Tl iCHIGCA N A IL-Y
Edited and managed by students of the University
of Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
Evelyn Phillips . . . Managing Editor
Stan Wallace . . . City Editor
Rlay Dixon . . . Associate Editor
Bank Mantho . . . Sports Editor
Dave Loewenberg . Associate Sports Editor
Mavis Kennedy . . Women's Editor
Lee Amer . usiness Manager
Barbara Chadwick . . Associate Business Mgr.
June Pomering . . . Associate Business Mgr.
Member of The Associated Press
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for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited in this newspaper. A rights of re-
publication of all other matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second-class mail matter.
Subscriptions during the regular school year by car-.
rier, $4.50, by mail, $5.25.
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1943-44
NIGHT EDITOR: LIZ KNAPP
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
CARTOON in Sunday's New York Times
demonstrates precisely the dilemma that
must be overcome if the United States and
Great Britain, key nations in any form of inter-
national cooperation, are to find a reasonable
working basis for post-war economic relations.
The setting in this tableau is a building with
doors labelled "Way Out of Post-War Chaos."
Lord Keynes, prime protagonist for U.S.-Brit-
ish economic cooperation, accompanied by a
gentleman carrying a brief case titled 'Wash-
ington,' tips his hat politely to three paunchy
scions of U.S. banking, finance and industry
(who are primly perusing a tome on"ABC of
Economics," published, we trust, in the late
nineteenth century) and says: "Pardon me-
you're sitting on the key."
These respected gentlemen, imbued with out-
worn notions of the 'favorable' balance of trade,
selling as much as possible and buying the mini-
mum from foreign nations, constitute the major
barrier to healthy international economic con-
Their narrow isolationist insistence on pro-
tection of their special privileges is incompatible
with the economic world of the twentieth cen-
Men like Henry Kaiser and Eric Johnston
reject such old-fashioned notions and argue
that in the post-war world, trade is essential to
prosperity. Trade, however, is composed of both
buyers and sellers. The word implies an ex-
change. Stated simply, £titain can buy our goods
only if her importers have funds with which to
pay for them. Her importers can acquire funds
only by selling their goods. The imlrorted goods
will be bought by producers of other goods.
These latter goods must also be sold and the
process cannot be limited to one side of the
ocean. Imports drain funds from the importing
nation. These funds must be replenished by
exporting if trade with the other nation is to
Uecognizing that vigorous trade is vital to
America's self-interest and vital to world peace
and security and that the economic security
of the world is essential to lasting peace, both
export and import markets must be main-
FROM the standpoint of the United States,
production and employment can best be
established at a high level if domestic consump-
tion is supplemented by generous exports. Large
export markets can exist only where they are
paralleled roughly by imports.
After the war America will be in a particu-
larly favorable position, her industry and credit
facilities least touched by the war, but unless
tariff provisions are liberalized, international
credits made more elastic and trade put on a
cooperative rather than competitive basis, the
British market and the higher production it in-
volves will be lost to the United States and the
industry and credit facilities that could be a
stimulant to our economy will remain idle.
Our course is clear, we prosper only inas-
much as all nations in this One World prosper.
We cannot do otherwise than utilize the op-
portunity to contribute to world security.
PRAISE has been given to the millions of men
and women who are engaged on the battle-
fronts, in defense plants and in other activities
which have been set up to fight this war and to
win it but too much can't be said about the other
millions of older men, boys and women who serve
equally well on the farm.
In a recent Census Bureau survey, it was dis-
covered that four of each five farm workers
fell into this war category. TPhe total number of
farm workers was 9,670,000, of whom 2,150,000
were women and girls.
It can be easily noted that farm production
has had to jump tremendously in its output but
. nzin fn urnr d he t heandiecn of losing
By DREW PEARSON
[ASHINGTON, Feb. 9.-Diplomats who stud-
ied the agenda of the Big Three Conference
in advance, say that Franklin Roosevelt faces
the most crucial conference of his career. Out
of it will come either world peace and an ordered
world for the next fifty years: or the early seeds
of another war.
Roosevelt's problem will be to persuade Stalin
and Churchill to go along on broad unselfish
peace plans, including Dumbarton Oaks, at a
time when most of the trump cards no longer
are in his hands.
Four years ago, just after France fell, Chur-
chill would have given anything, any kind of
broad peace machinery, any reasonable part of
the Empire to secure American support. Today
he will not even promise the return of Hong-
kong to China.
Three years ago when Russia was fighting
back to the wall at Stalingrad, Stalin would have
given far-reaching pledges for a broad peace
plan. Today he will not even accept Dumbarton
Oaks unless Russia has a veto of the Council of
the United Nations to block any disciplinary
action against an aggressor nation.
F.D.R. has to face the fact that both Stalin
and Churchill now have most of what they want,
and Roosevelt is left, with almost no trump
cards, except the humanitarian appeal that the
Allies must not abandon the goal of peace for
which mankind fought, plus the threat that the
American people, if disillusioned, will become
isolationist as never before.
TheBig Three Agenda.
PERHAPS the toughest nut Roosevelt has to
crack is to secure Stalin's acceptance of the
Dumbarton Oaks peace machinery without crip-
pling amendments. First, however, let's examine
the points on the agenda which should be easier.
There are six main items on the Big Three agen-
da, as follows:
1. War against Japan-This was promised
by Stalin at Teheran as soon as Germany was
defeated. It was promised in return for the
Allied second front in Germany and there is no
reason to believe Stalin will not keep this pledge.
He has been meticulous in keeping promises
once they have been given, and F.D.R. expects
no trouble about this.
2. Poland-Roosevelt is proposing a com-
promise whereby Premier Mikolaezyk, recent-
ly resigned from the London-Polish govern-
ment, will enter the Russian-inspired Lublin
government of Poland. The United States and
Britain would then recognize the Lublin gov-
ernment. The President is also proposing that
Russia withdraw some of its claims to old Po-
land as a conciliatory gesture to the Poles.
3. The Baltic provinces-The United States
will now recognize Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia
as part of Russia. Thus far the United States
has recognized them as separate countries, and
still have Baltic diplomats in Washington. But
as a gesture to Stalin we will now formally
recognize these states as Russian.
4. Punishment of war criminals-The Big
Three will have no trouble in agreeing on the
strongest joint measures to punish the war
guilty, including joint Allied courts.
5. Post-war trade with Russia--Roosevelt is
proposing a loan or credit of about six billions
for Russia to buy a tremendous amount of
American goods to restore her war-torn economy.
6. Dumbarton Oaks-Last summer there
was one crucial stumbling block in the path of
a new machinery for permanent peace-the
right of a big nation to sit on the Council
while the other nations debated as to whether
she was an aggressor. Russia insisted on this
right. This would give her the power to veto
any action to be taken against her as an
Conference on Rocks - ..
THE DUMBARTON OAKS conference nearly
split to pieces over this point. Finally when
pressure was put on the Russians, they threat-
ened to put sixteen members, including all the
Soviet's satellite states, in the United Nations.
This would give the Russians sixteen votes,
one for each Soviet Republic, just as the Brit-
ish Dominions were all represented in the
League of Nations.
This is the hardest problem faces. Today
Russia is in a position to dominate not only the
Balkans, Hungary, Austria, and Czechoslovakia,
but also Germany. Stalin was far-sighted en-
ough to organize a committee of 10,000 Germans
inside Russia, already trained to take over the
new German government. Politically-and also
militarily-most of Europe will be dependent
upon him. Naturally he doesn't want to be voted
an aggressor nation if, for instance, he wants
to subdue trouble in Bulgaria or Romania.
So the diplomats who have sat close-up to
the Dumbarton Oaks negotiations think that
Roosevelt may have to return from the Big
Three talks forc(d to accept Stalin's veto of
who shall be an aggressor.
If that is the case; the President's difficulties
in persuading the Senate to accept ratification
will be mild compared with the present current
fight over Henry Wallace. Also the return of the
American public toward imperialistic isolation
will be sorely tempting.
That is why the future peace of the world
g-hest Pro blent
hangs so precariously in the hands of the Big
Note-Many diplomats have wondered why
the President didn't drive a. tougher bargain
three and four years ago with Stalin and Chur-
chill when the trump cards were in his hand.
The answer, according to close friends, is that
(1) F.D.R. felt Russia and Britain were actually'
fighting our war, thus giving us more time to
prepare; (2) F.D.R. can be very stubborn when
riled, but day in and day out he likes to get
along with people, didn't like to be in drastic
opposition to Stalin and Churchill; (3) Harry
Hopkins, who sat constantly at his elbow, leaned
even further than F.D.R. toward all-out concili-
(Copyright, 1945, by the Bell Syndicate. nc.
I'D RATHER BE RICIT:
B i'etton Woods Pact
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
EW YORK, Feb. 9.-Several committees of
the American Bankers Association have made
a study of the Bretton Woods monetary agree-
ment. They want to kill half of it. They pro-
pose that Congress shall do this act of execution.
Remember that 44 countries, after long labor
at Bretton Woods last summer, signed this ac-
cord. It is not often that 44 countries agree on
anything. It is hard to attain such unanimity.
It is even harder to change such an agreement,
once it has been reached. The A.B.A. committees
take a great responsibility on themselves.
They propose that the legislative body of one
country, at the request of one section of bank-
ing opinion, shall wipe out an important half of
the most significant international accord this
disunited world has thus far reached.
They propose that this blow at world unity
shall be struck by America, the nation which
has done more fancy talking, per capita, than
any other, about the need for truly universal
and world-wide agreements. Remember that
Bretton Woods is not a mere 3-power com-
pact; it is a 44-nation accord, just what we
say we want, just what we say we dote on.
It has everything in it that conservative
opinion in America has cried for, big nations,
little nations, all kinds of nations, stated princi-
ples, open diplomacy, formal procedures, and
now that we have all this, some of us would
One can imagine what a toodle-co would be
raised here if either Britain or Russia, were to
strike down a 44-nation agreement, on their own
motion. Why, we might even b tempted to call
such action power politics. It will be no less
power politics if we do it.
rT'HE BANKERS' committees object most
strongly to the proposed International Mon-
etary Fund. The subject is largely a technical
one. It must be admitted at the outset that the
members of the A.B.A. committees probably un-
derstand the technical banking issues involved
better than does the present subscriber. But the
question is not entirely technical. It is partly a
political question. It is a question of whether we
are willing to risk a comparatively small sum on
world stabilization, in a world in which we are
perfectly willing to spend 300 billions to win a
And because this is a political question, as
well as a banking question, we of the public
must try to understand what the Monetry
Fund is all about. A brief description may help.
The Fund is a kind of kitty, or pool, of almost
9 billions of dollars. Each of the 44 countries
would put up a share, according to its size and
commerce. The amounts vary widely; three bil-
lions for us, about half a billion for France, and
half a million for little Liberia. Once the pool
is established, all member countries can make
use of it to stabilize their currencies. A nation
needing dollars, or pounds, or francs, to pay for
goods, is allowed to borrow from the pool. It
puts up its own currency as security, and takes
the other fellow's.
The effect is to make every currency in the
world automatically exchangeable into any other
currency; it means that sellers in world trade
can rely on buyers to pay off.
The danger which is stressed by the bankers
is that bad money would flood the pool, floating
the good money off at the top. But there are
safeguards. Each country can borrow only 25
per cent of its own contribution, in any one year.
Interest rates on loans increase, the longer the
loan is held. The managers of the Fund have
the right to call in an offending nation, and dis-
cuss its financial affairs. Half of any increase
in the gold reserves of any borrowing nation
must be used to pay loans. A borrowing nation
loses part of its voting power in the Fund; the
more it borrows, the smaller its vote. Everything
is done publicly; trends can be watched.
The American public must now decide whe-
ther it wants to keep world trade stable, and
whether the risks of doing so are not infinitely
less than the wild risks of not doing so. We
have been getting a curious reputation with
the rest of the world. It is beginning to think
that we love tall talk about "international
principles," but that we go shy and run when-
ever an attempt is made to get these principles
down to yards and inches, air lines and bases,
dollars and cents. We seem to like it lofty,
high and vague. Bretton Woods is where we
either lay it on the line, or stop our chatter.
(Copyright, 1945, New York Post Syndicate)
(CURRENT DISPUT E:
F acs Needed for Clarif ication
WE CANNOT with full justice condemn one side or the other in the current
dispute between two professors and the administration. The reason
is simple. We don't have all the facts with which to judge but we do
have two official statements in the case and some very interesting reflec-
tions arise therefrom.
The statement of the President of the University carried in Tues-
day's Daily points out that the men involved have been guilty of failing
to cooperate over a period of time, that every step provided for invesi-
gation and hearing had been adhered to, and that no publicity at the time
of the action was thought wise to protect the academic careers of he men.
Wednesday Professors Dahlstrom and Wenger issued a joint
statement giving their side of the controversy. They called the charge
of non-cooperation "nicely indefinite," said the real issue is academic
freedom and nothing else, and revealed their request to the American
Association of University Professors to investigate the whole matter. -
It will be recalled that a matter of very serious proportions was re-
corded in the Daily of January 7, 1943 and that it has since been con-
firmed. It is a fact that Dean Ivan C. Crawford and Prof. Carl G.
Brandt entered the classrooms of these two men on Dec. 30, 1942 and
told the students that the classes stood dismissed. This happened twice
in the same morning with Prof. Jesse Thornton accompanying Prof. Brandt
the second time. More than 100 students were involved.
TfHERE ARE OTHER FACTS that we know. We know that the Executive
committee of the College of Engineering, a special engineering fact-
finding committee, the University Senate Advisory Committee and the
Board of Regents have investigated the case.q
After all the testimony had been taken, as President Ruthven pointed
out, the Board of Regents acted and the two men received notice on
February 2, 1945.
We understand this action to mean complete approval by the regents
of the invasion of the classrooms of these two men. We feel justified in
believing that the Board of Regents feels it no infringement of academic
fredom to step into a profesor's class while in session and dismiss it; thus
setting up the instructors to public view as incompetent to teach in the
It is a difficult problem to conceive of a matter so urgent, so vitally
important, that would compel any superior authority to interrupt a class
in this University which has cherished academic freedom and dismiss it.
But this instance being negative in the case isn't the basis for the
final dismissal action. If it were the only issue at point, we daresay the
University would not have risked an investigation of the AAUP. But
what is the real issue?
rjHTS IS A QUESTION we make no pretense of answering. We do not
have all the facts but we suggest in all fairness to the tax payers of the
State of Michigan and the rest of the faculty of the University that the
complete record be made public so that accurate judgment can be made.
As the matter now stands there is room for much speculation and in-
ference, not based upon fact, that can be either harmful to the reputatior
of the University or the men involved or both parties.
The consequences of an unfavorable report by the AAUP are too
grave and serious to permit the matter to rest. Full and complete
statements of the case we feel should come from the proper authori-
ties. Perhaps the University feels it can afford an AAUP investigation,
but the overwhelming weight of public opinion in the state can not be
parmettofMHitory ad the Michi-
gan Christian Fellowshtip7, The public
s cordially invited.
Dr. John hope Franklin, Profes-
sor of History at North Carolina
College, will deliver a lecture. "The
Negro and Post-War Readjustments:
An Historical VieW." This lecture,
sponsored by the Committee for the
Study of Negro Life, assisted by The
Inter-racial Association, will be giv-
en at the Rackham Amphitheatre on
Feb. 12 at 7:30. The public is cor-
A cadinic Notices
Music 41. Introduction to Musical
Literature. For the Spring Semester,
only Section 2, Monday, Wednesday
and Friday at 10 a. m. will be open to
students in the College of Literature,
Science and the Arts.
Recommendations for Department-
al Honors: Teaching departments
wishing to recommend tentative Feb-
ruary graduates from the College of
Literature, Science, and the Arts, and
the School of Education for ,depart-
mental honors should send such
names to Registrar's Office, Room
4 University Hall, by noon, Feb. 26.
Robert L. Williams
Directed Teaching, Qualifying Ex-
amination: All students expecting to
do directed teaching next term are
required to pass a qualifying exami-
nation in the subject which they ex-
pect to teach. This examination will
be held on Saturday, March 3, at
8:30 a. m. Students will meet in the
auditorium of the University High
School. The examination will con-
sime about four hours' time; prompt-
ness is therefore essential.
Doctoral Examination for Allyn
Marsh Herrick, Forestry and Conser-
vation; thesis: "Simplification of
Stand Structure in Timber Manage-
ment,", today, 2:00 p. in., 2045 Na-
tural Science. Chairman, D. M. Matt-
By action of the Executive Board
the Chairman may invite members of
the faculties and advanced doctoral
candidates to attend this examina-
tion, and he may grant permission to
those who for sufficient reason might
wish to be present.
English 149 (Playwriting). The
laboratory production of one-act
plays will be at 8:00 o'clock Monday
evening, Feb. 12, University High
The class will not meet on Monday
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
FRIDAY, FEB. 9, 1945
VOL. LV. No. 80
Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
Piolntin intld it!ot in tv sefort
Seniors: Absolutely no senior pic-
ture contracts will be sold after 5
p. m., today. Seniors expecting to
have their picture in the 1945 Michi-
ganensian must have their coupon
purchased before that time.
Concert. The Westminster Choir,
Dr. John Finley Williamson, Con-
ductor, will give the ninth program
in the Choral Union Concert Series,
Sunday afternoon at 3 o'clock, Feb.
11, in Hill Auditorium. A limited
number of tickets will continue on
sale until noon Saturday, at the
offices of the University Musical So-
ciety in Burton Memorial Tower; and
after 2 o'clock Sunday afternoon in
the Hill Auditorium box office.
fltittetan i tiot u tU te en t in tu 1 pt- r" __n
forn to the Assistant to the President,
1121 Angell HIai, by 3:30 p. iii. of the day Choral Union Members. Choral
lrece('i1ig plubication (11:31) a. In. sat- Union members who have no unex-
Srtl;ays). 'cused absences on their records will
- please call for pass tickets for the
IWestminster Choir concert, today
between the hours of 9:30 and 11:30,
To Members of the Faculty Col- and 1 and 4, at the offices of the
lege of Literature, Science and the University Musical Society in Burton
Arts: There will be another special Memorial Tower. No courtesy tickets
meeting of the Faculty of the Col- will be issued after 4 o'clock Friday.
College of Architecture and De-
sign: Two-man exhibition featuring
domestic architecture by Alden B.
Dow, Midland, Michigan, and school
buildings by Ernest J. Kump, San
Francisco. Rackham Mezzanine. Open
Sdaily except -Sunday through Feb.
lege of Literature, Science, and the'
Arts at 4:10 p. m. on Monday, Feb.
12, in Room 1025 Angell Hall, to
continue the discussion of the Com-
bined Report of the Curriculum Com-
mittee and the Committee on Con-r
centration and Group Requirements.
A large attendance is desired.
Edward It. Kraus
Faculty of College of Literature,
Science and the Arts; College of Ar-
chitecture and Design; School of Ed-
ucation; School of Forestry and Con-
servation; School of Music; and
School of Public Health:
Class lists for use in reporting Fall
Term grades of undergraduate stu-
dents enrolled in these units, and also
graduate students in the Schools of
Forestry and Conservation, Music,
and Public Health, were mailed Wed-'
nesday, Feb. 7. Any one failing to
receive theirs should notify the Reg-
istrar's Office, Miss Cuthbert, phone
308, and duplicates will be preparedl
Midyear Graduation Exercises will
be held at 10:30 a. m., Saturday,
Feb. 24, in the Rackham Lecture Hall.
The address to the graduating clas-I
ses will be given by Professor Camp-
bell Bonner. Assembly at 10:00 a.m.
as follows: Graduates in the middle
sections of the Lecture Hall as di- j
rected by ushers; faculty in the office
of the Graduate School; regents,
officers, deans, minister, and speaker
of the day in Executive Board room;
color guard and honor guard in the
outer lobby. Participants will wear
academic costume. The public is
cordially invited; no tickets are re-
City of Detroit Civil Service An- 17; 2 to 5 and 7 to '10 p. m. The
nouncements have been received in public is cordially invited.
our office for the following exam- s
inations: Head Clerk, $3,795 to $4,416,
Building Maintenance Supervisor, Events Today
$3,721 to $4,071, Chemist, $2,484 to
$2,898, Sanitary Chemist $2,484 to The Geological Journal Club meets
$2,898, Junior Dentist, $2,990, Senior in Room 4065, N. S. Bldg., today, at
Dentist, $3,795 to $4,140, Senior Traf- 12:15 p. m. Program: A. J. Eardley,
flee Engineering Aid, $2,691 to $3,105, "The Paleozoic Cordilleran geosyn-
Intermediate Statistician $2,829 to cline and related orogeny. All in-
$3,381, Senior Personnel Examiner terested are cordially invited to at-
(General), '$3,720 to $4,260, Senior tend.
Personnel Examiner Engineering)
$3,720 to $2,460, Junior Airport Con- Postwar Council: There will be a
trol Tower Operator, $2,210 to $2,616, business meeting at 4 o'clock in the
Senior Airport Control Tower Operat- Union. It is important that all mem-
or $2,760 to $3,137, Farm Supervisor bers be present as election of officers
(Dairy and Livestock), $2,348 to will be held.
$2,553, Senior Veterinarian, $2,622
to $3,036, and Junior Health Inspect- Wesley Foundation. We will at-
or $2,084 to $2,348. For further in- tend the WSSF Carnival at Water-
formation stop in at 201 Mason Hall, man Gymnasium tonight at 7:30
Bureau of Appointments.
ock ave one o
Applications in Support of Re- A
search Projects: To give Research A Carnival sponsored by the World
Committees and the Executive Board Student Service Fund will be held at
adequate time to study all proposals, 7:30 tonight in Waterman Gym.
it is requested that faculty members
hating projects needing support dur- I 'There Will be Sabbath Eve Ser-
ing 1945-1946 file their proposals in -Vices at Hillel Foundation at 7:45
tle Office of the Graduate School by p. m. Following services there will be
Friday, Feb. 9. Those wishing to a fireside discussion on "The Dilemma
renew previous requests whether now of the Pacifist," led by Professor Wil-
receiving support or not should so in- liam Frankena, of the Philosophy De-
dicate. Application forms will be partment. After the Fireside Discus-
mailed or can be obtained at Sec- sion there will be a social hour and
retary's office, Rm. 1006 Rackham refreshments will be served.
Building, telephone 372. ~~ E
- COMIno Events
World Student Service Fund Of-
fice Hours are from 2 to 4 p.,im. The first group of student written
through Friday of this week in the plays to be presented this year by the
Lane Hall office. Contributions will Department of English in collabora-
be accepted at te me s n tion with the Department of Speech
will be given Monday evening, Feb.
12, at 8 o'clock in the auditorium of
'Ensian Coupons found in all stu- the University High School. All in-
dent Directories will not be consid terested are cordially invited to at-
I've developed door-to-door
siemainhi to a hiah art.
In the foot-in-the-door method of
gaining ingress, which I shall now jif )Jj]
By Crockett Johnson