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December 14, 1945 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1945-12-14

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THIE MICHIGAN DAILY

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 14, 1945

WASHINGTON MERRY-GO-ROUND:
Douglas Supplied Japs with DC-4

EDUCATION IN A FREE SOCIETY:
Harvard Curriculum Study Explained

Business Staff
Dorothy Flint .. . . . . . Business Manager
,oy Altman . . . . . . . Associate Business Mgr.
Telephone 23-24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for re-publication of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited in this newspaper. All rights of re-
publication of all other matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second-class mail matter.
subscriptiois during the regular school year by car-
rier, $4.50, by mail, $5.25.
REPRESENTED FOR NATIONAL AVERTIING BY
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publsers Representative
420 MADISON AVE. NEW YQRK. N.Y.
CHICAGO . BOSTON . Los ANGELES . SAN FRANCISCO
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1945-46
NIGHT EDITOR: ANNETTE SHENKER
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
'Go-Getters'
'pIE VETERANS housing proposals will be an-
swered by the University officials this week,
but regardless of the action taken by them, the
veterans have established themselves on campus
as "go-getters".
The veterans, represented by AVC and VO,
have seen need for improvement and they have
proved that they know how to get it. The
University has recognized their demands and
proposals on equal footing, not just mere tol-
erance.
A housing investigation was conducted by the
VO based on complaints from veterans. The
findings of this investigation were taken to Lan-
sing with a definite housing proposal for auth-
oritative help and legislation. This joint hoiis-
ing committee of both veteran organizations
want the Willow Run units moved to Ann Arbor
sites rather than kept in Ypsilanti for reasons
established in the proposals they presented to
Gov. Kelly and other state officials.
The University and city officials are now
contemplating the proposals from their point
of view. The results, while important in
themselves, are of equal importance inasmuch
as they have shown tht campus, incoming
veterans, and the University that the vets here
are active and alert citizens who know what
they want and how to get it.
Lois Iverson
Jim Crow Support
GEN. OMAR N. BRADLEY, Veteran Adminis-
trator, is bolstering the Jim Crow laws of the
South by falling in line with Acting Surgeon
General Paul R. Hawley's claim that the Veteran
Administration shou d not be made an agency for
the changing of social customs.
The debate was brought to the public's atten-
tion when it was discovered that Negro leaders
in the South demanded of the general that he
end segregation in Southern veterans' h spi-
tals.
Even though 25 Negro organizations, nsti-
tuting one of the major social groups of the
South, sought an appointment with the Veteran
Administrator to discuss the issue, no meeting
has been arranged. Further antagonism was
raised when a charge was brought by the Na-
tional Non-Partisan Council, an organization of
Negro women, that Bradley for six weeks has
given a run-around in scheduling the confer-
ence.
Here is an issue which is attracting the
major attention of Negro leaders, and which,
if given the proper amount of time and con-
sideration would alleviate a problem which is
destined to attract even more attention-in time
to come. Yet all Gen. Bradley can say he can
do is, "follow the customs" of local regions.
-Liz Knapp
Secret Weapon

THE University has a secret weapon to reduce
the size of classes. Only,'it isn't so secret be-
cause everyone suffers from it. It is merely a

By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON.-OnJuly 10, 1938, this column
sent out to its subscribing newspapers a sen-
sational disclosure that "the Douglas Aircraft
Company has recently sold its latest flying fort-
ress, the DC-4, to Japan, together with certain
blueprints whereby Japan can duplicate the
plane. Carrying four motors, this is one of the
finest bombers ever constructed."
The column also pointed out that this sale
was being made despite Secretary of State
Hull's "appeal to American airplane manufac-
turers to cease selling planes to Japan."
But during the time which elapsed between
the date the column was distributed to news-
papers and the date of publication, Donald Doug-
las, head of Douglas Aircraft, made an emphatic
denial, and, on advice of attorneys, the story was
killed.
Since then, like so many other denials, it has
become a matter of official record that Douglas
did sell the DC-4, plus blueprints, to Japan.
Since then, also, a war has been fought with
Japan, during which thousands of American lives
were lost and during which the DC-4 built by
the Japs on the basis of blueprints sold them by
Douglas, played a part in the loss of those lives.
Since then, finally, Jap files in the USA have
been seized and it is now possible to give more
details of the cooperation between Douglas air-
craft and Japan during the years before Pearl
Harbor.
Ultra Secrecy
THISWRITER now has before him the original
bill of sale, the cablegrams between Tokyo,
New York and Los Angeles, and other correspon-
dence regarding the shipment of the DC-4 by
Douglas to Japan - despite Donald Douglas's
earlier emphatic denial.
The deal was handled largely by V. E. Ber-
trandias, then vice-president of Douglas, later
made a rajor general in the U.S. Army. It was
obvious, not only from Donald Douglas's denial,
but from other precautions that neither the Japs
nor Douglas wanted this sale to be publicized
in the American press.
In the first place, the sale was camouflaged as
one made to "Japan Airways, Ltd." This gave
it the outward appearance of a commercial trans-
action, though, of course, Japan Airways, Ltd.,
was controlled by the Japanese government and
commercial planes later can be adapted for mili-
tary purposes.
Doubtless also, Douglas didn't want to be in
the public position of selling an important
brand new bomber to a potential enemy of the
USA, especially at a time when the Japs had
been unmercifully bombing innocent civilians
in China, and when Cordell Hull had appealed
to American plane manufacturers not to sell to
Japan.
Most tell-tale evidence of how anxious the Japs
and Douglas were to camouflage the sale is illus-
trated by a letter addressed to Douglas vice-presi-
dent Bertrandias from S. Akabane, New York
representative of Nakajima aircraft, which, with
Mitsui, were interested in the deal. The letter
was dated Aug. 14, 1939, just after the Douglas
people, following one year of absolute secrecy,
finally decided that with the obtaining of an ex-
port license the news had to leak out. Here is
the letter showing how pleased the Japs were at
the skillful way Douglas handled the news leak:
"Major V. E. Bertrandias,
Douglas Aircraft Co.,
Santa Monica, Cal.
"Dear Mr. Bertrandias:
"Looking over the Saturday edition of the
New York Times, I could not help but write
this letter to compliment you for the most ex-
cellent way of disclosing the sale. Those 'in
the know' will not object to the transaction as
they are limited to those in our trade, while
laymen probably don't know what the ship is
anyway when mentioned singly by your desig-
nation as in the paper. Since the State De-
partment's announcement is so casual and in-
cidental, I doubt that anybody would take suf-
ficient notice and single out your company.
"I have purposely waited until today to scruti-
nize the papers for any possible reaction, but so
far nothing has been mentioned of the sale.
"It was an excellent way of handling the diffi-
cult matter in a delicate situation and I wish to
share the feeling of relief if you ever felt one,
Hope you had similar luck. with your local papers!

"Sincerely yours,
"Nakajima Aircraft Company."
Army Cooperation
DOUGLAS could not, of course, have sold the
DC-4 without permission from the U.S. Army
and Navy. Not only was this permission given,
but relations between Douglas and the air forces
were such that Donald Douglas's daughter later
married the son of Gen. "Hap" Arnold, chief of
the air forces, while the air forces promoted V. E.
Bertrandias to be a major general.
When Bertrandias' name came before the Sen-
ate Military Affairs Committee for promotion,
the Justice Department showed senators part of
the secret file on his pre-Pearl Harbor activities
in an effort to block his nomination. But Army
pressure was too strong. He was made a Major
General anyway.
This columnist's disclosure of July 10, 1938,
made one error. The price which the Japs were
supposed to have paid for the DC-4 was given
as $1,000,000. This was a mistake. Douglas
gave them a much better bargain, namely
$706,720, F.A.S. San Pedro. (This later was in-
creased by the addition of spare parts.)

Japs Exult
THE JAPS boasted gleefully about this bargain
price. A Jap paper of Nov. 14, 1939, carries
a picture of the DC-4 under the caption, "For-
merly America's biggest, now Japan's."
"Built more than a year ago at a cost of
$40,000,000," the paper continued, "the giant
plane was sold to Japan Airways for $750,000,
complete with plans for its assembly."
Another Japanese newspaper account sig-
nificantly stated: "Japan Airways has not yet
decided what to do with its flying bargain."
However, it didn't take them long to decide.
It was converted to one of the most useful
planes the Japs had in the entire war.
The newspaper also stated: "The transactions
for purchase of the plane were completed last
summer before the 'moral embargo' on aircraft
shipments to Japan was announced by Secretary
of State Hull."
"Last summer" meant the summer of 1938. It
was in that same summer, July 10, 1938, that this
columnist attempted to reveal the sale of the
DC-4, but was lied to by Donald Douglas. It was
on June 11, 1938, that Cordell Hull asked U.S.
aircraft manufacturers to stop shipments to
Japan - a plea, that he repeated on July 1. In
the year that passed before the DC-4 actually
was shipped, any airplane manufacturer who
really wanted to could have called off the deal.
NOTE - The State Department had no legal
power to prevent the sale of airplanes, only
moral suasion. Therefore, when Douglas ap-
plied for an export license for the DC-4, it was
granted.
(Copyright, 1945, by the Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
International Control
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
AN ATOMIC BOMB RAID against the United
States would be a catastrophe, but a point to
keep in mind is that any conceivable defense
system will also be a catastrophe for American
life. Most of the defenses wound nearly as bad
as the danger. Dr. Leo Szilard, of the University
of Chicago, testifies that it would take ten years,
at a cost of $20,000,000,000 a year, to relocate and
decentralize our industries and population, so
that no overnight raid could destroy us. While
we would save some of our lives thereby, we would
lose our cities just as surely as if they had been
bombed. The difference is that we would atom-
ize our cities ourselves, and the culture that goes
with them, before the enemy could do it; but in
either case they would be gone.
The trouble with the reasoning of those who
tell us to "keep the bomb secret" and to defend
ourselves, is that we seem obliged to lose the
American scheme of life, or to alter it pro-
foundly, under every conceivable plan for de-
fending it. By the time the defenses are com-
plete, the thing which is being defended no
longer exists in recognizable form.
Even a more or less primitive defense scheme,
without relocating cities, would probably involve
halting every incoming ship several hundred
miles out, and giving it an atomic go-over; but
then every incoming airplane, according to cur-
rent speculations, would have to ba halted, too,
maybe on floating artificial islands, while gov-
ernment inspectors (none of whom I see as being
very quick about it) looked around. In addition,
we would need fleets of things carrying radar
and stuff, and perhaps cruising space-ships,
loaded down with wonderful scientific equipment,
none of which you can buy for a nickel.
In the end, far from doing our work peace-
fully, behind our defensive screen, we would
find ourselves working to maintain and sup-
port and develop that screen, as all of America
became one gigantic atom-bomb repelling ap-
paratus.
THE COSTS of atomic defense cannot even be
calculated in the same terms as those used
for normal military outlays. For example, the
possibility has been publicly raised of detonating
approaching atomic rockets by concentrating
electrical beams upon them. The Association of
Los Alamos Scientists says maybe it could be
done, but that mental arithmetic is almost
enough to show it would take all the electrical
power now produced in the United States, and
maybe even more, to work the necessary gadgets
and utensils.
The trouble with most of the "defense" plans
is that they leave mighty slim pickings behind;

and, in philosophical and economic terms, the
difference between losing all our electrical
power resources to enemy action, and tying
them all up through fear of enemy action, is
slight.
It is hard to vizualize a defense scheme against
the atomic bomb that will not, in itself, be a
dreadful blow at America; an economic and so-
cial calamity, even if successful. The issue is
not whether we shall go forward to peacetime
uses of atomic energy, or reserve the ugly thing
for war; the issue is far sharper, and it is wheth-
er we are going to be able to keep our present
level of civilization, or be forced backward into
a de-centralized, de-culturalized and de-pocket-
bookized existence.
And suddenly it is quite clear, and not at all'
paradoxical, that international control of
atomic energy alone can save the American
way of life. For this is one field in which we
cannot win; or, if we do, it will be at such cost
that a battalion of accountants will not be able
to tell the victory from a defeat.
(Copyright, 1945, N. Y. Post Syndicate)

PROCLAIMED as a document of
national importance by some crit-
ics and declaimed as an overly-lim-
ited report by others, the Harvard
Committee's "Higher Education in a
Free Society" has been frequently
mentioned on campus, in classes andt
in newspapers. Yet many members
of the student body have only ar
vague idea of its contents.r
This is understandable. because
only a few copies are available onr
campus and because the book is a
difficult one to read. Dr. Frank E.-
Robbins, Assistant to President A. G.
Ruthven, recognized the difficulty
and agreed to summarize the report
of the Harvard committee on curric-,K
ulum change.
The book treats of general educa-
tion in two areas-secondary schools
and colleges, Dr. Robbins said. The
first part is devoted to a discussion of
the theory and characteristics of
both general and specialized educa-
tion and to a very detailed and care-
ful study of conditions which make
it advisable to consider the subject of
general education.
"Some of these preliminary condi-
tions," as Dr. Robbins terms them,
are the great increase in the popula-
tion of the country and the even
greater increase proportionately in
the population of high schools, col-
leges, and universities; and the great
diversity of opportunities for study
and of traits of character and ability
which is found in students. Another
factor is the tendency toward spe-
cialization, most marked in higher
education.
"The general result of these pre-
liminary conditions is that it is no
longer possible to say that Tom,
Dick and Harry have the same
core of education, although 150
years ago this would have been
true. At that time everyone every-
where studied practically the same
thing," Dr. Robbins commented.
BEFORE preseniting a plan for
making use of these preliminary
factors, the Harvard committee de-
fine their use of terms. General edu-
cation has as its aim "education for
an informed responsible life in our
society."
Supplementing this explanation,
Jacques Barzun writes in the Octo-
ber "Atlantic Monthly," "A man
may also be master of a trade, an
art, a business or a science but he
is first of all and inescapably a citi-
zen. As such, he is called upon to
form judgments and take action
about things other than those in
his own 'line' than which-by defi-
nition-nothing is narrower."
The aim of specialized education is
that of helping "young people to ful-
fill the unique functions in life for
which they are suited."
The latter part of the book is de-
voted to a description of the means
by which the committee intends to
maintain a balance between the two
fields of study.
As it is now, Harvard has group re-
quirements for graduation similar to
those that the University of Michi-
gan has, with the exception of a gen-
eral - examination which must be
passed for a degree from Harvard,
Dr. Robbins said.
In planning the new curriculum,
the committee suggests that, of 16
courses required for graduation, six
should be taken in general educa-
tion. The equivalent of Harvard's
six courses would be approximately
45 hours in general education here.
Of the six required courses at
least one should be in the humani-
ties, one in the social sciences and
one in general science. The two
fermer courses would be required,
Turn About
WASHINGTON, Dec. 6-(/P)--When
Mary Masuda, a Japanese-American
girl, returned to her California home
last May five self-appointed "vigil-

antes" ran her out of -town.
This Saturday she will have a
different kind of visitor, General
Joseph Stilwell, who will present
to her the Distinguished Service
Cross the Army has awarded to her
brother who was killed at Cassino,
Staff Sgt. Kazui Masuda. Three
other brothersalso served in the
Army, one being wounded in Bel-
gium.
After the presentation, at'the Ma-
suda family home at Santa Ana, Cal.,
the city's civic unity committee will
hold a rally honoring veterans of all
races. There will be speakers repre-
senting the Japanese, Chinese, Fili.
pino, Negro, Mexican and other min-
ority groups of American citizens ir
that area whose young men wore the
country's uniform.
It was General Stilwell who said
recently that veterans of this war
should "use ax handles if neces-
sary" to see that their colored com-
rades are treated justly when they
return home.
-Scripps-Howard Newspaper

Otherwise, general education
and should be taken in the stu-
dent's first two years a; college.
courses are to be spread out over
four years.
English composition would be
taught as a part of these courses,
and no survey courses or large ele-
mentary classes would be offered.
THIS curriculum change would
mean the establishment of several
new courses. These would include
courses entitled "Great Texts of Lit-
erature" and "Western Thought and
Institution," both required. Courses
in science would include "Principles
of Physical Science" and "Principles
of Biological Science."
The result at Harvard according
to Barzun, will be "thorough
grounding in at least three great
divisions of learning-science, so-
cial science, and the humanities.
In these last--letters philosophy

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

and the arts-the education is of
the feelings as much as of the
mind, and as the committee are
aware, we need feelings thus hu-
manized in order to keep the bare
knowledge supplied by the other
two groups of studies from turning
against civilization itself."
Writing earlier in the year, the
"New Republic's" F. 0. Matthiesen
questioned the soundness of the plan
and doubted the success of its aims,
which he says are too limited.
He also claimed that the method it
intends to use "to join the American
scene" is impractical, whereas Bar-
zun praises it and its aim.
"What Harvard 'proposes' is a
truly American undergraduate cur-
iculum, equidistant from Oxford
and Heidelberg and maintaining
the perpendicular between them,"
Barzun writes.
-Patricia Cameron

Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Noticps for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
1021 Angell Hall, by 3:30 p. m. of the day
preceding publication (11:00 a. m. Sat-
urdays).
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 14, 1945
VOL. LVI, No. 35
Notices
To the Members of the Faculty,
College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts: There will be a special
meeting of the Faculty of the College
of Literature, Science, and the Arts
on Dec. 17 at 4:10 p.m., to discuss
proposed changes in the curriculum.
(See Faculty Minutes, pp. 1186-1193.)
Faculty College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts: Midsemester re-
ports are due not later than Friday,
Dec. 21.
Report cards are being distributed
to all departmental offices. Green
cards are being provided for freshmen
and sophomores and white cards for
reporting juniors and seniors. Re-
ports of freshmen and sophomores
should be sent to 108 Mason Hall;
those of juniors and seniors to 1220
Angell Hall.
Midsemester reports should name
those students, freshmen and upper-
classmen, whose standing at midsem-
ester is "D" or "E", not merely those
who receive "D" or "E" in so-called
midsemester examinations.
Students electing our courses, but
registered in other schools or colleges
of the University should be reported
to the school or college in which they
are registered.
Additional cards may be had at 108
Mason Hall or at 1220 Angell Hall,
The Medical Aptitude Test will be
given today in the Rackham Amphi-
theater at 3 o'clock. Present your
cashier's receipt at the door.
12:30 a.m. permission will be given
to women students for the dance giv-
en by Company A on Dec. 19, if these
students present their invitation
cards at the Office of the Dean of
Women in advance of the party.
Washington State Civil Service. We
have several announcements in our
office in the fields of Medicine, Social
Work, Claims Examiner, Public
Health, and various office jobs. For
further information, call at the
Bureau of Appointments, 201 Mson
Hall.
Detroit Civil Service Announce-
ments for Student Social Worker,
$1734 to $1920, and Social Case Work-
er, $2100 to $2460, have been received
in our office. For further informa-
tion, call at the Bureau of Appoint-
ments, 201 Mason Hall.
Academic Notices
Biological Chemistry Seminar will
meet today at 4 p.m., in 319 West
Medical Building. "Vitamin A -
Carotones, Chemical Relationships,"
will be discussed. All interested are
invited.
Seminar in physical chemistry will
meet on Saturday, Dec. 15 in Room
410 Chemistry Building at 10:15 a.m
Mr. Lawrence G. Edwards will spea
on "Electronic Structure of Some
Compounds between Nitrogen, Phos-
phorus and Chlorine." All interested
are invited.
Economics 131. This course wil
not meet today, Dec. 14.
Historyll, Lecture Section 2-Mid
semester, Monday, Dec. 17, 2:00 t
; 3:00 p.m. Discussion sections 7, 8
and 9 meet in 1025 Angell Hall; al
others in Natural Science Auditor
ium. Bring blue-books.

the singing of the "Hellelujah" Chor-
us.
The concert will begin on time, and
the public is respectfully requested
to come sufficiently early in order to
be seated, as the doors will be closed
during the performance.
Exhibitions
Exhibit of Paintings and Sketches
by Various Japanese-American Ar-
tists, On Relocation Centers. Through
December 16. Sponsored by Student
Council of Student Religious As-
sociation, Inter-Guild, Inter-Racial
Association, All Nations Club. Office
of Counselor in Religious Education,
Michigan Office of War Relocation
Authority, U. S. Department of In-
terior.
Events Today
The Geological Journal Club will
meet today at 12:15 p.m. in Room
4065, Nat. Sci. Bldg.
Program: Professor Emeritus W.
H. Hobbs will speak on "The Scab-
land and Okanogan Lobes of the
Cordilleran Continental Glacier and
their Lake Histories."
All interested are cordially invited
to attend.
Colloquium on Religion in Higher
Education will be held today at 4:15
in Lane Hall. There will be a panel
discussion by the Campus Religious
Council which includes Rabbi Cohen,
Rev. Yoder, and Father McPhillips.
Graduate Students in Speech: The
Graduate Study Club of the Depart-
ment of Speech will meet today at
4:15 p.m. in the West Conference
Room of the Rackham Building. Pro-
fessor O. L. Backus will be in charge
of the program.
Coffee Hour: Bring a friend to
SRA's coffee hour at 4:30 in Lane
Hall this afternoon. There is -food
and fellowship for all.
Kappa Phi: Pledges meet tonight
at 5:00 in Youth Room; dinner at
5:30, in Social Hall at Methodist
Church.
The B'nai B'rith Hillei Foundation
will hold Sabbath Eve Services this
evening at 7:45 p.m. Following the
services Prof. Misha Titiev will lead
a fireside discussion on "The Role of
Minority Culture on the American
Scene."
Christmas Carol Sing and Party for
all Methodist Students and their
friends in the Guild lounge tonight,
from 8:30 to 12:00. Everyone bring
a present costing not more than a
quarter, and Santa will give you one
in return.
The Westminster Guild of the
First Presbyterian Church will have
a Christmas Party called "Candy
Cane Capers" tonight from 9 to 12.
There will be dancing, singing, games
and refreshments in the Social Hall.
The party is informal, and the Guild
would like everybody to come.
Inter-racial Association: Social
Friday night. Congregational Church
from 8:00 to 11:00. Music, refresh-
ments, and entertainment.
Coming Events
Le Cercle Francais will hold its
- Christmas meeting on Monday, Dec.
3 17, at 8:00 p.m. in the Assembly
Room of the Rackham Building. On
the program: a Christmas short story
1 by Daudet to be read 'by Professor
Charles Koella, group singing of
- Christmas Carols, one or two French
, songs sung by B. Elizabeth Moore, re-
, freshments and informal social danc-
L1 ing. Any student on the campus in-
- terested in speaking French may be-
come a member of the club regardless
of whether or not he is taking a

BARNABY
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By Crockett Johnson

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