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May 09, 1945 - Image 6

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The Michigan Daily, 1945-05-09

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America's Huge Supply of Manpower Spelled Germany's


.; __ __ __

By The Associated Press
The combined might of America's
armed forces and supporting civilian
manpower sealed the doom of Nazi
Germany long ago.
The strength of the military grew,
mainly through Selective Service,
from a poorly armed token force of
1,000,000 men late in 1940 to a mag-
nificently equipped land, sea and air
team of 12,000,000 this year.
The nation's Army of munitions

workers alone grew to almost match-
ing size while pouring out an unend-
ing flow of weapons.
In war production as well as agri-
culture and other vital operations,
output was short of schedules some-
times because of the pinch of man-
power. But over all there was plenty
of everything-and on time.
From shortly after the first an-
niversary of America's entry into

the war, however, there was au' with so-called voluntary hiring con-
almost constant tug and strain trols, although President Roosevelt
between the manpower needs f called repeatedly for national ser-
the armed services and those LI vice legislation after first opposing
the home front. it. Congress, on the brink of passing
Requests of :the military received such a measure this year, finally
top priority. Continuous readjust- shelved it.
ment and the addition of about The nation had a running start on
4,000,000 women kept industrial an Army of 8,000,000 men and a
wheels turning at full speed. Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps
The nation managed to get along of nearly 4,000,000 when Japan

struck at Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941.
Conscription had gone into effect
in September, 1940. When the war
broke out the armed force had grown
to 2,000,000 men, and Selective Ser-
vice had supplied nearly half-921,-
More than 11,000,000 registrants
18 through 37 have entered the
armed forces, most of them through
Selective Service. In addition, sev-

oral thousand over 37 were called in
the early days of the draft. Men
who enlisted at 17 make up the bal-
ance of total strength. Separations
from the services now number more
than 1,500,000.
The first draft calls, of men 21
through 35, were extremely limited.
The number of men in training was
limited by law to 800,000 at any one
time. Moreover, inductees could not

Nazi Defeat Marks Success of Allied Conferences

Cooperation of United Nations

:,: .* *


- Lend-Lease to V-E

Here Is Story of How the Course of the
Was Planned Through Meetings of Big


By The Associated Press
In the harassed Gays of August,
1941 - When German wolf packs
roamed the north Atlantic, and Al-
lied air superiority was far in the
bloody future - the world was elec-
trfiled to hear that President Roose-
velt and Prime Minister Churchill
had met "at sea" in the North At-
Lend-lease was only a trickle of
what it became. We were not in the
war. Interventionists and non-
interventionists were at each other's
throats. This country, if it was to
put its full force behind war pro-
duction, wanted to know what Brit-
ish war policy was.
Based on Atlantic Charter
Mr. Roosevelt and Churchill wrote
an eight-point Atlantic Charter
which became the Allies' rallying cry.
The concept of collaboration grew
until more than 40 nations signed
up for the San Francisco Conference
to write a plan to secure the peace.
The charter carried only one
phrase which threads through sub-
sequent Allied statements "peace
.loving peoples." That has become
"peace loving states."
fut the charter contained many
principles which have been more and
mgre defined. It said the U.S. and
U.. "respected the right of all
peoples to choose their governments.
On that the Big Three almost came
a cropper later over Poland. At the
Yalta Conference they decided Pol-
and' should give up part of her '39
territory to Russia.
The principle stayed in as part of
the postwar pattern, however, be-
cause the Yalta pact undertook to.
insure "free elections of governments
responsive to the will of the people."
Cooperation Grows
It was sometime before the "Big
Two" became the "Big Three", Rus-
sia continued to run her own show.
At Casalanca in January, 1943-
16 months after the Atlantic Charter
-it was still the Big Two. Church-
ill and Mr. Roosevelt met to talk
military plans and declare that the
axis must accept "unconditional sur-
August 17, 1943, the Big Two met
again at Quebec to lay more mil-
itary plans, which were commun-
icated to Moscow.
Finally the Big Three nations got
together at Moscow, Nov. 1, 1943.
Their foreign ministers signed the
War Prisoners
Told of Defeat
FORT CUSTE, Mich., Ma.y 8
(P)--German prisoners of war here
received official news of Germany's
surrender at noon today with un-
changing placid expressions.
Wearing their usual PW fatigues,
they showed little resemblance to the
precise Nazi soldiers they once were,
as they filed into a field at the stock-
ade where they were to near final
news of Germany's defeat.
Standing in company formations,
the several thousand German prison-
ers listened while Major John M.
Moore, camp commandant, read over
a public address system the procla-
mation issued to all German prison-
ers in this country.
A few shifted from one foot to
another when they heard the part
that read: "The National Socialist
Government of Germany no longer
exists." They were told that Allied
occupying authorities exercise all
power in Germany, that members of
the German armed forces are re-
leased from any obligation entered
into with a government that no long-
er exists.
From outside the stockade, a tall,
blond Jewish boy, Pfc. Henry Oppen-
heimer of New York, commented
happily, "Maybe they don't feel any-

thing, but I do. This is a very special
holiday for me. You see, I was chased
out of their country in 1940." Op-
penheimer has been in the Army two

A Moscow pact, which first announcec1
to the world that the U.S.S.R. woulc
?ontinue collaboration into th
That pact said the Big Three recog-
nized "the necessity of establishing
at the earliest practical date a gen-
eral international organization, based
on the principle of sovereign equality
of all peace-loving states, and ope
to membership of all such states
large and small, for the maintenancc
of peace and security."
Dumbarton Followed
These phrases showed up almost
two years later in the Dumbarton
Oaks proposals for a world security
The Moscow pac also introduced
for the first time the idea that war
criminals must pay the price and
that nations (in this case Italy) must
erase all fascist ideas to join the
community of nations.
Directly after the Moscow pact
was announced, M r. Roosevelt,
Churchill and Chiang Kai-Shek of
China (his first conference appear-
ance) met at Cairo Nov. 22, 1943, to
announce the first terms for Japan.
They included stripping her of all
land acquired by aggression and in-
dependence "inl due time" for Korea.
Four days later Mr. Roosevelt,
Churchill and Marshal Stalin of
Russia m etat Teheran to agree on
Second Front plans for Europe and
to start plans for .post-armistice
Half a year passed and the Big
Four met at Dumbarton Oaks,
Washington, D.C., in August, 1944,
to draft proposals for an internation-
al organization. These were mulled
over by the other United Nations in
preparation for the full dress charter
writing conference at San Francisco.
Security Council Proposed
The proposals written at Dumbar-
to Oaks were for a Security Council
of 11nations to have the responsibil-
ity for stopping disputes before they
get to the battle stage, and the right
to use armies if they do. They pro-
posed to obligate members to pledge
forces in advance and to tie the
nations together to find solutions for
the world's economic and social ills.
The proposals met with almost
universal approval on broad prin-
ciples. But there were a good
many suggestions for changes.
Principally, the Dumbarton Oaks
plan failed to say how the Security
Council would vote on whether to
move armies.
So the Big Three met at Yalta on
Feb.. 4, 1945. They issued elaborate
and concrete post-armistice propos-
They said an Allied commission
would sit in Berlin to correlate plans
for Germany. They promised to in-
sure Europe free elections-a prin-
ciple first announced in the Atlantic
France Is Invited
They promised to erase the Ger-
man military and reiterated doom
for war criminals. They invited
France in as one of the occupying
nations, and recommended a fusion
government in Yugoslavia.
They announced a voting form-
ula for the Security Council which
partly removed the sting of the
veto power which Russia was de-
manding-that is, the right of any
big power to stop action by the
Security Council.
Through the conferences have run
two main threads: The military job
and the peace-time job of cementing
peace and democratic life. Yalta
probably concluded the big confer-
ences on military plans for Europe.
Strikes in Detroit
Affecting 5,000
DETROIT, May 8--(P)-Five strikes
affecting approximately 5,000 work-
ers continued today through V-E Day
in Detroit.

Workers of the Federal Mogul
Corp., who struck Monday, voted to
remain away from their jobs "until
the company agrees to negotiate with
us properly," William Parsons, presi-
dent of Local 202, United Automobile

be sent outside of the western hemis-
phere, except to U.S. territories and
possessions, including the Philip-
pines. Service was limited to one
A liberal deferment policy was
adopted, so that virtually the only
men called were unmarried and
without collateral dependents.
In August 1941 Congress relaxed
the law even more. It halted the
drafting of men over 27 and pro-
vided for discharge of men over that
age already inducted.
Almost coincidentally, however,
Congress ruled that selectees could
be held in service 18 months instead
of a year.
Even so, the pace of the draft
continued slow until Pearl Harbor.
Congress immediately removed ter-
ritorial limitations, the period of ser-
vice was extended to the duration
plus six months and calls were ex-
panded to include men 20 through
Additional registrations brought
all men 18 through 64 into Selective
Service rolls. The 18 and 19-year-
olds and men over 45 were not sub-
ject to call, however.
Draft calls jumped from 49,000 for
the month before Pearl Harbor to
100,000 i January, 1942, and 217,000
in February. By November they were
up to 450,000, the peak for the war.
The strength of the services had
increased to 6,500,000 men.
Despite this drain on the home
front, war production soared. The
manpower pool was huge and ap-
peared then inexhaustible. Late that
year, however, the unregulated
movement of manpower began to
cause serious dislocations in industry
and agriculture. Increasing the
pinch Selective Service began to call
18 aad 19-year-olds. The pressure
was eased only slightly a short time
later when drafting of men over 37
was halted.
Late that year agricultural groups
,old Congress food production was
'eing imperiled by the draft. The
Iydings Amendment instructed local
boards to defer farm workers until
replacements could be found, which
in effect meant indefinitely.
Early in 1943 conflicting de-
mands for armed and industrial
manpower had reached a "critical"
stage, so described by draft dirc-
tor Lewis B. Hershey.
State To Stope
Training for
War Plant Jobs
LANSING, May 8-(-')-The State
Board for Vocational Education is
discontinuing the wartime training
program which has trained 473,719
Michigan persons for jobs in war
plants and cost the federal govern-
ment $12,890,000 in this state.
Dr. Eugene B. Elliott, State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction, said
orders of the U. S. Office of Education
were to close all the courses by May
31. He said the federal agency is
seeking to close the books of the
program by the end of the fiscal year,
June 30.
Most of the headquarters saff of
24 persons will be shifted to other
departmental work, Elliott said, and
the 90 instructors employed through-
out the state will return to public
school systems and factories from
whence they came to the program
originally when new war plants were
unable to find enough skilled work-


PLANNED SECOND FRONT - The late President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Marshall Stalin met at Teheran, Nov. 26, 1943, to
agree on Second Front plaiis for Europe and outline a program for post-war Germany. The Teheran conference followed the Cairo agreement
relative to Japan which had been preceded by the Moscow and Quebec conferences.

Sub War Began Thirty Years Ago

WASHINGTON-(A')--Thirty years
ago Monday the American people got
their first bitter dose of unrestricted
warfare as conducted by German
Ati2:15 p. m. on May 7, 1915, the
British Cunard. steamship Lusitania
was torpedoed without warning by a
German submarine 10 miles off the
southeast coast of Ireland. Some
1,195 persons, including 120 Ameri-
can men, women and children, perish-
ed when the big liner sank 18 minutes
Many of the life boats couldn't be
launched because the ship listed so
heavily. Some boats, carrying mostly
women and children, overturned.
Prominent Americans Lost Lives
Among the prominent Americans
who lost their lives were Charles
Frohman, theatrical manager; Alfred
G. Vanderbilt, millionaire sportsman;
Charles Klein, dramatist; Elbert Hub-
bard, writer and lecturer; Herbert S.
Stone, son of Melville Stone, a found-
er and then general manager of the
Associated Press.I
The attack on a merchant ship,
without giving its non-combatant'
passengers an opportunity to save
their lives, stirred nation-wide indig-
nation. Form er President Teddy
Roosevelt called it "murder on the
high seas." Others said it was "mass
assassination." Millions, who had been
neutral in sentiment about "the far-
off war in Europe" became anti-Ger-
Although the United States did
(Continued from Page 4)
Schubert. All Graduate Students are
cordially invited to attend this con-
The Graduate Council is sponsor-
ing a Mixer and Dance May 11 in
the Rackham Building. There will
be dancing, movies, games, enter-
tainment, and refreshments. All
Graduate Students and friends are
cordially invited to join the fun at
7 p.m. Friday.
Pi Lambda Theta. spring initiation
will be held Saturday afternoon, May
12, at 12:45 (CWT) in the Assembly
Hall of Rackham Building, followed
by a reception at 2 p.m., concluding
with a lecture, "Radio in Education"
by Kathleen Lardie, Assistant Super-
visor, Department of Radio Educa-
tion. in charge of Radio for Detroit

not get into the conflict until two
years later, the incident caused the
first of a series of major diplomatic
tensions between the two govern-
ments over submarine operations.
These led finally to President Wil-
son's declaration of war on April 6,
Germans Apologize
A few days after the Lusitania sink-
ing, the German foreign office sent a
message of "sympathy and regret"
for the killing of Americans. It said,
however, that blame for the tragedy
rested upon England because it said
the British planned to starve the
German population by blockading
ports. This, it was said, forced the
imperial government to retaliatory
The Germans contended that the
Lusitania was, in fact, an armed
British auxiliary cruiser, that it had
cannon mounted under deck and
carried munitions. Dudley Field Ma-
lone, collector of the port of New
York, said the ship had been inspect-
ed before it sailed for England and
that no guns were found.
Ship Unarmed .
Cunard Line officials asserted the
ship was never armed and was as de-I
fenseless as a ferry boat. They said
the cargo included 4,200 cases of
cartridges for small arms but. that
these could not be classified as muni- E
tions under maritime regulations.
Among the other cargo items were
beef, butter, bacon, brass, copper wire
and pharmaceutical goods.
The German Embassy in Washing-
ton had inserted advertisements in
New York newspapers warning Amer-
ican tourists of the danger of travel -
ing in the "war zone" on an English
steamship. Some persons had chang-
ed their bookings from the Lusitania
Lontdon Varies
Victory Theme
Gay and sober variations of the
victory theme ran around the world
London was riot . . . Two British
soldiers and a girl danced a barefoot
jig in the muddy water of the top
basin of Trafalgar Square's fountain
... Two American officers pirouetted
on a narrow hotel ledge 100 feet
above the street in Piccadilly Circus,
emptied a bottle into the upturned
startled faces below, tossed handsful
of coins to the crowd . . . A sedate
British soldier, stripped to the waist
but wearing a necktie, walked down
Whitehall, his broad back emblaz-
oned with the lip-sticked invitation:
"Come cuddle me." -

to American ships. Others had not
seen the warning or had ignored it.
Some had counted on the speed of the
Lusitania to save her from sub at-
Newspaper reports that German
and Austrian towns were celebrating
"the great submarine victory" in-
creased the resentment. Telegrams
poured into the White House, where
President Wilson "was calmly study-
ing the situation." A few advocated'
war. It was said, however, that a
majority urged strong protest to Ger-
many but opposed resort to force.
President Urges Peace
Four days after the sinking, the
President made a speech in Phila-
delphia. Declaring our example of
peace might have a healing influence
on warring Europe, he said ther'e was
such a thing as "being too proud to
fight." Critics of his allegedly "mild"
foreign policy jumped on the "too
proud to fight" statement.
In a note to the Kaiser's govern-
nment, President Wilson said we, ex-
pected prompt steps by Germany to
prevent a recurrence of submarine
violation of the rights of U. S. citi-
zens. Some Americans characterized
his note a "s Others said it
was "too weak.'
13'yan Resigned
Secretary of St ate Wil Join .1. 1Bry-
an, anl ardent pacifist, favored a gen-
Erally milder attitude towaid Ger-
many. Three weeks-after the Wilson
note was sent to Berlin, Bryan re-
signed and went on a peace speak-
ing tour.
The exchange of notes on the Lusi-
tania case continued for about five
months. Then Germany finally in-
formed the American government
that merchant ships would not be
sunk without warning and an oppor-
tunity to save the lives of non-com-
In January, 1917, Germany an-
nounced the resumption of unre-
stricted submarine warfare. During
February and March a few American
vessels were torpedoed, and on Good
Friday the United States went to
Navy lans t oMite
* s
Air Boming Range
CHICAGO, May 8.-(P)-The Navy
confirmed today reports from Erieau
Ont., that it is preparing a 30-mile
aerial bombing range in Lake Erie.
saying the project was planned with
the permission of the Canadian gov-
Shipping officials at Erieau, oi,
the northwestern shore of the lake.
said Sunday that the range might re-
strict shinnino- movementto iand

Newly Formed
To Meet Today
A meeting of the newly-formed
All-Nations Club of the University
of Michigan will be held at 8 p. m.
EWT (7 p. in. CWT) today in the
Social Room of the International
Organized by George Hall, assist-1
ant director of the Center, the AN-
CUM plans to carry out social and
recreational programs for the large
foreign student group on campus,
coordinating the activities of the var-
ious independent national clubs.
Aims and purposes of ANCUM will
be discussed at the meeting. Accord-
ing to Hall, all students 'of the Uni-
versity, whether of foreign origin or
native Americans, who are interested
in an organization promoting the in-
tegration of national groups and their
cultures, are urged to attend.
Production of Tirasport
Planes To Be Resumed
WASHINGTON,, May 8.-(iP)-Th(
aviation industry was authorized to"
day to resume the manufacture o
transport planes for American Air.


)Klc/rigah #tleh at flar


(EDITOR'S NOTE: Contributions to
Michigan Men at war should be ad-
dressed to the Military Editor, Michigan
Daily, 4O Maynard, Street.)
According to an announcement
from the Twelfth Air Force, ROBERT
W. MANLY, staff officer with a med-
ium bomber group in the Mediter-
ranean Theatre, has been promoted to
Maj. Manly, a tax counsel in
civilian life, was graduated from
the University with an AB degree,
participating in track events while
on -campus. He is a member of Beta
Theta Pi fraternity.
The major entered service in April,
1942, and has been awarded the Air
Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster,
the Purple Heart, the European-Afri-
can Middle-Eastern Ribbon with five
bronze stars and the Unit Citation
sophomore in the Lit school when
he left the University in March,
1943, will enter West Point for
the term beginning July 1.
PFC Edwards went overseas last
November amd was honorably dis-

fencing, 'swimming, track
S * '*


Captain ROBERT L BOND, a
graduate of 1939, is a member of
the historical section of the Ninth
Tactical Air Command which has
operated in Germany. His job has
been to keep in contact with advanc-
ing ground forces.
An Oak Leaf Cluster to the Air
Medal has been awarded to Second
Lieutenant ROBERT W. RANKER,
another former student, for merit-
orious achievement while partici-
pating in bombardment missions
over enemy territory. Lt. Ranker
has been stationed in England with
the Eighth Air Force.
WARREN B. BARONE, radio op-
erator-guier on a Fifteenth Air
Force B-17 Flying Fortress, recently
was promoted to the rank of staff
Sergeant. Sgt. Barone attended the
University before entering the ser-
vice in October, 1943.
Fifteen attacks on enemy Instal-.
lations in Germany and the Bal-
kans recently won a first lieuten-
ant's bar for DONALD K. CARL-



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