one or the
other; and to ease the constant inflation-
ary pressure on the gold sovereign.
Almost impossible to control, and equally
indicative of the Greeks' outlook, is the prac-
tice of many shopkeepers, who buy luxury
items in large quantities and try to sell only
enough to meet their operating costs.
Like those who buy up gold sovereigns,
their distrust of the drachma leads them to
put their faith in sure and easily portable
Because of government controls, luxury.
imports are now limited to the black mar-
ket. But there are still plenty of limeras
and watches in Athens' stores, priced two
or three times as high as in the U.S.
Until conditions no longer lead the Greeks
to fear and distrust the future, the high
prices won't be cut, and this species of
hoarding will remain to hamstring econom-
And in general, the most important job
Americans have is to influence public opin-
ion. Unless the Greeks see some chance for
solution of the international conflict for
which their country is a battleground, re-
construction is doomed and with it any
hopes for lasting peace.
AN HE HIT A CURVE ?
GU'T'L ' -
Letters to the Edj4tor,.. il
To the Editor:
f 7 ¢wa ti
13 f S"
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Liberal Stand Explained
WHEN the hue and cry of the Callahan
Committee subsides there may be some
question raised as to why liberal and alleg-
edly non-comunist organizations have sup-
ported Zarichny by letter, telegram and
Some also may require a clarification of
why liberal groups, why liberals individually,
support even MYDA's reinstatement on
The basis for liberal action is tied up in
the individual's own basic, beliefs and not
those of the organizations and people he is
championing-it lies in a belief that a per-
son who whole-heartedly supports democ-
racy, cannot restrict anyone, no matter how
radically different his philosophy, unless an
act enters the area of criminal action.
This idea is not new. It is not fellow-
travelling nor is it the ideal of any left wing
dreamer. The Jefferson memorial in Wash-
ington bears an inscription something to
effect that if anyone seeks to overthrow this
government, let him stand unharmed as a
proof of the strong foundations upon which
it is* built.
It is not the liberal who is un-American,
but the doubters: those who scoff at the
concrete base which 160 years of building a
government has produced. The Communists
believe in the police state, the use of terror
ac a political weapon, that the ends justify
any means. The liberal does not.
But the Communists are not the first
group with these ideas which we have op-
posed. Their weapons mark totalitarianism
of either the right or the left. Is anyone so
naive as to believe that the German-Ameri-
can Bund did not take part in activities fully
as subversive as those of the Communists?
But in those days we were not hysterical;
we were not afraid, both physically and
mentally, from having fought a long war.
We must forget our red-baiting, our
haunting fear of the third and most terrible
war for a few years or even a few months,
and devote ourselves to solving the problems
on which Communism thrives: inflation,
the boom-bust cycle, the civil rights pro-
gram, correction of the Taft-Hartley Law.
Then we can come back to the question of
Communism or subversivism with clearer
minds, unhampered by election year ex-
Publication in The Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all
members of the University. Notices
for the Bulletin should be sent in
typewritten form to the office of the
Assistant to the President, Room
1021 Angell Hall, by 3:00 p.m. on
the day preceding publication (11:00
SATURDAY, MAY 1, 1948
VOL. LVIII, No. 147
Faculty Meeting,nCollege of Liter-
ature, Science, and the Arts : 4:10
p.m., Mon., May 3, Room 1025,
1. Consideration of the min-
utes of the meeting of April 1,
1948 (pp. 1421-1424).
2. Elections to Executive Com-
mittee Panel, Library Committee,
and Administrative Board. (Bal-
lots enclosed.) Nominating Com-
mittee: Prof. H. R. Crane, Asst.
Prof. O. G. Graf, Asso. Prof. A. H.
Hawley, Asso. Prof. N. E. Nelson,
and Prof. F. E. Bartell, Chairman.
3. Consideration of reports sub-
mitted with the call to this meet-
a. Executive Committee-Prof.
A. W. Bromage.
b. University Council-Prof. N.
R. F. Maier. No report.
c. Executive Board of the Grad-
uate School-Prof. K. K. Landes.
d. Senate Advisory Committee
on University Affairs-Prof. J. M.
Cork. No report.
e. Deans' Conference - Dean
Hayward Keniston. No report.
4. Special Order. Proposed re-
vision of bylaw regarding Admin-
5. New business.
Women members of the Student
Legislature have 11 p.m. permis-
sion on May 5 for the meeting at
the Fresh Air Camp.
Bureau of Appointments and Oc-
cupational Information, 201 Ma-
The Warner & Swasey Company
will have a representative here on
Tuesday, May 4, to interview me-
chanical and industrial engineers;
also men with Business Adminis-
tration and engineering who are
interested in management.
For complete information and
appointments with these compan-
ies, call at the Bureau of Appoint-
Job Opportuniths Conference,
sponsored by the Bureau of Ap-
pointments, 4 p.m., Wed., May 5,
Natural Science Auditorium. Rep-
resentatives of the Curtiss-Wright
Corporation, the Michigan State
Civil Service Commission, and the
American Association of Social
Work will discuss job opportuni-
ties in their fields. Questions will
be invited. All students interested
are urged to attend.
Doctoral Examination for Irv-
ing I. Paster, Economics; thesis:
"National Minimum Wage Regu-
lation in the United States," 9
a.m., Sat., May 1, Room 105, Eco-
nomics Bldg. Chairman, Z. C.
The fifty-fifth Annual May Fes-
tival: Saturday and Sunday, May
1, 2. The Philadelphia Orchestra
will participate in all perform-
ances. W AA
Third Concert-Saturday, 2:30
p.m. Alexander Hilsberg and Mar-
guerite Hood, conductors; Festival
Youth Chorus and Mischa Elman, 1
Fourth Concert-Saturday, 8:30
p.m. Eugene Ormandy, conductor;
Leonard Warren, baritone.
Fifth Concert - Sunday, 2:301
p.m. All-Rachmaninoff program.
Thor Johnson, Conductor; Uni-
versity Choral Union; Anne Bol-
linger, soprano; David Lloyd,
Tenor; James Pease, Baritone;
and Leon Fleisher, Pianist.
Sixth Concert - Sunday, 8:30
p.m. Eugene Ormandy, Conductor;
Cloe Elmo, Contralto.
For detailed programs inquire
at University Musical Society,
Burton Tower, Ann Arbor. Tick-
ets, if available, will be on sale
through Sunday at the box office
in Hill Auditorium.
Official program books with
analyses, text of numbers, etc.,
will be on sale in the lobby of Hill
Auditorium preceding each per-
Programs will begin on time,
and doors will be closed during the
performance of numbers.
Carillon Recital: Percival Price,
University Carillonneur, will be
heard at 2:15 Sunday afternoon,
May 2, in another program in the
current series. It will include Ger-
man and Danish carillon music,
by P. S. Rung-Keller, Paul Kick-
stadt, Wilhelm Bender, and Wil-
helm Heinrich Simmermacher.
9 p.m. (EST), WHRV-Michi-
Michigan Sailing Club: Meet
Saturday and Sunday, 8 a.m.,
Michigan Union for the regatta
at Whitmore Lake.
Reporting time, 9 a.m., Satur-
day. Warm up period, 9:30-10:15
a.m.dStart of race 10:30 a.m.,
Sunday, 9 a.m.
Roger Williams Guild: Baseball
game with the Presbyterians, 1:15
p.m., South Ferry Field.
Alpha Lambda Delta: Initiation,
9 a.m., Sun., May 2, League
Chapel; breakfast 8:30 for those
who have reservations, Russian
Music Forum, sponsored by Phi
Mu Alpha Sinfonia, honorary
music fraternity, 8 p.m., Mon.,
May 3, Rackham Assembly Hall.
The panel will consist of the fol-
lowing School of Music faculty
members: Philip A. Duey, Wayne
Dunlap, Oliver Edel, Mischa Mel-
ler, and Andrew White, who will
continue the discussion of their
previous topic, "Planning Concert
Careers." Chairman, Dr. Ray-
Another forum is scheduled for
8 p.m. Wed., May 5, Rackham As-
sembly Hall. Both are open to the
Graduate Outing Club: Meet for
canoeing, 2:30 p.m., Sun., May 2,
northwest entrance, Rackham
Bldg. Sign up before noon Satur-
day at Rackham check desk. All
graduate students welcome.
U. of M. Hot Record Society:
Meeting, 8 p.m., Sun., May 2,
Grand Rapids Room, Michigan
League. Everyone invited.
Sociedad Hispanica: Conversa-
tional group meeting, 3 p.m., Mon.,
May 2, International Center.
B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation:
The success of Michigras can be
shown in part by the combined
attendance of approximately 15,-
000. We wish to thank the thou-
sands of students that cooperated
and participated in Michigras
with such enthusiasm and inter-
est. A plan for remuneration of
booth expenses will be worked outJ
as soon as all of the bills and re-
ceipts are in, and at that time a1
complete financial statemenm will
be published in The Daily.
To the Editor:
PERHAPS Mr. Harold Jackson
should join "The Society for
Prevention of Discontent Among
the Upper Classes." At least such
an organization wouldebe in sym-
pathy with his naive views on
American labor and John L.
The most naive statement made
by Mr. Jackson is his contention
of Mr. Lewis's "one man defiance
of the people." It should be no
strain on the mental ability of
any student to realize that Lewis
holds only the power that the
UMW grants him as its chief rep-
resentative. It is more than ob-
vious to but the simplest minds
that if this support were with-
drawn, Lewis would also with-
draw. Furthermore, his policy
(vhich is the interests of the
miners) is also obviously the pol-
icy of the UMW and would scarce-
ly be changed no matter who
headed the union.
I am not sure where Mr. Jack-
son was "less than two years ago"
when THE UNION CALLED A
STRIKE (probably contemplating
the beauty of that cherished myth
"free private enterprise"), but he
certainly was oblivious to its ef-
fect. This is evident from his
statement that "the integrity and
reputation for honest justice of
the legal system of this country
is more important than keeping
the coal miners in the pits . .
. It is clear =that Mr. Jackson
has no conception of the economic
foundation of this or any other
modern nation-coal and steel.
He would, it seems, allow the na-
tion to be paralyzed for a code
that is essentially only the re-
flection of that foundation. For-
tunately, the government isn't
When Mr. Jackson speaks of a
more evenly balanced industrial
economy he evidently means to
ignore union demands and give
the policy of Ezra Van Horn the
green light. Allowing management
a dictatorship over several thou-
sand men seems to be acceptable
-N. Ray Gilmore.
To the Editor:
CLAYTON DICKEY, '47, makes
the serious error of confusing
Marshall Plan slogans with the
reality worked out by our experts.
He writes: "It (ERP) doesn't aim
to pour in dollars just so Euro-
peans can buy American products.
It aims to attack economic misery
at the source-to rebuild factories
and farms and to stabilize cur-
rencies so that European nations
can help themselves."
ERP offers the Marshall Plan
nationsmuch less than they asked
for: bread grains were cut from
40 million metric tons for four
years to 23 million, fats from 12
million to 2 million. The $1,200,-
000,000 request for farm machin-
ery was halved, and $400 million
asked for steel expansion was cut
to $192 million. They will get no
steel scrap at all.
On the other hand, they will
get more than twice the amount
of finished steel products request-
ed, but only 40 per cent of the
crude and semi-finished steel
products they wanted to fabricate
in their own factories. I. F. Stone
(who supports ERP) wrote in
th Nation on Dec. 27, 1947: "In
steel, shipbuilding, factory con-
struction, housing, and power, the
United States has lowered Eu-
rope's sights in deference to its
P. M. Mixer Dance, 3-5 p.m., Tues.,
May 4. Women of 820 Hill and
909 E. University will be hostesses.
All students are invited to attend.
Russian Circle Meeting: 8 p.m.,
Mon., May 3, International Cen-
ter. Prof. Lobanov-Rostovsky will
speak on "Towards an Under-
standing of the Russian Charac-
ter." All students welcome.
own basic industries, which fear
For oil refining equipment, the
President proposes a billion and a
half, three times the amount re-
quested, taking into account "al-
lowances needed by United States
companies within the participat-
ing countries." Isn't that making
markets for American investment?
Dickey comments: "If Mr. Car-
ter were to visit Europe, as I did
last fall, and see the conditions
of inflation and dire want there,
he would be less apt to attribute
sinister motives to our charity."
I've visited Europe as recently as
the summer of 1947 as a merchant
seaman. I've seen the conditions
and talked to the people. ERP
won't be tile answer.
Ralph Neafus Club. CP.
To the Editor:
WANT to express the apprecia-
tion of the Cabinet and mem-
bers of the Student Legislature
for the excellent cooperation we
have received from The Daily.
Your election publicity and infor-
mation was a service to the Legis-
lature and the student body.
We extend our special thanks
to Naomi Stern for her work v
throughout the year and particu-
larly during the election cam-
Public Relations Chairman
To the Editor:
r GROUP as ben cosien
the problem raised by the recent
statements of Grant Riynold,
and Phillip Randolph who have
indicated that they will ask
other Negroes to resist a UMT
or a draft which embodies segre-
gation and discrimination in the
armed forces. Among the pos-
sible effective methods we, as a
religious group, have considered
adopting is a personal commit-
ment to oppose by passive resist-
ance UMT or the draft unless
segregation and discrimination
are eliminated. This is a broad
problem of national scope and
affects everyone. We ask all in-
dividuals and campus organiza-
tions to consider possible con-
crete methods of action in com-
batting this situation and to in-
form us of their findings by May
14. We will afterwards hold 'a
campus-wide meeting for the
joint discussion of affirmative ac-
tion which we as students might
-The Unitarian Student Group
Wholehearted A men
AN EDITORIAL WRITER for the Oregon
State College's Daily Barometer put
down the following thoughts, which have
been'met with a sympathetic response from
most of our staff members:
"ON A big city daily, the editorial board
usually consists of old-time newspaper-
men who grew up with the wire service and
the telegraphic photo and who have felt
printer's ink surging through their veins for
at least the last two decades. Their only duty
is to write editorials, and they have a library
of files and reference material at their fin-
gertips. Their written word is read across
breakfast tables covered with fine linen and
scrutinized by the strap-hanging commuter
heavy with insomnia and regarded as the
essence of wisdom.
associates and without a lifetime of report-
ing and editing behind him, he has spent
a year or possibly two on the Barometer,
and yet the editor expects him to interpret
current campus happenings with a Men-
cken-eye and by a few whisks of the type-
writer keys solve the problems of the hour
in a few minutes.
"Such is hardly the case, though, for edi-
torial writer Joes is usually burdened down
with about seventeen hours of home-ec or
education and a weekly slate of noon meet-
ings, board meetings, club meetings, nights
at the printers, and, on rare occasions, an
hour or two with his baby.
"Who his reading public is he never knows
-until he slips up!! Then the devil breaks
loose and he is taken aside by the editor
stormed in in protest of so-and-so being
and shown a little pile of letters which
allowed to write such stuff as this for a
"Now consider the plight of the
rometer board member. Instead
housed in an office surrounded by
r+ ART +J
THE ALL-MOZART PROGRAM, second in
the May Festival series provided last
night a truly wonderful spectacle. The Great
Mass in C minor, which comprised the sec-
ond half of the concert was so impressive
that it seemed to draft the two preceding
numbers in comparison. The University
Choral Union has power, versatility, and dy-
namic range, and is a credit to the Univer-
sity. The Mozart Mass, moreover, is prob-
ably the most magnificent composition that
the eighteenth-century master has left us.
The program presented three of the five
principal facets of Mozart's musical person-
ality. The overture to Don Giovanni, which
opened the concert, presented the sym-
phonic Mozart, although it actually prefaces
an opera. The flute concerto No. 1 in G,
which followed, showed us an example of
Mozart's love for the concerto, which has
so many expressions in the piano concertos
that Mozart used to enjoy performing him-
Leaving unrepresented the operatic and
chamber music literature of Mozart, the
concert then turned to the Great Mass,
which is more or less singular among Mo-
Among the four soloists in the Mozart
Mass, only one seemed to fulfill the task
adequately, and that person we refer to is
Virginia MacWatters, the soprano. Nell
Tangeman, who sang the Mezzo-soprano
solos, showed poor enunciation of conso-
nants, and to David Lloyd, the tenor, a more
powerful voice would have been an asset.
James Pease exhibited the failing of many
baritones, and of many basses as well, of
having +n g ruf v i rpn- in. n wri +n
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
John Campbell .......Managing Editor
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Harriett Friedman .. Editorial Director
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Joan Katz........... Associate Editor
Fred Schott......... Associate Editor
Dick Kraus ..............Sports Editor
Bob Lent. Associate Sports Editor
Joyce Johnson.......Women's Editor
Jean Whitney Associate Women's Editor
Bess Hayes ................. Librarian
Nancy Helmick .......General Manages
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Edwin Schneider .. Flaance Manager
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The Associated Press is excluively
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Associated Collegiate Press
4S AN excellent adjunct to Spring, the
Museum of Art has brought a showing
here of original water colors by John Marin.
On exhibit in the North Gallery of Alumni
MemorialJIall, the paintings show the early
development of the artist, who, at 70, re-
mains one of the nation's best water-
Marin's earliest work in the exhibit, dat-
ing from 1910, is Impressionistic in hand-
ling, but lacks the realistic intent of that
school. He has already begun to abstract
from a scene, obtaining his effects by flat-
tening objects and slanting the picture plane
back and up.
Changing brush strokes creates a nice
rhythmic movement in "Summer Foliage,"
painted in light oreens and blue with n. dah
applied over the water color, help to bring
out the pattern in most of the later works,
which date up to 1923. A few massed objects
in the foreground, a favorite Marin tech-
nique for making the eye go back into the
picture, are used in "Off Stonington," done
in 1921. The colors have become stronger,
with deep blues and reddish browns pre-
An abstract composition of irregular
shapes and lines is somehow resolved into
a scene in the very fine "Palisades No. 1,"
painted in 1922. "Study on Sand Island,"
done in the same year, emphasizes formal
qualities within a charcoal outline.
In "Impression," the latest picture in
the exhibit, Marin has again outlined his
cpn ru th irrpi lAV 1 hrninriairi hrh nrn -
I tried to tell Uncle Ralph
you chanaed the records-
lt's exactly the right program
for your product. Mr. Blatus-
Mr. Blatus, there's a mistake-
But this isn't the show