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April 20, 1945 - Image 1

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1945-04-20

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W7EATHER
Clear, Cool, with
Little Tempe'rature Chang

VOL. LV, No. 126 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN FRIDAY, APRIL 20, 1945

PRICE FIVE CENTS

Redi
Inner Fort of
Leipzig Falls
To U.S. First
20,000 Fanatics Are
Captured in Battle
By The Associated Press
PARIS, April 19-The inner Ger-
man fortress of Leipzig and 20,000
fanatic defenders fell today to the
U. S. First Army as to the south the
U. S. Seventh Army encircled and
captured half the Nazi shrine city of
Nuernberg'and sent tanks racing 12
miles south to within 80 miles of
Munich.
The U. S. First and Ninth Armies
inflicted the worst defeat of Hitler's
armies since Stalingrad with the final
smashing of the Ruhr pocket, cap-
turing 316,930 prisoners in that cam-
paign, including at least 11 generals.
First Phase Complete
Gen, Omar N. Bradley declared the
first phase of the U. S. First, Third,
Ninth and 15th Armies' offensive be-
yond the Rhine was completed, that
there would be a temporary pause for
consolidation "before we go into the
next," and left the uneasy German
high command to guess which direc-
tion it would take.
In that first phase, he said, 842,864
German prisoners had been taken,
and all the German forces that faced
his armies when the big push began
now had been wiped out.
160 Mile Front
With the three American armies
on, across, or nearing the Elbe River
on a front of about 160 miles, and
with a salient in the Dresden area
driven to within possibly 55 miles of
Russian lines, the main weight of the
Allied offensive veered south toward
the enemy's last mountain retreat.
The fall of Leipzig, 75 miles south-
west of Berlin, came with dramatic
abruptness after a morning pincers
assault, giving the First Army control
of a.good network of roads and rail-
ways radiating from this fifth city
of the Reich and releasing troops for
the second phase.
Take Three Generals
The U. S. Third Army was feeling
out enemy defenses in Czechoslo-
vakia 65 miles northwest of the muni-
tions city of Pilsen, and were six miles
from Asch, the Czech city where Kon-
rad Helein began his traitorous cam-
paign that surrendered the Sudeten-
land to Hitler.
As the U. S. Seventh Army stormed
into the heart of Nuernberg, it seized
three Nazi generals, including Gen.
Gotthard von Witzendorfe, chief of
all antiaircraft units in Upper Ba-
varia. All airfields near the Nazi
party capital were in American hands.
On the Seventh's right flank, the
French First Army broke all the way
through the Black Forest in a 13-mile
dash to Tubingen, 20 miles southwest
of the big communications city of
Stuttgart, which was threatened with
encirclement.
Hitler Urgres
All-Out Effort
LONDON, April 19.-(P)- Adolf
Hitler declared today on the eve of
his 56th birthday that "we are now
starting a battle as fanatical as that
which we had to fight for our ascent

to power years ago," and Propaganda
Minister Paul Joseph Goebbels called
on Germans to discard warfare rules
and use every means to defend the
f atherland.
"The rules of war of past centuries
have become out of date," Goebbels
said in his weekly newspaper Das
Reich as quoted by the Nazi Trans-
ocean Agency. "In the battle against
the terrible enemy all means are
proper, right and allowed." He add-
ed that the war "has entered a phase
in which only the utmost effort of
the nation and everyone can save
us."
CAMPUS EVENTS
Today Visitors are welcome to
observe the moon and
Saturn from 8:30 to 10:30
p.m. EWT (7:30 to 9:30
p.m. CWT) at Angell Hall
Observatory.
Today Dr. and Mrs. James P.
Adams will be the guests
at Lane Hall Coffee Hour
from 4 to 6 p.m. EWT (3
to 5 p.m. CWT).

Forces

Battle

10

Miles

from

Berlin

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Annual Convocation Tio Honor 'U'Students

New Provost To Speak
Rackham Lecture Hall.
22nd Annual Program Will Pay Tribute
To Representatives of Each Class, College
More than 550 students, representing every college in the University,
will be honored for outstanding academic achievement today at the
twenty-second annual Honors Convocation to be held at 11 a.m. EWT
(10 a. m. CWT) at the Rackham Lecture Hall.
This convocation marks the first which will not be held in Hill Audit-
orium.
James P. Adams, newly appointed University Provost, will be the
principal speaker, discussing, "Standards of Thinking."
All classes will be dismissed at 10:45

200 Students
Attend Town
Hall Meeting
Fraternities Attacked
As 'Segregationalist'
More than 200 students gathered
at last night's Student Town Hall
meeting to discuss the topic "Frater-
nities and Sororities- are they a
benefit or detriment to the campus?"
They heard an introductory pre-
sentation of the advantages and dis-
advantages of the fraternity-sorority
system which brought about a heat-
ed general discussion.
Benefits Listed
Roy Boucher stated that the aims
and benefits of fraternities are the
cultivation of friendships, the acqui-
sition of mental culture and a high
standard of morality, and the essen-
tial assistance to the individual that
is gained through his becoming a
member of a fraternity. He expressed
recognition of the fact that "the
academic standing of fraternity men
is lower, at least during the first two
years, than that of independent
men" but added that "it is the con-
tention of fraternity men that there
is a great deal more to college than
academics."
Intangible Barrier Exists
Mavis Kennedy, who stated that
she wished to limit her discussion to
sororities, said that she believed all
will "agree that there are advantages
and disadvantages that come to a
campus by the sorority system."
Among advantages, she listed that of
a congenial group of girls living to-
gether, the social training that they
stress, the activities that are stressed,
and the contacts the individual girl
keeps after graduation. Disadvan-
tages Miss Kennedy listed were the
"rather intangible barrier between
sorority and independent girls, not
as individuals but as groups", and
the lowering of scholarship through
the emphasis on activities.
Charles English, speaking of
"man's social instinct to band to-
gether," called fraternities "exceed-
ingly human organizations." He
spoke of its advantages of leadership,
congeniality, and fellowship. "The
aim of self-improvement is certainly
not to be condemned," he said.
Opposes Fraternity Principle
Bernard Rosenberg stated that he
was opposed to "any group which is
segregationalist in nature, that pits
one group against another."
"It is lamentable that we should
project injustices on a campus which
is supposed to be devoted to learn-
ing," he said, continuing, "what I
object to most is that it trivializes
education." Calling the fraternity
system "something which character-
izes our whole social order" he said
he was completely opposed to a
"tight-fisted little organization war-
ping minds, making the members
petty individuals.
"As a member of a minority group,
I can't join; neither can a Negro,
neither can a Chinese" he said while
attacking the undemocratic .basis.
He concluded, "You cannot modify
them until you modify them into
non-existence."
Erickson To Lead
Discussion Group
Wnovnf- rirmn ara te student

a. m. EWT (9:45 CWT) today in
order that students may attend the
Convocation. No 11 a. m. (EWT)
classes will be held.
Students honored include all sen-
iors in the upper ten per cent of their

13-Day 0kinawa
Deadlock Cut by
800.Yard Gainm
Fierce Naval Shelling
Softens Jap Defenses
By CLYDE BARTEL
Associated PressB ar Editor
Three divisions of American infan-
trymen, supported by one of the
most powerful naval artillery bom-
bardments of the Pacific war, broke
a 13-day stalemate on southern Oki-
nawa yesterday as they drove for-
ward 500 to 800 yards against stiff
resistance.
Adm. Chester W. Nimitz's commu-
nique today (Friday) reported the
7th, 27th and 96th Infantry Divisions
of the Tenth Army launched their
big offensive between 6 and 8 a.m.
The Japanese resisted stubbornly.
Objective Is Naha
Prime objective of the drive was
Naha, the capital city of Okinawa,
four miles south of the front line.
In the early hours of the offensive
the Yanks captured the village of
Machinato, which has a large air-
drome nearby.
Japanese remnants still resisted on
Ir Island off the west coast while
Marines mopped up the northern
end of Okinawa.
Army Mustangs attacked the At-
sugi airfield in the Tokyo area yes-
terday and destroyed or damaged 84
Japanese aircraft.
Seize Balabac Island
American troops have seized Bala-
bac Island at the southwestern tip
of the Philippines Archipelago, Gen.
Douglas MacArthur announced to-
day (Friday), in another thrust to-
ward Borneo, only 45 miles to the
south.
Twenty-Fourth Division Yanks,
meanwhile, pressed inland Wednes-
day on Mindanao to capture Cota-
bato, capital of the province of that
name in the southern part of the
Philippine Island, and then advanced
to Lumopog, 22 miles from the coast.
Second Soviet
Demand Turned
Down by U.S.
WASHINGTON, April 19--(P)-The
United States turned down for the
second time today Russia's demand
that the Warsaw Provisional Gov-
ernment of Poland be invited to San
Francisco.
The resultant impasse left offi-
cials worried about the possible ef-
fects of the United Nations meeting,
called to draft plans for a world or-
ganization.
The State Department, announcing
rejection of the twice-made Soviet
proposal for acceptance of the Mos-
cow-sponsored regime, took the posi-
tion that "only a new provisional
government of national unity formed
in accordance with the Crimea agree-
ment" should have a place at San
Francisco.
The Polish issue, storm center of
western Allied relations with Russia,
promised to be top on the list of dif-
ficult subjects to be tackled by Big
Three foreign ministers this weekend.

Student Board Member
Will Be Elected Today
Anderson, Groefsema, Hume, Martin Are
Candidates for. Vacant- Publications Post
The all-campus election from 8:30 a. m. to 3:30 p. m. EWT (7:30 to
2:30 CWT) today will determine the new student representative to the
Board in Control of Student Publications.
Allan Anderson and Cornelia Groefsema, both law students; Roberti
Hume, present member of the Board whose term expires this month; and
James Martin, Navy student, all seek the position.
Ballot Boxes on Campus
Ballot boxes will be posted in the Engine Arch, in the main lobbies of
Angell Hall, the East Medical Bldg., and the Law Club; and on the second
floor of the Architecture Bldg. and the Dental Bldg.
The Union staff has posted a series of notices around the campus
urging all students to vote today, and reminding them that their identifi-
cation cards will be needed. Because<#

. , 'U' PROVOST ADAMS
..to address convocation.
class and juniors, sophomores, and
freshman who have at least 'B plus'
scholastic averages.
The Honors Convocation was
conceived in 1924 by President Mar-
ion LeRoy Burton to publicly rec-
ognize outstanding scholasticI
achievement by University students.
Since that time, such prominent
men as Dr. Ernest M. Hopkins,
president of Dartmouth; Dr. George
E. Vincent, former president of the
Rockefeller Foundation; Dr. Rob-
ert Maynard Hutchins, president
of the University of Chicago and
Viscount Halifax, British Ambassa-
dor to the U. S., have addressed
Convocations.
Dr. Adams, left his post as vice-
president of Brown University to ac-
cept the position of Provost at the
beginning of this year. He received
both his A. B. and M. A. degrees
here and is nationally known in the
field of economics.
Shot Brother,
Youth admits
Ralph Burton, 11, of 1205 Joy Rd.,
admitted last night that he shot his
brother, Ray, 14, following a "quar-
rel".
Ray, reported in serious condition
with six shot gun pellets in his lung
following the Tuesday shooting, was
admitted to University Hospital 24
hours before county sheriff's officers
were tipped off about the supposed
accident.

these same posters can be used ef-
fectively for later elections, students
are asked not to mutilate the signs
in any way.
Election Rules
Campus election rules which apply
to this election include:
1. At least two persons will be sta-
tioned at the ballot boxes during poll-
ing hours. Today these will be mem-
bers of the Union staff and the
Women's Judiciary Council.
2. No campaigning will be allow-
ed within 50 feet of the ballot boxes.
Campaigning is defined as any at-
tempt to influence the decision of
qualified voters.
3. Electors may vote only once.
Electors may vote for only one can-
didate.
Identification Cards Required
4. All voters must present iden-
tification cards, which will be checked
by the poll attendants.
5. Ballot will be given the voter at
the time his ident card is checked.
6. Ballot .will be filled out and
folded by the voter and handed to
the attendant.
Attendant's Duties
7. Attendant will stamp and im-
mediately place ballot in box in full
view of the voter.
8. Ballot boxes will be checked,
locked and sealed before the elec-
tion by members of the Men's Judi-
ciary Council.
9. After the election, ballot boxes
will be collected, opened and count-
ed by members of the Men's Judi-
ciary Council in a private room. No
unauthorized person will be present
while ballots are being counted.
10. The total vote and the vote for
each candidate will be published in
The Daily tomorrow.
Prof. Slosson To
Conduct Discussion
"The Five Roads to San Francisco"
is the topic of a fireside discussion to
be led by Prof. Preston W. Slosson
of the history department at 8:30
p. m. EWT (7:30 CWT) today at
the Hillel Foundation.
The discussion, taking place dur-
ing national Dumbarton Oaks Week;
will open with a talk by Prof. Slos-
son, in which he will emphasize the
importance of the "Big Five," and
discuss their policies and position in
the world, explaining how this will
effect their stand at the San Fran-
cisco conference.

Kershner Calls
For Post-War
Youth Training
Explains Work of Save
Children Federation
"The coming generation of free-
dom-loving people must be better
equipped, both mentally and physic-
ally, for its job of establishing democ-
racy," Dr. Howard Kershner, vice
president of the Save the Children
Federation declared yesterday in a
talk "Saving the Future."
Speaking before the , Post-War
Council and the Ann Arbor branch
of the Save the Children Federation,
Dr. Kershner explained the work
of the Federation, which is organiz-
ed in 27 nations to relieve suffering of
child victims of war.
"Three great migrations of refu-
gees," Dr. Kershner said, "have been
cared for by the federation." "These
included the one half million Span-
iards who migrated into France after
;he Civil war and, during the present
war, one-half million evacuees from
Eastern France and five million
people who were forced to move when
Germany invaded northern France."
Dr. Kershner explained that the
Save the Children Federation gath-
ered orphans into colonies, estab-
lished canteens in public schools, dis-
tributed vitamins, established clinics
for the distribution of milk and at-
tempted to bring together, childrer
and parents who were separated.
In order to avoid overlapping
among the various relief agencies in
Europe, Dr. Kershner explained, each
one is required to clear with the Am-
erican Council of War Relief Agen-
cies and the War Relief Control
Board.
"The Save the Children Federa-
tion," Dr. Kershner said, "was es-
tablished 26 years ago. Thirteen
years ago it inaugurated a plan of
sponsoring help in the public schools
of the South. The project later spread
to Europe."
Dr. Kershner is planning to go to
Europe next month to carry on his
war relief work.
Pan-A merican
Ball Is Set for
League Tonight
The Pan-American Ball, featuring
the music of Russ Girt and his orche-
stra, will be held from 9 to 12 p. m.
EWT (8 to 11 p. m. CWT) today in
the League Ballroom.
Postponed a week due to the death
of President Roosevelt, the ball is
presented by the Latin American So-
ciety. The American Legion and
members of the faculty will be spe-
cial guests.
The twenty-one flags of the Pan-
American Union will be presented as
a part of the Latin floor show. Rhy-
thm and dance numbers will be pro-
vided by members of the club.
Tickets are on sale at the League,
the Union and the International Cen-
ter.

Nazis Report
Soviets Cross
Spree River
Near Strausberg,
Cross Oder, Neisse
By The Associated Press
LONDON, Friday, April 20.-The
Soviet High Command officially an-
nounced late last night that a great
Berlin-bound battle was raging be-
fore the German capital and Nazi
reports said Russian tanks were
thrusting toward Strausberg, only
ten miles from the burning city.
Clamping operational silence on
what Berlin has called "the greatest
Red Army offensive of the war,"
Moscow's nightly war. bulletin an-
nounced only that Red Army forces
had crossed both the Oder and Neisse
Rivers east and southeast of Berlin.
Raging for Three Days
The communique did not reveal
the depth of Soviet penetrations due
east of Berlin, but said that fighting
had been raging for three days for
the "capture and extension" of
bridgeheads. This was the first Mos-
cow announcement that bridgeheads
a1ad been secured.
Along the Neisse 'River, Moscow
revealed that the towns of Forst,
Moskau and Weiswasser, 58 to 72
miles southeast of Berlin had been
captured.
But the Germans said that these
forces had driven farther west, cross-
ed Berlin's own River Spree and
plunged within 55 miles of the Amer-
icans.
Drive Described
Moscow described the drive across
the Neisse as in the "Dresden dire-
tion," but regarding battles due east
of Berlin the Soviet communique said
only:
"During the past three days in the
area of the central grouping of our
troops, there has been reconnais-
sance in strength which went over
to fighting for the capture and ex-
tension of bridgeheads on the Rivers
Oder and Neisse."
Nazis Admit Weakness
The Germans confessed them-
selves unable to halt the continuous
flow of powerful Red Army forces
pouring into multiple bridgeheads
across the shattered Spree River
defense line.
The German High Command said
the Russians were throwing into the
colossal struggle "men and material
to an extent hitherto unknown,"
while German commentators said
that the battle before Berlin "has
assumed such proportions and fero-
city as was never before witnessed
in this most bloody of all wars."
Houghton's Life
Is Discussed
Martin Gives Talk on
First State Geologist
The life of Dr. Douglass Houghton,
first professor of geology at the Uni-
versity and first geologist of the state
of Michigan, was discussed by Miss
Helen Martin of the state Geologi-
cal Survey at 4:15 p. m. EWT (3:15
o. m. CWT) yesterday in the Rack-
ham 'Amphitheatre in a ceremony
commemorating the hundredth anni
versary of his death.
Miss Martin, who is a research
geologist with the Geological Sur-
vey Division of the State Department
of Conservation, has made a special
study of the life of Dr. Houghton.

She is in possession of many histo-
rical documents relating to this pio-
Neer Michigan scientist.
Besides being the anniversary of
Dr. Houghton's tragic death when
his small boat overturned in a Lake
Superior snow squall, 1945 is the
hundredth anniversary of the open-
ing of the northern copper country
of Michigan. The first shipment of
copper ore was sent out from the Cliff
Mines in 1845.
'Citizen Kane' Runs
Tonight, Tomorrow
"Citizen Kane" will be shown at
8:30 p. m. EWT (7:30 p. m. CWT)
today and tomorrow in the Lydia

TOPIC IS VOTING AGE:
Final High School Debate Is Today

FRANCIS NELSON
. . .Grand Rapids

DICK CLAUSEN
. . . Lansing

MARJORY CLAUSEN
. . . Lansing

MORRIS CAMINER
. . . Grand Rapids

The climax of a state-wide high
school debating tournament will
come at 3 p.m. EWT (2 p.m. CWT)
today when the Twenty-Eighth An-
rm 1 li.- ann chin flnl-.r.+ l a i p

take the negative for Union High
School, Grand Rapids.
Union High School has participat-
ed in two previous championshp de-
hates. in 1930-31 and in 1941-42 win-

losing teams by Marquis E. Shattuck,
director of language education in the
Detroit public schools, who will act
as chairman. Wristdwatches will be
awarded all four debaters by the

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