I aE IiCHIGAN DAIIN
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M1F Lidift ti
The Army ChangesIts Mind
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NIGHT EDITOR: RAY SHINN
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
FRIDAY'S senior class election in the literary
school should provide a good means of test-
ing the recently revised campus election rules.
Adequate manpower at the polls and sufficient
publicity for the candidates is assured, according
to Jim Wallis, president of the Men's Judiciary
The rest is up to the members of the senior
class itself. It is essential that the high per-
centage of ballots cast in the election for
V-Ball candidates be carried over to this ele-
tion in which only a limited number oL stu-
dents will be eligible to vote.
The Council has decided that a preferential
ballot would provide the fairest method of choos-
ing class officers under the theory that designa-
tion of candidates for specific offices might mean
that a next-best candidate would be left out of
the running altogether. In order for this system
to work fairly, it is essential that each voter cast
his ballots for four candidates.
Therefore, each potential voter should fa-
miliarize himself with all of the candidates,
either through personal acquaintance or
through statements of the candidates which
will be printed in The Taily tomorrow.
M UCH criticism has been leveled against the
Federal Government for its inability to cope
with the labor situation both democratically
and effectively in the long standing quarrel be-
tween labor and management. If one were to
examine the situation, he would discover that
one of the outstanding reasons is that regula-
tory agencies mushroom without responsible co-
ordination of activities and responsibility in a
The National Labor Relations Board whose
function is to administer the Wagner Act, for
example, is a commission independent of anyone.
Then there is the National Mediation Board
whose arbitration in labor disputes is of prime
importance, but an agency with no strings gt-
tached. And sprawlin elsewhere is a War Labor
Board for the same purpose as the Mediation
Board. Also, there is a separate board for rail-
ways. These are but a few,
Clearly such a division of labor regulation
is like a man without a head, and paves the
way for confusion and irresponsibility. It
seems that when the reorganization plans were
passed out, labor regulating agencies were con-
spicuous by their absence. Consequently, laws
for the promotion of collective bargaining and
fair labor standards have too often left them-
selves open to misadministration which has
frequently thrown these valid Congressional
acts into disrepute by labor, capital, and the
public -at large.
As the war comes nearer to an end, both labor
and management are mustering forces to achieve
what they believe to be their just prerogatives.
And if government cannot serve as an effective
referee, all parties concerned will be standing
short in the long run, and anarchy by either
management or labor is likely to result.
It is quite' clear that both labor and wan-
.o eri1 nn xp toisar einen roduactin nlanningr
By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON, Feb. 7.-If the U.S. Army has
any friends left on the Senate Military Af-
fairs Committee when the Work-or-Fight Bill is
finally passed, it will not be the fault of the
brass hats. Senators and even a lot of Congress- !
men are boiling mad over the way the Army has
said now-we-want-it, now-we-don't-want-it, re-
garding vital amendments to the Work-or-Fight
The climax came in a closed-door session of
the Senate Military Affairs Committee last Sat-
urday, which featured the stormiest debate seen
in any committee for years.
On the lay previous, the committee had
adopted an amendment iwich the Army favored
(or least so it said in a formal letter) which
would put the administration of the Work-or-
Fight Bill under War Mobilizer Byrnes. This
meant that Byrnes would delegate the adminis-
tration to Paul McNutt's War Manpower Com -
mission, since Byrnes favors the WMC. The
original bill, as passed, by the House, placedl
Work-or-Fight administration in the hands of
General Lewis Hershey's Selective Service.
Because of the small number of Senators
present at Friday's committee meeting when
the Byrnes amendment was adopted, a second
meeting was held on Saturday, with a full
quorum present. Forthright Senator Joe O'-
Mahoney of Wyoming opened the secret ses-
sion by delivering a sarcastic attack on the
Army. He pointed t all the tragic mistakes
of the War Department, and their repeated
demands for centralization of authority. Time
after time the Army has demanded this or
demanded that, O'Mahoney charged, only to
ehange.its mind and find it was wrong. Now,
he concluded, how can we tell whether they
are not equally wrong in demanding this bill?
Following this, Senator Chan Gurney, South
Dakota Republican, announced: "I have had a
communication from the War Department, which
desires a further amendment to the bill."
The War Department, he went on to say was
opposed to the Byrnes amendment adopted the
preceding day (though it had gone on record as
At this point, Chairman Thomas of Utah rose
hallway out of his chair. He was formerly a
Mormon missionary, but when he becomes indig-
nant his voice becomes as vibrant as the bass
notes of an organ.
"Do you mean to tell me," boomed the Utah
Senator, "that at this late date the War De-
partment, having already agreed to this bill,
now is demanding another amendment?"
"Yes," meeky replied the gentleman from
"I demand to know who in the War Depart-
ment wants this amendment," boomed out Tho-
"The War Departneit," evaded Senator Gur-
"I demand to know who in the War Depart-
ment wants this amendment," repeated Senator
"Well," hesitated Senator Gurney, "it came
from General Persons' office."
(General Wilton B. Persons is head of the
Army's lobbying 9'geny on Capitol Hill.)
At this, Senator Thomas nearly hit the ceil-
"The lord knows that I'm out of harmony
with this bill," he stormed. "But I've gone
along with it, regardless. However, I'm not
going to he short-circuited. This committee
has already adopted one amendment which it
thought was approved by the War Department.
If the War Department now wants to take
hack its amendment, it can come to the Chair-
Yuan of this committee."
Rejection of the amendment would have put
the Work-or-Fight Bill under the draft boards
instead of the War Manpower Commission.
This touched off another diatribe from hard-
hitting Senator Ed Johnson, Democrat, of Col-
"I'm absolutely fed up," he said, "with the
War Department's double-crossing and their go-
ing through the back door."
"I object to being called a back door," shouted
Senator Gurney. "I want it understood that I
am not a back door, and I resent the inferences
drawn from the Senator's statement."
"I meant no personal reflection on you' re-
plied Senator Johnson. "My criticism was
aimed at the War Department. Thb( Senator
need not consider himself a back door."
Public He ings Proposed .
THIS set off a free-for-all, with almost every
member of the Committee participating. Fin-
ally Senator Bridges, Republican, of New Hamp-
shire, tried to pour oil on the troubled waters
by making this observation:
"It seems to me that it serves the Commit-
tee right for trying to short-cut this important
legislation without having full public hear-
ings," Bridges said. "Here is a bill affecting
all the men of this nation from 18 to 45. The
least we could do would be to permit the heads
of business firms and the heads of labor unions
and other important organizations to express
their views before the committee."
Finally, the Committee adjourned its secret
session for the week end, with no agreement
except that regarding the vacillation of the
Army. This was unanimous. This criticism was
also shared by various members of the House
Military Affairs Committee, who experienced the
same shilly-shallying when the bill was before
the House. Here is the background to the Army's
remarkable series of somersaults:
On Jan 6 after the May Bill was introduced
in Congress, it was referred to all interested
agencies of the Government, including the Army,
Navy, War Manpower Commission, Selective
Service and War Production Board. Their rep-
resentatives held a meeting under Justice Byrnes,
at which it was agreed that the new Work-or-
Fight Bill should not be administered by Selec-
tive Service, since its operation under- the many
different draft boards throug hou the country
would lead to confusion.
Accordingly, Colonel Francis V. Keesling r.,
representing Selective Service, was instructedl
to present the amendments of all the agencies
to the House Military Affairs Committee. How-
ever, Committee members say that Keesling
talked for four hours in a closed session of the
Cemmittee but never took the proposed am-
endments out of his pocket. Later, however,
they were presented by Congressman John
Sparkman of Alabama, and .adopted. After
adoption, however, the Committee, under se-
cret pressure from the Army, mysteriously re-
versed itself, knocking out the Byrnes amend-
ment and putting the administration of the
Werk-cr-Fight Bill back under Selective Ser-
vice and the local draft boards rather than
under the War Manpower Commission.
(Copyright, 1945, by the Bel Syndclhme. 10(4
I' RATHER 1E RWI17:
By SAIiUL GtAFTON
NEW YORK, Feb. 7.-We must learn to under-
stand Russia, and one way to understand
how the modern Russian mind works is to try to
understand the great Russian otfensive. One
military thinker has let drop the comment that
there may be something "Oriental" about Rus-
sian battle psychology; a word which brings up
images of hordes of faceless men, plodding for-
ward in disregard of death: winning as ants do,
by force of numbers.
But, as someone once said, when the word
"Oriental" is used, it is well to specify what kind
of Oriental one means. Does one mean Oriental,
like the pacific Chinese, or Oriental, like the
Indians, who also hate war, or Oriental like the
Filipinos, with whom we rejoice this week, or
Oriental like the Japanese? No, this is that
speial kind of Oriental whom one invents when
one needs an Oriental in his argunent.
The success of the Russian offensive is iysti-
f'ying to the West; but, no raeil explanation
will account for it, if the liussians are Orien-
tal, they were just as Oriental in the last war,
when they did poorly. Russian success is based
on the boldest kind of realistic military think-
ing, which has shown itself in a long line o1
innovations, starting with 'the invention of the
To make friends with winter, as the Russians
have done for three years, is a conception repre-
senting a departure from centuries of military
theory. It must have started with somebody in
the Kremlin saying to somebody else in the
Kremlin: "Say, is it really impossible to fight
during the months between October and May?"
Somebody perhaps made a little list, of wha t's
good and what's bad about winter. It's cold, of
course, but then also rivers freeze over, and you
don't need so many bridges.
Mr. Volney Hurd, in the Christian Science
Monitor, has traced the ensuing developments:
"Ski trOops and sledges, fast-moving cvalry,
white-clad soldiers . . . special lubricants to op-
erate in below-zero weather." The logical climax
came when the Russians actually launched one
of their major pushes during a blizzard; they
did it because it is so notoriously hard to fight
during a blizzard; hard, that is, for those who
have never looked at a blizzard with a fresh eye.
AGAIN and again one has the feeling that some
Russian, high up, has looked at something
old and familiar with a fresh eye. Pravda, on
Jan. 24, told of "a large enemy tank force" which
tried to stop the advance of Soviet troops. "The
Russian command," says Pravda, "made a dar-
ing decision: To strike at the enemy, force a way
through his dispositions, and leave it to the sec-
ond echelon troops to conclude the battle." The
Soviet advance forces broke through and went
on about their business, leaving the German
tanks to fight a hot, but irrelevant, battle in the
Another Russian development has been the
use of separate forces to give battle by day and
by night on the same front; one section fighting
while the other rests; and both working against
German troops not geared for a two-shift opera-
tion. This is waging war by factory methods,
and again, one has the uncanny sense that some
Russian thought about the dark familiar night,
in a fresh way.
Overriding all these conceptions has been
the Soviet use of the long front, compelling
all the Germans to fight against all the Rus-
sians, and since there are more Russians, the
advantage is clear. It is an advantage not
obtained in local battle or in limited opera-
tions. We Americans have always been proud
of our own fresh view of old things; it seems
to me that along this line we can make a
beginning toward understanding the new Rus-
sian mind. We shall not understand it at all
on the basis of seedy racial theory.
(copyright, 1945, New York Post Syndteat')
By BERNARD ROSENBERG Godand whether we accept the no-
ARWIN, Marx, and Freud-whose tion that it was His handiwork or
influence upon Western thought that it was an accident of nature,
is incalculable-had at least one pos- what remains indisputable is that
tuiate in common: determinism. They man himself in nowise managed the
could not see man as the master of affair,
his fate in a world governed by un- Circuinstanccs that explain his
controllable laws, survival are external to him. An-
To be sure, each accentuated one other glacial period, a sudden cool-
factor with what we may now look ing iof the sun, or some other such
upon as undue emphasis. Thus, catastrophic phenomenon would.
Darwin thought the biological end our stay on earth. A recon-
struggle to be wholly determina- struction of human history is noth-
tive: Marx gave centrality to eco- ing more than the saga of natural
nomnics; and, Freud conjured only laws at work-allowing some to
with the pyche. Over and above live on here because they are well
the mionomaniia that dominated adapted and other to perish there
themn, thre" isa good deal that is because they are not.
dubi~ous in thteir theories. For in- Recent embryological experiments
stance, no one any longer serious- have shown that the foetus four
ly believes in the inheritance of months before birth responds to stim-
acqired characteristics although uli-and is capable of reflex action
this was a basic Darwinian prem- from then on. So, one's personality,
ise. Marx's prophecies have been which psychologists look upon more
far from accurate-and psychoan- and more as a bodily matter, begins
alysis is assailable at many points. to form in the pre-natal stages.
,However, the noteworthy fact about Whereafter, infancy marks and scars
these men is their ultimately con- and builds up into what we become.,
sistent rejection of free will. If we Oftentimes, then, when a man con-
make a composite picture of the three. + mits an apparently implausible crime
according each factor a rightfully im- ;n his fiftieth ycar, the cause may b
portant place, the human species i found in his fifth.
seen in something like a true per-jSeewat this does to herighteous
spective. Take from all that which who, assuming holier than thou at-
is most valuable, pieced together with titudes, point the condemnatory
what other sciences have taught us finger at criminals for whom they
and an operative social philosophy should feel naught but the profound-
ean be adducede st sympathy. Genes, environment.
fate, Providence; kismet, the Furies.
The anthropological vie'w is some- 'ali htyupes-um
times useful in this regard. Con- stands or crawls or cringes or mar-
sider man's emergence, the fact that ca . .t whalyo ples-umar
a million or so years ago-due to :hes fnproportion as he is driven by
physical conditions which caused t forces from within and without.
shrinkage in forest space, he aban- Civilizations spring up near river
doned his arboreal existence some- basins--like the Nile and the Tiber
where near the Himalayas, stood un- --not merely by happenstance, but:
naturally on two feet, developed a because these areas provide better
forebrain, and, in time, the power to [ransportation and more fertile soil,
communicate ideas. Presently, there Here geography is at work and man
he was-homo sapiens! Our forbears ; militates accordingly. By such adapt-
attributed this wonderful process to ive means do species preserve them-
S.Now, many of us feel that man
is headed for extinction, his pres-
OX SECND ent supremacy in the animal king-
,roJOfrT - dom notwithstanding, unless he
recognizes certain resistless move-
By tay Dixon i r ments extant all about him. Just
as the forests once shrank physic-
ally, so now has the whole world
ANKS walked into Philippine soda shrunk politically. If man once
fountains on Sunday and said, had to re-arrange his life to cope
"I'll lake Manila. with a treeless milieu, lie will soon
Those who went to the band coil have to re-arrange his life to cope
cert in hill Auditorium Sunday with a stateless world. The belief
could tell there was Gould in them that one group is isolable from an-
there iot's, other and that all can live in mu-
tual exclusion, must go-or we are
Final fever is gripping the cam- in for a series o' violent convul-
pus as stuidents are beginning to sions and sanguinary revolutions
realize there are only 11 more daze. that could wipe us out.$
retary's office, Rm. 1o) Rackham
Building, telephone 372.
1o(toral Examination for John
Robert Bracken, Landscape Arhi-
tecture; thesis: "Planting Design:
Principles and Problems in the Use
of Plants by the Landscape Archi-
tect," this morning at 9:00, 209
Angell Hall. Chairman J. G. Winter.
By action of the Executive Board
the Chairman may invite members of
the faculties and advanced doctoral
candidates to attend this examina-
tion, and he may grant permission to
those who for sufficient reason might
wish to be present.
Dotoral Examination for Lester
Henry Phillips, Political Science;
thesis: "The Impact of the Defense
of Canada Regulations upon Civil
Liberties," Thursday, Feb. 8, 3:00
p. m., East Council Room, Rackham
Building. Chairman, H. M. Dorm.
By action of the Executive Board
the Chairman may invite members
of the faculties and advanced doc-
toral candidates to attend this exam-
ination, and lie may grant permission
to those who for sufficient reason
might wish to be present.
Exhibit: Museum of Art and Arch-
aeology, Newberry Hall. Glass, sculp-
ture and Textiles from Egypt.
Varsity Glee Club: Full rehearsal
followed by rehearsal of quartets. An-
nouncements of second semester ap-
The Fine Arts Club invites all stu-
dents interested in Fine Arts to a
meeting from 4:00 to 5:30 in fTm. D,
Alumni Memorial Hall. Travel mov-
ies about England, France, and gypt
will be shown, after which a short
business meeting will be held.
Biological Chemistry Seminar will
meet at 4:15 p. m. in 319 West Medi-
cal Building. Doctor Richard J. Por-
ter, Associate Professor of Protozool-
ogy in the Department of Tropical
Diseases, of the School of Public
Health, will speak on "Biology of
Malarial Parasites in Relation to
Chemotherapy." All interested are
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony will
be presented in the weekly Lane Hall
Music Hour at 7:30 p. m. Scores will
be provided and refreshments served.
Graduate Students: A coffee hour
will be held from 7:30-8:30 in the
West Conference Room of the Rack-
ham Building. All Graduate Students
are invited to attend.
A. S. Nu. E. Student Branch: Mr. C.
A. Chayne, Chief Engineer of the
Buick Motor Company will present a
48-minute sound movie, "Buick on
the Job," at 7:30 p. m. in the Rack-
ham Amphitheatre. This film deals
with the production of tanks, tank
destroyers, aircraft engines, etc. Pub-
La Sociedad Hispanica will present
the third lecture in the annual series
at 8 p. m. in the Michigan Union.
Professor Arthur Aiton will speak on
"Relaciones entre Latino-America y
los Estados Unidos." Because this is
the last meeting of La Sociedad for
the present secester, all members and
friends are especially invited to be
present. Tickets for this lecture and
for the series will be on sale at the
"The Skin of Our Teeth," comedy
by Thornton Wilder, will open this
I evening for four performances only,
tonight through Saturday night, in
the Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre. The
play will be presented by Play Pro-
duction of the Department of Speech
and all performances will begin at
8:30 p.m.eTickets are on sale daily
at the theatre box office, ph~one 6300.
Post-War Council: There will be a
business meeting Friday at 4:00 at
the Michigan Union. There will be
a discussion of plans for next seme-
ster and an election of officers,
Geometry Seminar: Thursday at
4:15 in Room 3001 Angell Hall. Mr.
Williams will speak on "Four-Dmen-
sional Geometry." Tea at 4.
Tea at the International Center,
every Thursday, 4-4:30 p. m. Faculty,
foreign students, and their American
friends are cordially invited.
Dance Program: An informal dance
program will be presented by students
in the women's physical education
dance classes on Thursday, Feb. 8 at
4:30 p. m., Barbour Gymnasium. All
those interested are invited to attend.
The Regular Thursday Evening
Record Concert will be held in the
Men's Lounge of the Rackham Build-
ing at 7:45 p. m. The program will
include Waltzes (No. 1-6) by Chopin;
Concerto in D Minor by Sibelius;
Parsifal-Prelude and Good Friday
Spell by Wagner; and Roumanian
Rhapsodies by Enesco. All Gradu-
ate Students are invited to attend
The Geological Journal Club meets
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
WEDNESDAY, FEB. 7, 1945
VOL. LV, No. 78
lihiVcation in the Dally Official Bul-
letin, is constructive notice to all mem-
hers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin shmould e sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
10'1 Angel lHall, by 3:30 p. m of the day
preceding pu ilication (11:30 i mn. Sat-
Student Tea: President and Mrs
Ruthven will be at home to students
this afternoon, Feb. 7, from 4 to 6
MidyeartGraduation Exercises will
be held at 10:30 a. in., Saturday,
Feb. 24, in the Rackham Lecture Hall
The address to the graduating clas-
ses will be given by Professor Camp.
bell Bonner. Assembly at 10:00 a.m
as follows: Graduates in the middle
sections of the Lecture Hall as di-
rected by ushers; faculty in the office
of the Graduate School; regents
officers, deans, minister, and speaker
of the day in Executive Board room;
color guard and honor guard in the
outer lobby. Participants will .wear
academic costume. The public is
cordially invited; no tickets are re-
Washington's Birthday: Washing-
ton's birthday, Feb. 22, will not be
observed as a University holiday.
State of Connecticut Civil Service
announcement for Child Welfare
Supervisor, salary from $2,500 tc
$3,000 per year, has been received
in oui office. For further informa-
tion stop in at 201 Mason Hall, Bu-
reau of Appointments.
Seventh United States Civil Service
Region, Chicago, Ill. announce exam-
inations in Marketing and Allied
fields, at salary from $2,433 to $3,828
per year. For further information,
stop in at 201 Mason Hall. Bureau of
By Crockett Johnson
University Lecture: Dr. Gustav E.
von Grunebaum, Professor of Arabic,
University of Chicago, wil lecture on
the subject, "The Arabian Nights and
Classical Literature" at 4:15 p. m.
today in the Rackham Amphitheatre;
auspices of the Department of Ori-
ental Languages and Literatures. The
public is cordially invited.
University Lecture. Captain Pet-
er Freuchen, Danish PolarExplorer,
s will lecture on "Epic of an Explorer
6 in the War," at 8:00 p. m., Thurs-
day, Feb. 8, in the Rackham Lecture
Hall; auspices of the Department of
I Geography. The public is cordially
French Lecture. Professor Marc
Denkinger, of the Romance Lan-
. guages Department, will offer a lec-
ture Thursday, Feb. 8, at 4:10 p. m.
in Rm. D, Alumni Memorial Hall. His
lecture, which will be illustrated with
slides, is entitled "Queique activities
francaises de'entre less deux guerras "
University Lecture: Lieutenalt Gen-
eral Sir William Dobbie, commander
of the British forces during the-Bat-
te of Malta, will lecture on the sub-
ject, "The Defense of Malta" (illu-
strated with motion pictures) Tues-
day, Feb. 13, at 8:00 p. m., in the
Hill Auditorium; auspices of the De-
partment of History and the Michi-
gan Christian Fellowship. The public
is cordially invited.
Notice to Students Planning to Do
Directed Teaching: Students expect-
ing to do directed teaching the spring
term are requested to secure assign-
ments in Room 2442 University Ele-
mentary School on Thursday, Feb. 8,
according to the following schedule:
Social Studies, 9:00-10:00.
Science and Mathematics, 10:00-
All foreign languages, 11:00-12:00.
All others, and any having con-
flicts at scheduled hour, 2:00-4:00
or by appointment.
of course, I win the pony.
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