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April 24, 1945 - Image 1

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1945-04-24

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it

,WEATHER
Partly Cloudy
and Cooler

VOL. LV, No. 129 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN TUESDAY, APRIL 24, 1945

PRICE FIVE CENTS

RussianFlag

Waves

Over

Half

of Berlin

:A: * *

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Germany Will Not Transport
Allied Prisoners from Camps
Big Three Cautions Against Maltreatment;
Promises 'Ruthless Pursual, Punishment'
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, April 23-The Allies tonight sternly warned the Nazis
against mistreatment of prisoners, and the United States took Germany
up on an offer to leave American prisoners-of-war in camps as Allied
forces overrun areas where they are held.
Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin joined with President
Truman in the warning that any person guilty .of maltreating any
QAllied prisoner of war, internee or

Jap Forces on
Mindanao Split,
MacArthur Says
Yanks Increase Nip
Casualties in Islands
By The Associated Press
The Japanese defenders of Min-
danao, second island of the Philip-
pines, have been split in two by fast
advancing Yank forces, Gen. Doug-
las MacArthur reported late Monday.
The general added 10,896 Japanese
dead to skyrocketing Nipponese cas-
ualties in that Archipelago carrying
the grand total close to 335,000.
33 Planes Destroyed
In the Okinawa area, where Amer-
ican doughboys ae locked in a dead-
ly struggle with strong Japanese
forces on the southern front, 33
more Nipponese planes were destroy-
ed. Fourteen were shot down and 19
wrecked aground.
Fleet Adm. Chester W. Nimitz said
in his communique that "there is no
further information on progress in
southern Okinawa."
American and British carrier planes
and naval gunners bagged the 33
Japanese aircraft in the Okinawa
and nearby islands.
Jap Casualties Mount
Total Japanese casualties in the
Philippines-most of them killed,
some prisoners-phot to 334,824 as
Gen. Douglas MacArthur added 10,-
896 dead and 353 prisoners during
the week beginning April 16. Ameri-
can losses in the same week totaled
584 killed in action, 2,168 wounded
and three missing.
The Japanese position on Minda-
nao was greatly weakened as Yank
doughboys made a rapid sweep of
30 miles.
372 Tons of Bombs
American doughboys made local
gains on Luzon fronts where sup -
porting airmen unloaded 372 tons of
bombs on Japanese positions.
Chinese forces were reported by
the Chungking high command to
have punched out new advance
against the three-pronged Japanese
drive on the American air base at
Chihkiang.
Dr. J, R. Hayde
visits campus
Dr. Joseph R. Hayden, former head
of the political science department on
leave for special work with the office
of Strategic Services, is visiting in
the city.
Recently returned from the Philip-
pine Islands, Dr. Hayden has been
connected with Gen. Douglas Mac-
Arthur's headquarters.
CAMPUS EVENTS',
Today Dr. John Gaus, Professor
of Political Science at the
University of Wisconsin,
will speak on the sub-
ject, "Social Science Divi-
sions as General Staffs at
4:15 p. m. EWT, in the
Rackham Amphitheatre.
Today Graduate Student Coun-
cil will meet at 7:30 p. m.
EWT in the East Lecture
Room of the Rackham
Building to discuss a pro-
gram for the remainder of
the semester.
April 25 Prof. John F. Shepard
will speak on the "Psy-
chological aspect of Race
Relations" at an open
meeting of Inter-Racial
Association at 7:30 p. m.
EWT in the Union.
April 26, 27, 28 Junior Girls Play,
t R..- Ti- fr mhr .f v,,11

deported citizen will be "ruthlessly
pursued and brought to punish-
ment."
Stiff Statement
The stiffly worded statement was
an obvious outgrowth of mounting
indignation over horrible conditions
found in a number of German prison
camps as American arms drive the
Nazis behind them.
This anger also reflected itself this
way here: i
A demand was voiced in the House
by Rep. Flood (Dem., Pa.) that the
captured German diplomat, Franz
Von Papen be tried "as one of the
chief agents of the Nazi hierarchy"
behind; atrocities.
To Show Movies
Another congressman Rep. Gos-
sett (Dem., Tex.) said every German
prisoner of war held in this country
should be compelled to see movies of
the murder camps uncovered by the
Allies in Europe.
Elmer Davis, of the Office of War
Information, promised that the Ger-
uans would be told "plenty" about
the wholesale horrors as part of their
re-education.
Creation of an official American
agency to investigate and record war
crimes was proposed in Congress.
Warning to All Nazis
The Truman-Churrhill-Stalin war-
ning was addressed to any German
who has charge of prisoners any-
where. It was made carefully ex-
plicit that there can be no reliance
on the excuse of orders from higher
authority, or on alibis that the acts
were carried out by subordinates
without actual authorization.
Every available means of com-
munication, including broadcasts
from Washington, Londoncand Mos-
cow, was being utilized to convey the
message to alltcommandants, guards,
Gestapo agents and other persons
regardless of service or rank, who
might have charge of Allied nation-
als.
Allied Armies
Advacec to Po,
Enter Ferrara
ROME, April 23-WP)-British
Eighth Army forces broke into the
outskirts of Ferrara tonight against
Aubborn German rearguard resist-
knce, front dispatches declared, while
rllied headquarters announced that
units of both the Eighth and the
American Fifth Army had advanced
o undisclosed points on the south-
rn banks of the Po River.
Associated Press Correspondent
George Palmer reported from the
ront that British troops, despite ex-
ensive enemy demolition work, were
closing in on Ferrara, 30 miles north
ind slightly east of recently-captured
Bologna.
North and northwest of Bologna,
British and American forces pushed
o the Po. Associated Press Corre-
;pondent Sid Feder reported from the
Fifth Army front that American tank,
artillery, infantry and air assaults
had ripped apart great portions of
the remnants of two German armies
trying desperately to escape across
the river. Thousands of terror-
Atricken Nazis appeared to have lost
the race to their chief "back door"
to safety.

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Wethen" Nayelber XTENT' OF t Co
GRIn c Ee anl
G4BURG Treuenbr ctzen
R- sslu Lubber
RES"IHTIABRLN DIE TOWAR MucERANLIES
rros sw era a n ians s a
Berin re acoringtoAmeicn ad ermnan eprsGemn
an t te othhed ine from strasen t runrezn lss
approahtoAeranfrsan b a
te bed o Koenigsbrueck ina dve t
Dressden.be R.
ED FI H IN B R N D RpVE T WARD AMER AN L NES-
BierdR torted Stlners erlin;
saed s M eager to eusolieani
an oth oth Eld a Ie f rossenha"r, ebitzn loet
Arrows h o h American s rcRus iansg h aEe aa cng ivtes.
Germans also reported Reds tooks Koenigsbrueck in a dative toward
Dresden.
ADOLFCGIES OUT:-
Hitler Reported Still in Berfin-
Isses essage to Mussohn1

By The Associated Press
LONDON, April 23.-Adolf Hitler,
reported by Nazi sources to be still in
blazing Berlin, cried out today in an
eleventh hour message to his one-
time Axis partner, Benito Mussolini,
that the "struggle for our very exis-
tence has reached its climax."
As the German fuehrer sent his
despairing report to the deposed
Duce in Milan, the Nazi "werewolf"
radio hinted at a grim. and fratrici-
dal denouement inside the embattled
capital, asserting that Germans were
now fighting Germans in the smoke-
filled streets.
Underground Broadcasts
Earlier today Nazi propagandists
broadcast that Hitler, with gauleiter
Paul Joseph Goebbels at his side, was
inside Berlin "directing from the
front line." Tonight, a station broad-
casting on the wave length used by
the underground werewolves chang-
ed this to say Hitler was not in the
city but that Goebbels, "the fuehrer's
trusted friend, is directing the Berlin
volkssturm."
This late broadcast did not say
where Hitler was but added that "the
Prof. S epard
Will Speak at
I-RAHMeeti, ,
Prof. John F. Shepard will speak
on "The Psychological Aspect of Race
Relations" at an open meeting of the
Inter-Racial Association at 7:30
p. m. EWT (6:30 p. m. CWT) tomnor-
row in the Union.
A business meeting of the organ-
ization will precede the talk, and a
treasurer and secretary are to be
elected.u
Prof. Shepard has been a profes-
sor in the Department of Psychology
here since 1918 and is acting chair-
man of the psychology executive com-
mittee. He is a member of the Am-
erican Association for the Advance-
ment of Science and of the Michigan
Academy of Science.
Prof. Shepard, who received his
Ph.D. here in 1906, has contributed
articles to various psychological jour-
nals and has written a book, "Cir-
culation and Sleep."

werewolves have been informed the
fuehrer has issued an historic order
for the German troops from the west
to march upon Berlin."
Climax of Struggle
"These tested units," it continued,
"have been ordered to intervene in
the battle for Berlin and the first of
them has already reached the capi-
tal periphery. There is no doubt a
few days, perhaps a few hours will
decide this battle."
The German radio quoted Hitler's
message to Mussolini as saying:
I Q Testiimos
Will Be Giver
To Volunteers
A chance to prove that their intelli-
gence extends to matters other than
academic psychology was recently of-
fered to students of Dr. G. H. Thorn-
ton's Psychology 31 class.
Asked to volunteer as "guinea pigs"
for a group of intelligence tests, the
recruits from the class are being given
the opportunity not only to learn
something of their intellectual capa-
city, but also to observe at first hand
how clinical instruments work.
The purpose behind recruiting
subjects for these tests was to give
students of clinical psychology a
chance to gain experience in ad-
ministering tests. The students
have been running a testing pro-
gram for both pupils of the Uni-
versity and children of grammar
school age.
There are three principle tests be-
ing given. The Stanford Billet is the
most widely used test .for individual
measurement of intelligence. It is
given to one person at a time, and
consists of a series of situations de-
scribed by the examiner, to which
the response of the subject is noted.
The Wechsler-Bellevue test is
newer than the Stanford Binet,
but has already achieved promi-
nence in the clinical field. It too
is an individual test.
The third test falls into a different
category, being a group test. This is
a revision of the old Army Alpha test
givento literate draftees of World
War I Because it was given to over
a million American soldiers in the
first World 'war, it is probably the
most standardized group test in exist-
ence. Like most group tests it can
also be given individually. The re-
vised Army Alpha test has also been
standardized on University students,
so that it is possible for a person who
has taken it to compare himself with
other students.
Two Courses Offered

Polish Issue
Dropped b
'Big. Thee'
Chinese Miister,
T. V. Soong, Arrives
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, April 23.-The Big
Three foreign ministers dropped the
tangled Polish issue today and broad-
ened the scope of their talks by call-
'ng in Chinese foreign minister T. V.
Soong tonight.
The Polish question was seemingly
dropped for the time being to await
Moscow's reaction on the discussions
thus far.
The night session longest so far,
ended just before 11:30 p. m., East-
ern War Time.
Soong, first to emerge from the
closed meeting in the office of Sec-
retary of State Stettinius, said ar-
rangements for the San Francisco
United Nations Conference were
discussed.
Asked whether the question of
trusteeships for territories to be tak-
en from the defeated Axis nations
came up tonight, Soong avoided an
answer, telling newsmen "I have to
run now to catch my plane to San
Francisco. I am late now."
The "arrangements" for San Fran-
cisco discussed tonight may have in-
volved the Russian demands for three
votes in the assembly of the world or-
ganization to be set up at San Fran-
cisco. Also under discussion could
have been requests by smaller na-
tions for a' greater voice in affairs
of a world peace-keeping agency than
was proposed for them in the Dum-
barton Oaks formula.
Anthony Eden, British Foreign
Secretary, coming out of the session
at 11:18 p.m., a few minutes behind
Soong had nothing to say beyond
the smiling comment "it's all over."
He said he was leaving tomorrow
for San Francisco.
V. M. Molotov, Russian Foreign
Commissar, stayed behind in Stettin-
ius' office until 11:27 p. in. Whether
there was a private conference dur-
ing that time was not stated. He
came out with his usual imperturable
smile and all he said was "goodnight
goodnight."
When Molotov will leave for San
Francisco was not revealed by the
Russian party.
Stettinlus and his own traveling
group left the Secretary's office a
few minutes later, laden with lug-
gage and brief cases marked for air
transport, preparing to leave at
once for the United Nations meet-
ing.
Soong had been waiting outside in
another office for about 43 minutes
before he joined Stettinius, Eden,
and Molotov in their deliberations.
They had met again at 9 p. m., after
earlier conferences during the day.
3 8 Senators
Visit Trumani
WASHINGTON, April 23-)----In
an unusual demonstration of party
loyalty, 38 Democratic senators of
varying shades of economic philoso-
phy called on President Truman to-
day and promised to back him.
Acting Majority Leader Hill of
Alabama said the delegation, made
up of all the Democratic senators in
town at the time, pledged the presi-
dent their "cooperation, goodwill and
support."

By The Associated Press
LONDON, April 23-Soviet troops
raised the Red flag of Russia over
almost half of revolt-torn Berlin to-
day and were reported battling down
Unter Den Linden, center of the
nearly encircled city which Adolf Hit-
ler had planned to be the capital of
the world for 1,000 years.
Simultaneously, in a dramatic 100-
mile surge in seven days south of the
blazing Nazi capital, Soviet forces
reached the Elbe River at Muehlberg
within 22 miles of American forces.
A three-power announcement that a
linkup had taken place was ex-
pected momentarily.
Hitler Leads Defense
Adolf Hitler, who at the gates of
Moscow had said that the Russian Ar-
my was "annihilated," was reported
leading the defense of his own blazing
capital against the legions of Premier
Stalin, who announced that only a
13-mile gap remained to be closed to
encircle the city.
Unconfirmed reports circulated
here that only a 5-mile gap remained.
The defenders of the sprawling cen-
ter of German "kultur" were fighting
a losing battle. Waves of Soviet steel
were sweeping through the smoulder-
ing streets at an almost unbelievable
rate. Some observers speculated that
the entire city might fall within two
days.
Isolate Berlin
The Russians' mighty surge to the
Elbe, believed to have been designated
as the dividing line between the West-
ern and Eastern Allies, completely
isolated Berlin from the Nazis' na-
tional redoubt in Southern Europe.
The Russians were 22 miles from
last reported American positions on
the Mulde river near Wurzen, west of
the Elbe, but the swift drive had ef-
fectively cut off all northern Germany
from the south, from Austia, Czecho-
slovakia and northern Italy.
The Nazi underground "Werewolf"
radio said the Germans were fighting

Soviet Troops Reported on
Famed Unter den Linden
N' ~iL ClAII iJU D FIIJ h N il P. UIlJ1.

Command of Blazing Capital's Defenses

She pard Gives
Reasons for
- ti-S niis,
"The social and psychological cau-
ses of anti-Semitism grow out of the
economic causes, and are all funda-
mentally the same," said Prof. John
Shepard of the psychology depart-
mentaat the fourth meeting of the
Workshop on Anti-Semitism held last
night at the Hillel Foundation.
The Nazis, coming into power
through their offer of better condi-
tions to a depressed and frustrated
youth used the Jews as a scape-goat
to take the blame for the bad condi-
tions of the country, Prof. Shepard
stated.
In pre-revolutionary Russia, the
Jews were made to take the blame
for any threat to vested interests,
with the church doing nothing to
stop the anti-Semitic feeling, he ex-
plained.
Stating that racial attitudes are de-
termined by social circumstance,
rather than innate instinct, Prof.
Shepard said that the only way to
alleviate racial prejudice is to elimi-
nate the basis of the prejudice, which,
is the competition between men over
the means to a living.
While laws will do some good, they
cannot eliminate prejudice entirely,
he asserted, citing the present law
in Russia prohibiting race prejudice,
which he stated would have done no
good under the Czarist regime.

<">

Germans inside Berlin's barricades,
reporting that "traitors were firing
at German troops in northern Ber-
lin, where waves of Red Army tanks
were plunging relentlessly toward Un-
ter Den Linden and Friedrichstrasse,
dead center of the city.
Red Broadcasts
Hint Russian,

Yank Junction.
Third Army Sweeps
Near Alpine Retreat
By The Associated Press
PARIS, Tuesday, April 24.-A pow-
erful new U.S. Third Army offensive
swept 53 miles across the northern
approaches to Hitler's Alpine fortress
yesterday as Russian forces in radio
contact with the Americans on the
U.S. First Army front hinted that
the historic junction might come
today.
A Russian from the front south of
Berlin sent "cheerful greetings to
our American comrades" crackling
across to the listening Americans.
The U.S. Ninth Army saw Russian
flares on the Berlin front, a possible
indicator that the Red Army was
approaching the Ninth Army under
cover of night.
Patton Drives Ahead
While the world awaited for this
welding of the Allies of east and west
at the center of the Reich, three
Allied armies set the whole 225-mile
southern front ablaze with a relent-
less onslaught.
Once more the powers of Lt.-Gen.
George S. Patton's Third Army was
turned on, and 33,000 prisoners were
taken in the opening hours of the
drive. Now his tanks and troops
were hurdling the river barriers 75
miles north of Munich, northern
sentinel city of the Alpine redoubt.
In 24-hour gains of 53 miles or
more, Patton's Third Army tank col-
umns- moved secretly and swiftly
125 miles from the Chemnitz sector-
struck south with stunning force,
and scattered the fanatic SS. Troops
which Hitler has chosen to stand and
die in theesouth.
Danube Line Buckles
The blows were dealt in concert
with those of the U.S. Seventh and
French First Armies, already 29 to
48 miles from the westernmost ram-
parts of the redoubt, and pouring
southward in tremendous strength.
Co lic*l Will
Meet To Discuss
Actiity Plans
The recently-elected permanent
Graduate Student Council will meet
at 7:30 p. m. EWT (6:30 p. m. CWT)
today in the East Lecture Room of
the Rackham Building to discuss a
program of social and educational
activities for the remainder of the
semester.
The Council plans to revive a sys-
tem of graduate student government
which was begun in 1938 but ceased
in 1941 because of the war. Organ-
ization of this program was begun
at the last meeting with the election
of officers and the selection of execu-
tive committees.
The officers of the Council are Bill
Akers, president; R. H. Galuzevski,
vice president; Marguerite Zielesch,
executive secretary; Ruth Hartmann,
recording secretary; and K. O. Beatty,
treasurer.
An Educational Committee to plan
forums, lectures, and moving picture
programs was set up with Ruth Silva
as its chairman. Jerome Horowitz
will head the Social Committee, and
both groups will combine to form
the Ways and Means Committee un-
der the direction of the treasurer.
Faculty sponsors of the Council are
Dean C. S. Yoakum, Assistant Dean
Peter Okkelberg, Dr. D. L, Katz, Dr.

POLITICAL SCIENTIST:
Prof, Gaus To Lecture Today
OntSocial Science Divisions

POST-WAR COUNCIL:
Mock Conference oneWorld
Peace To Be Held by Students

v

Prof. John M. Gaus, president of
the American Political Science As-
sociation and Professor of Political
Science at the University of Wis-
consin, will sneak at 4:15 p. m. EWT

vising higher administrative officers
in both state and federal 'govern-
ments. For several years he has been
chairman of the Wisconsin Planning

Eleven students from Wayne Uni-
versity will pool their opinions on
world peace with those of eleven Uni-
',ersity of Michigan students at the

students and half of the Michigan
students will participate in each of
the panels. Each debator will rep-
resent.one~ of the Allied Nations.

I

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