THE MICHIGAN DAILY'-
SUNDAY, MAV-1, 1945
. r _ m
Eif eap &
Pauley Favors Hard Peace
DEAN WALTER RECOMMENDS:
Barzun's'Teacher in America'
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Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
N SOME LOCALITIES the American public is
to be spared the job of viewing atrocity films.
This is liable to save some of the persons respon-
sible for the real "in the flesh" atrocities from
Certain theatres throughout the nation, in-
cluding the Radio City Music Hall, have en-
forced a voluntary censorship on these. films.
We have seen newspaper photos of deformed
bodies heaped together, of saucer-eyed children
and of skeleton-like men. We are horrified, and
we are indignant. We demand that war crim-
inals be punished.
But as people are liberated and relieved, as
refugees are returned to their homelands, as
dead bodies are buried and forgotten by all but
the next of kin and those who loved, our feeling
of horror will decrease. We will forget the pic-
tures in the newspaper.
But watching a screen which reveals figures-
the same skeletons and scrawny children-mov-
ing, groping, struggling and dying-we will not
forget so soon. A clenching fist and a grimacing
face are easier to remember;than "just a body."
This sort of memory is painful, 'but for this
memory we need pain. As William L. Chenery,
publisher of the Collier's magazine said to a
PM reporter, "If some can endure it, others
can look at it."
Because there are some people who will pass
these crimes off lightly, because there are some
people who will say, as Representative Max
Schwabe of Missouri has said, that these crimes
"have not been the rule but the exception," it
is necessary that these films be shown through-
out the country.
By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON-At the Chicago Democratic
Convention last July, there was a tunnel
under the speaker's stand to the floor of the
convention hall. Off this passageway were little
doors. One was marked: "Edward Pauley."
To the little office behind this door, big, in-
gratiating Democratic treasurer Ed Pauley
hauled from the floor delegate after delegate
who was wavering between Truman and Wallace.
There he convinced California's Attorney Gen-
eral Bob Kenney, who had arrived as a Wallace
supporter but who after listening to Pauley
voted for Truman, and took half of California's
delegation with him.
In those last frantic hours when it was nip
and tuck between Wallace and Truman,
Pauley and his little office did a thriving
business. Perhaps lie tipped the scales for
the man who now sits in the White House.
Last week, after the political debt was paid
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
NOTES ON SAN FRANCISCO: 1. The San
Francisco conference ran into trouble when
it began to consider matters that should never
properly have come before it. One such was the
admission of Argentina. In forcing the question
of Argentina on the conference, the United
States carried on as if the conference were a
world organization, which it is not; it is only a
body called to set up a plan for a world organ-
This conference has somewhat less legal power
than a coroner's jury, picked off the street, for
the results of its deliberations are binding on
no,government until ratified. We allowed this
pick-up team to act like a world government,
and to arbitrate an issue between America and
Russia. In doing so, we abandoned the principle
of unanimity among the great powers; we aban-
doned fixed points of reference; and we threw
the world into solution, long before it was safe
to do so. We have been playing world organiz-
ation, the way children play house, before there
was a world organization to play with.
2. No question of admission of any nation
should have been allowed to come before the
conference, in any form, not even the ques-
tions of White Russian and Ukrainian Soviet
Republics, or the question of Poland. These
are fundamentally questions or recognition,
which are always settled on the diplomatic
level. Instead of trying, by hard and patient
work, to settle these questions through diplom-
ecy, we have used the conference, like a club,
to bring about forced settlements. The result
is that we have something like a split in the
world organization, before we even have a
world organization; we have set up the cleav-
age before we have written the by-laws.
Our pathetic eagerness to use the conference
in this way to bring about forced solutions seems
to represent nothing less than a failure of nerve
on the part of the State Department, It has
seemed rather glad to be able to turn its prob-
lems over to an outside body; and our diplomacy
appears to have gone crashing, even on the
technical level, since the death of Mr. Roosevelt.
3. We must return to a much more humble
conception of the conference, and stop using it as
an apparatus for solving' hard problems with
which it is not equipped to deal. The State
Department should try doing its own homework
again. The results of its slackness have been
For one, it has set the small nations of the
world against each other, in a recklessly anarchic
fashion, with all of Latin America lining up
against most of the small countries of Europe.
It will be a solemn enough moment when, after
a world organization has been ratified, and is
functioning, a major question is tossed to it, to
be settled by counting of noses.
To have done this now, before there is a
world organization, has amounted to giving
the small nations much more power than is
contemplated for them on the ultimate world
bodies. The whole business has worn a sickly
air of improvization, as if bystanders at a bar
had been called in to settle an argument.
THIS CONFERENCE has been oversold; over-
sold, so that most of us are afflicted with the
notion that a world legislature is meeting in
San Francisco, rather than an organizing com-
mittee for a world legislature. The State De-
partment should have had enough courage to
turn down most of those American organizations
which wanted to send "consultants," and were
allowed to do so, though their purposes, in al-
most every case, had almost nothing to do with
this conference. Somewhere in the Senate there
should be a disciplinary power fit to deal with
the three Navy Committee Senators who went
tearing out last week-end, to influence the con-
ference on a territorial question which is never
going to come up at this meeting.
This conference is setting up a blueprint for
an organization; that is all. For the rest, we
have to turn to the doctrine of unanimity
among the great powers, which Mr. Roosevelt
used so brilliantly. We are not yet ready to
let the world go fluid. We still need our fixed
points of reference. This can still be a good
conference, though it has turned out to be a
poor world legislature. It can still succeed in
what it was called to do.
(Copyright, 1945, New York Post Syndicate)
which made Pauley U.S. member of the Repar-
ations Commission, Big Ed talked with old
friends, including his chief in the White House.
Judging by what Big Ed told them, there is
no doubt where he stands regarding a hard
peace for Germany.
State Department appeasers, he told them,
will arrange his transportation and his hotel
accomodations, but that's all. Otherwise,
Pauley is determined that the policy of Frank-
lin Roosevelt before he died shall be carried
out. That policy was that every potential
war factory in Germany be transferred or
wiped out. President Truman has reempha-
sized that policy.
Pauley, who is as good a businessman as he
is a politician, may be a lot better than some
diplomats when it comes to carrying it out.
Truman Woos Governors .
PRESIDENT Harry Truman is determined to
cement his relationship with state leaders as
well as Congress. That was the reason behind
the recent visit to the White House of Gover-
nors J. Howard McGrath of Rhode Island, Her-
bert R. O'Conor of Maryland and Robert Kerr
of Oklahoma. McGrath and O'Conor had
actually been asked by Truman to come to
Washington, while Kerr happened to be in
town and was invited to join them.
Truman opened the conversation by telling
the governors that since they live among their
ecnstituents from day to day, they are per-
haps able to keep a closer check on what the
people are thinking than members of Congress.
He asked their help in seeing to it that our
foreign policy is understandable to the Amer-
ican public, and in turn is understood by the
Foreign policy was the only subject discussed,
aside from the arrangements for the annual
Governor's Conference, to be held in July at
Mackinac Island, Mich.
Truman was invited by the three governors
to attend the Mackinac Island sessions, or at
least to come out and speak to the governors.
The idea appealed to him, but he said he could
not reply definitely until much later, when he
knew what would be happening in Washington
and elsewhere in the world.
As the gubernatorial trio left, McGrath of
Rhode Island dropped behind for a moment and
Truman said he might be calling him to Wash-
ington again within a couple of weeks. Mc-
Grath, who led Roosevelt and Truman by more
than 10,000 votes in Rhode Island last year, is
serving his third term as governor and was U.S.
attorney in Rhode Island for seven years before
that. A close friend of Bob Hannegan, McGrath
seconded Truman's vice-presidential nomin-
ation last year at Chicago.
Note-Later in the day a reporter called
McGrath and asked him if he had discussed
horse-racing with the President. The Gover-
nor said he had not, hung up the telephone
and turned to a friend. "Lord, what a story
the reporters could have made out of that-
the governors of Maryland and Rhode Island,
two of the hottest horse-racing states, closeted
with the President as V-E day gets close. You
know, I didn't even think of horse-racing, and
I'll bet O'Conor didn't either."
ABOUT THE FIRST to benefit from V-E day
will be farm machinery. WPB's chairman
Krug has ordered that farm machinery manu-
facturers be given first crack at any steel that
can be spared by the military. . . . Although mail
to American prisoners of war is carried free,
Americans writing to them long were forbidden
use of the common three-cent stamp bearing the
large "V." Letters were returned to the Post
Office with warnings against sending any kind
of propaganda. ...Meanwhile, parents of U.S.
prisoners received from their sons letters with
German stamps on which were pictures of Hit-
A 50-cent subsidy to cattle feeders was to be
included in the ten-point meat program re-
cently announced by OPA. But it was blocked
by the War Food Administration, which in-
sisted upon more time to "study" the situation
and decide how to pay the subsidy.
(Copyright, 1945, Bell Syndicate)
tICHIGAN faces an opportunity to modernize
its state legislature which comes to few
states. One year ago, following the disclosure
of improper practices in the legislature, the gov-
ernor of Michigan appointed a committee to
study legislative procedure and suggestimprove-
ments. Recently a subcommittee was appointed
to study the one-chamber legislature. The
strength of meaningless tradition is so great
that it appears to take a major scandal or the
inspiration of a great leader to make it clear
that governmental affairs have lagged far be-
hind not only normal progress but the positive
desires of the people for better conduct of the
While some of the imperfections of the bi-
cameral legislature are fresh in the public
mind, it is to be hoped something substantial
in the way of improvement will be attempted.
Opportunity conies even less frequently than
-National Municipal Review
(EDITOR'S NOTE: There are two copies
of Barzun's book in the University
library and Dean Walter's own copy is
onrreserve in the Angell Hall study hall.)
TEACHER IN AMERICA by Jacques
Barzun. Little, Brown & Company.
Boston. 1945. $3.A0.
SOME BOOKS may be read by
.proxy, by one's favorite reviewer;
some books can be skimmed; but
some books must be read thoroughly
from cover to cover. Jacques Barzun's
Teacher in America belongs to the
Every prospective teacher, every
teacher who genuinely wants to be
more effective, and every teacher
who really is a success, or who
merely thinks he is, should read
this book. Furthermore, all people
who are seriously concerned with
the position of the teacher in
America cannot afford to neglect
Since there is no substitute for
reading the book, this review will con-
sist of a series of questions that Bar-'
IN A BRILLIANT but negative de-
scription of the modern English-
man, C. E. M. Joad says, "They ac-
knowledge no duty toward God, in
whom they do not believe, and no
duty toward their neighbors, whom
they do not know." The continent
suffered the same skepticism and
now we have the spiritual tragedy of
political infidelities, mass mobiliza-
tion and a sudden return to destroyed
homes and unrequitted loyalties.
It is an ancient fact that once
I set out to wrong another person
I must have a hard time, regardless
of circumstances, training myself to
admire him or to see merit in him.
Perhaps the injunction by Jesus to
do good to those who spitefully use
you and to love not only your friend
but your enemy, is the virtue which
puts Christianity at the apex of
universal ethics. Today we shall
observe that Germans will find it
even harder to recognize merit in
the Russians, whom they definitely
attacked, than in the English. Cer-
tainly the Russians will find it far
moreadifficult to deal fairly with
the landowning Poles than with
their other enemies. The attacking
Franco will never learn to love the
Republicans whom he violated. In
Europe for five years, the contrary
national and ethnic currents, an-
cient grievances and fierce atti-
tudes of centuries, like the waves
of a sea breaking its dikes, have
been on a rampage of orderly crime.
Sociologist Newcomb is to be envied
at having an appointment to study
these expressions of human nature at
its worst. We say at its worst because
upon relaxation of that heavy mili-
tary discipline which, at this distance
brings us relief from minor strain
and a great sense of reversion to
custom, must mean to certain Euro-
pean men a new freedom to do some
private killing. At every alley and
around each dark corner in Europe
will now lurk the petty grudge. Hu-
man nature as such is a futile de-
scription of man. One man identifies
human nature with the Deity, the
next with his counterpart, the Devil,
and a third, never comprehending his
inconsistency, asserts while he works
at education and religion that human
nature cannot be changed.
However, we know now that human
nature means personality, the native
endowment of a man's organism with
its nerve system and brain plus the
attitudes which compose that person.
This organism, nerve system, brain
and the attitudes or responses habit-
ual to the person so constituted are
modifiable downward by fatigue,
shock, strain or disease and are modi-
fiable upward by the affectionate
training of mature leaders. "There
are depths in man that go to the low-
est hell, and heights that reach the
highest heaven, for are not both
heaven and hell made out of him;
everlasting miracle and mystery that
he is." (Carlyle). Man is put to it
just now to be saintly.
It becomes a civic, if not a moral
duty upon us all in a peace making
epoch, to teach; herein resides the
spiritual demand of events. That
duty begins with commitment to all
in the interest of a world-wide
peace effort. Every inhabitant of
these free new continents should
voice a prayer for older peoples,
learn forgiveness toward those per-
sonalities who are hard to accept,
and eschew every local hatred.
-Edward W. Brakeman
Counselor in Religious Education
By Crockett Johnson
C ushlmochree! Listen!
n..-- rnc fA nno
zun raises. The page number after
each question refers the reader to
What does a "C" really mean?
How many kinds of human thought
are there? (p. 308)
What can we do with the "incubus
of Europe's profundity"? (p. 316)
How large should a student schol-
arship be? (p. 285)
What relation does the Ph.D. have
to good teaching? (p. 195, ff.)
What is the measure of Intelli-
gence? (p. 209, ff.)
Why are young teachers the best
teachers? (p. 19)
Why is a study of at least one of
the fine arts indispensable to a
good engineer? (p. 116, ff.)
Why "ought deans by professional
duty always prefer facing
D ISTRESSING facts concerning
America's educational system
were described last week by Colum-
bia University's Dr. John K. Norton in
a Congressional hearing.
Statistics revealed that 2,000,000
school-age children are not attend-
ing schools. Furthermore, more
than 10,000,000 adults have had
only four years or less of formal
schooling. At least 1,000,000, more
adults, men, were classified 4-F be-
cause of inadequate education.
Educational leaders suggest as
remedies higher pay for teachers and
federal aid to schools. Twenty-three
per cent of the teaching profession
receives less than $1,200 a year be-
cause schools lack sufficient funds.
Opposition to this plan comes from
conservatives fearing federal control
of schools, and from religious sects
fearing handicaps to their owh edu-
While we are formulating pro-
grams to re-educate the Nazi mind,
it would be wise to broaden our
discussions. to include these mil-
lions of uneducated Americans.
-Martha Ann Dieffenbacher
trouble"? (See Chapter 13, p. 177,
ff, "Deans Within Deans.")
Can women deal with abstractions?
Should all high school graduates be
admitted to state universities?
What is the test of democratic cul-
ture? (p. 274)
Why is reading the classics indis-
pensable to a sound education?
(p. 148, ff.)
What is adult education? (p. 259)
What is history? (p. 103, ff.)
"What is it that our men of science
are guarding like a threatened
virginity?" (p. 88, if.)
Why should "all dealings with those
taught to a certain degree be
contradictory"? (p. 226)
Why is "a young man who is not a
radical about something a pretty
poor risk for education"? (p. 238)
Montaigne, to whom Barzun re-
fers repeatedly, concluded his essay,
"Of the Education of Children,"
thus, "there is nothing like arousing
appetite and affection [in the stu-
dent]; otherwise you make nothing
but asses loaded with books. By
whipping them we give them their
pocketful of learning to keep;
which, if it is to do any good, we
must not merely lodge in us: we
must espouse it. (D. M. Frame's
translation.) Barzun espouses the
teacher's profession. He knows it
from every angle and criticizes it
mercilessly, but always construc-
tively. Read with understanding,
his book can help the beginning
teacher in hundreds of ways. Older
teachers will recognize his discern-
ing analysis of common problems.
Readers generally cannot fail to
appreciate his espousal of this
fundamental idea: "unless the
teacher feels that besides bread-
winning he has 'his own work to
do', he is cheating himself of free-
dom and joy, and reducing the
worth of his toil as a teacher. For
what he will infallibly convey to a
class is his awareness of Quality or
his blindness to it."
. -Erich A. Walter
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
SUNDAY, MAY 13, 1945
VOL. LV, No. 146
Publication in tie Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
1021 Angel Hall, by 2:30 p. m. of the day
preceding publication (10:30 a. m. Sat-
CENTRAL WAR TIME USED IN
THE DAILY OFFICIAL
La Sociedad Hispanica offers two
fifty dollar scholarships (plus tui-
tion) to the University of Mexico
Summer School. Students interested
must apply through Professor Mer-
cado in 302 Romance Languages be-
fore May 15..
Lt. R. W. Hansen: Representative
from the Signal Corps, Arlington,
Va., will be in our office Tuesday,
May 15, to interview all seniors who
want to be considered for employ-
ment. For appointment call Bureau
of Appointments, University Ext. 371.
State of Connecticut Civil Service
announcement for Assistant Social
worker, $1500 per annum, has been
received in our office. For further
information stop in at 201 Mason
Hall, Bureau of Appointments.
University Lecture: Mr. Flavel
Shurtleff, Professor of City Planning,
Massachusetts Institute of Technol-
ogy, will speak on "The Field of Town
Planning", on Tuesday, May 15, at
3:15 p.m., in the Rackham Amphi-
theater, under the auspices of the
College of Architecture and Design.
The Henry Russei Lecture: Dr.
Edward H. Kraus, Professor of Crys-
tallography and Mineralogy and for-
mer Dean of the College of Litera-
ture, Science, and the Arts, will de-
liver the annual Henry Russel Lec-
ture at 3:15 p.m., Thursday, May 17,
in the Rackham Amphitheater. His
subject will be "The Unfolding Crys-
tal", illustrated. At this time public
announcement of the Henry Russel
Award will also be made. The public
is cordially invited.
A cademic Notices
Preliminaries in Education: Pre-
liminary Examinations for the Doc-
torate in the School of Education
will be held on the afternoons of
June 7, 8 and 9 from 1 till 4 o'clock,
CWT. Anyone desiring to take these
examinations should notify the Of-
a Lieder recital, accompanied by
Kathleen Rinck of the piano faculty,
at 7:30 p.m. CWT, this evening in
Lydia Mendelssohn. Mrs. Feldman's
program will consist of compositions
by Brahms, Hugo Wolf, Richard
Strauss, and Schubert. The public
is cordially invited.
Student Recital: Doris Jean Gil-
man, Soprano, will present a recital
in partial, fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Bachelor of
Music in Music Education, at 7:30
p.m. CWT, Tuesday, May 15, in Lydia
Mendelssohn Theater. Miss Gilman
is a student of Hardin Van Deursen.
Her program will include a group
of French, German and English
songs, and will be open to the general
Sixteenth Annual Exhibition of
Sculpture of the Institute of Fine
Arts: In the Concourse of the Michi-
gan League Building. Display will be
on view daily until Commencement.
Twenty-Second Annual Exhibition
by the Artists of Ann Arbor and
vicinity: In the Mezzanine Exhibition
Rooms of the Rackham Building
daily, except Sunday, 2 to 5 and 7
to 10 p.m. The public is cordially
"Krishna Dancing with the Milk-
maids" an original Rajput brush
drawing with studies of the hands in
crayon. Also examples of Indian fab-
rics. Auspices, the Institute of Fine
Arts. May 14 through May 26; Mon-
day-Friday, 1-4; Saturday, 9-11,
CWT. Alumni Memorial Hall, Rm. B.
Mrs. Henry A. Sanders, native Tex-
an, will lecture, accompanied by
March of Time film, on Texas, at
6:30 p.m. today in the International
Center. The public is cordially in-
Post-War Council Meeting will be
held Monday, May 14, in the Union,
Rm. 302, at 3:30.
There will be a forum on post-war
education Monday, May 14. Profes-
sors G. G. Brown, C. D. Thorpe, H. Y.
McClusky, and J. L. Brumm, will
speak. Men's Lounge, Rackham, 6:30
There will be a meeting of Russky
Kruzhok (Russian Circle) on Mon-
day, May 14, at 7:30 (CWT) in the
International Center. Those inter-
We must be impressed with the fact that
these crimes' took place, and this impression
must last. It may hurt us to see pictures of
others tortured and murdered, but it is better
that we see others now than feel, ourselves,
WHICH POLISH government is to be recog-
nized by the United Nations-the Lublin or
the London provisional government or a new
coalition following the Yalta Formula? And
what is Russia's explanation of the arrest of
the 16 Polish leaders?
These questions are being discussed currently
at the San Francisco conference, and a decision
is imperative. The Soviet reply is expected
within a few days, and the Russian delegate may
be able to explain, to the Allies' satisfaction, why
the Polish mission to discuss cooperation between
the two governments was seized.
Basic, however, is the issue of recognition.
Russia, apparently, has been reluctant to ap-
fI'm so successfully foiling my
pursuers, Barnaby, because 11
If they put themselves in my
place-after I already am in
And I'd bring about an
arrest in no time! I'd