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April 15, 1945 - Image 4

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ilhr Al-r4tgan" Ball

Dumbarton Oaks Explained

Letters to the Editor


ifty-Fifth Year



Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
.Editorial Staff

Evelyn Phillips
Margaret Farmer
Ray Dixon
Pauil Sulin .
Hank 'Mantho
Dave Loewenberg
Mavis Kennedy
Ann Schutz
Dick Strickland
Martha Schmitt
Kay McFee

. . . Managing Editor
. . . . Editorial Director
. . . . . City Editor
Associate Editor
. . . . Sports Editor
. . . Associate Sports Editor
. . . . Women's Editor
. . Associate Women's Editor
Business Staff
. . . Business Manager
. . . Associate Business Mgr.
. * . Associate Business Mgr.

Telephone 23-24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for, re-publication of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited in this newspaper. All rights of re-
publication of all other matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second-class mail matter.
Subscriptions during the regular school year by car-
rier, $4.50, by mail, $5.25.
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publisbers Representative
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1944.45
Editdrials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
We Go On
rjHE death of a president is no . longer news.
Roosevelt the person is gone, and no torrent
of mental tears on our part can bring him back.
Unfortunately perhaps, for our own emotional
gratification, there has never been a man whose
passing was great enough to stop the activities
of the world. One man goes, immediately another
steps into his place and the peoples concerned,
after a slight and relatively momentary shock,
continue doing their business as usual.
Next week many of us will have forgotten the
actual time and day that Roosevelt died, al
though for 24 hours after that event any man
on the street could have told you. A month, and
the whole affair will have been practically for-
gotten, so immersed will we be in the "news" of
that new morning's paper, the business appoint-
ment 'we must rush to, the bluebook coming up.
Whether or not that phenomenon of human
nature is good or right or what "should" happen,
the ethicists will continue to argue about. Suffice
it to say, Nostradamus-like, that it will happen.
A war is still being fought; a conference will
be held this month in San Francisco; we will
still go to classes; we will still care about the
fortunes of our loved ones. The pleasant monot-
ony of routine will still direct our lives, in spite
of its having been so rudely interrupted.
It is not for us now to mourn what might have
been. It is not for us now to beat our breasts and
to commiserate our own poor souls because we as
individuals have lost something that might have
done us some good.
If we had aoy ideals at all about world peace
-about the way we wanted to live-those
ideals will still be carried out. That they were
the ideals of one man who is gone is now un-
important. That they are our own ideals-we
who are still here-is vitally important. One
man alone could have done nothing. He needed
the faith and help and the common ideals of
millions of people all over the world. If we still
have that faith and the desire to help that we
had last week, then all of us will still fulfill
those ideals. We may have to work a little
-Ray Shinn

By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, April 14-Of the thousands of
letters about the Dumbarton Oaks plan that
come in to the State Department each week,
many ask questions to which the Department
sends replies.
The Oaks plan outlines a world organization,
a charter for which is expected to be drafted at
the San Francisco conference called for April 25.
Such a charter would have to be approved by the
home governments of the delegates.
A Council of representatives of 11 nations
would be the action agency of the association
as now proposed. It would consist of five per-
manent members from the "Big Five" nations
-Russia, Britain, the U. S., France and China
-and six members serving two-year terms
from the smaller nations. A majority of seven
would be necessary to call on member nations
to use force against an aggressor nation-and
the seven would have to include all the Big
Keeping To nether
H E HELD US TOGETHER. The thing about
him was that he held us together. If you
were to tell his story in a sentence, you would
have to say it that way. He did not know that
was going to be his job when he came to the
White House. He came in, in 1933, on a promise
to cut the budget, and to save money. There
were those who never forgave him for not keep-
ing that promise.
It was only after he came in that he first
caught sight of his other job, and he began
to feel his way toward keeping us together.
Maybe that explains his cheerfulness and his
humor. It was said of him that he could
spend a billion without worry. His smile used
to infuriate men who cannot look upon a
billion without taking off their hats. But I
think he knew that the world was in a bad
time, and that the billion (yes, even when
spent on leaf-raking) was perhaps an answer;
not an answer for eternity, but good enough
for a year or two. He knew somehow that for
us to stay together for a year or two, was a
sufficient victory, in a decade which had
spawned Hitler.
Leaf-raking was silly. You cannot tell me
he did not know it was silly. He knew. But as
against the concentration camp, it was noble.
As against what happened in Spain, leaf-raking
even had grandeur. I think he knew these
things, and there was knowledge of them in his
smile when he was attacked and baited.
He said no answers that were good for a hun-
dred years. But in a six-month crisis he always
had a six-month answer. Maybe it was sometimes
clumsy and awkward, but it would get us by
the six months.
When they would ask him what he thought,
he had accomplished, he would smile, or make
a joke with the correspondents, or shake his
head. But he knew what he had accomplished.
He had got us by the six months, at a time
when men around the world were at each
other's throats, and blood flowed in the streets
of Berlin, and Paris, and they shelled the
workmen's houses in Vienna. Maybe he had a
right to smile, and to think that a billion was
not so much; maybe he knew what he had got
for it, and that it was a bargain.
If you would look for the secret springs of
continuity in him, for the one word which makes
his career coherent, you will find it, I think,
only in this explanation. Even when war came to
the world, he never moved so fast that our line
pulled out thin and partedin the middle. There
was once when it looked as if he had, that was
when he proposed lend-lease. There were some
who thought that now Americans would separate
into fighting factions, and be at each other.
But he knew. Perhaps it was because his ambi-
tion had been the small and humble one of
merely keeping us together that he always
seemed to know. If it was a humble ambition,
it included all the greater ones. Angry men
would ask him: "What will happen if we con-
tinue these policies for a hundred years?" He
would smile, sometimes infuriatingly, but it was
perhaps his thought that this was a strange
question to ask at a time when great nations
could perish in a twelve-month.

He kept dn equilibrium, maybe an uneasy,
shifting one, but he kept it; he kept the ball
rolling, toward the great plain, where someday,
at leisure, we may consider the questions of a
hundred years.
There were some who thought that he did not
keep us together, that he set class, against class.
These critics were often angry men, themselves,
not too good at holding hands, or keeping step;
not experts in unity certainly, and furious that
our national unity had been enlarged. It is larg-
er now than it ever was. We are still shouting,
but we are still in a room together, and it is a
bigger room than it used to be, and there are
more people in it.
In one of his last gestures, he accepted the
nomination of the nman who is the new Presi-
dent, and he did that, too, just to keep us to-
gether, and that puts a special obligation on
the new President, to carry forward the hum-
ble impulse toward unity which is the only
reason for his own elevation. He should say
often to himself that when we don't know
where we are going, we must go in a body.
(Copyright, 1945, New York Post Syndicate)

Five, even if one of them was involved in the
Here are some of the questions Americans ask
most frequently and the kind of replies they get:
Question-How can the proposed world or-
ganization work if Britain and Russia are play-
ing power politics?
Answer-Power politics aren't bad in them-
selves. It depends on whether a country uses its
power cooperatively or for selfish ends.
Q-Why would the big countries have all the
A-They wouldn't. Six seats on the Council
would be for the less powerful states. The big
powers would have five. This isn't undemocratic
because these five would have the main responsi-
bility for keeping peace.
Q-Would the U. S. representative in the se-
curity council have a blank check to send us to
A-No. He would be able to commit only a
limited part of American armed forces against an
aggressor. Congress would retain the power to
declare war.
Q-What if one of the great Allies became an
A-Dumbarton Oaks has no answer, but meas-
ures for improving economic and social condi-
tions and discussing security are designed to cut
down the chances that a big Ally would go on
the rampage.
Q-Would England have six votes?
A-The British empire would probably be rep-
resented by six states in the Assembly, but Eng-
land itself would have only one vote. Past experi-
ence shows that the Empire votes are very fre-
quently split.
(The White House disclosed March 29 that at
the Yalta conference American representatives
agreed to support a Russian request that the
Soviet be given three members in the Assembly,
including two for two of its Republics. At that
time it was said the U. S. would also ask for three,
but on April 3 Secretary of State Stettinius said
President Roosevelt had decided the U. S. would
not seek the extra votes after all.).
Q-Would the six non-permanent council
seats be distributed by regions-Latin America,
Asia and Europe?
A-The plan merely provides that those places
should be filled by the Assembly. However, it is
expected that they would represent the world's
main areas.
Q-Would arguments be settled without us-
ing force?
A-Dumbarton Oaks provides for peaceful set-
tlement of disputes-with force ready to back it
Q-What would the organization do about
A-Nothing, unless they menaced international
Q-What would the organization do about
colonies and minorities?
A-The Dumbarton Oaks proposals pledge pro-
motion of "respect for human rights and funda-
mental freedoms." Negotiations are still required
to replace the old League of Nations mandate
system and to set up government for colonies to
be taken from the Axis. -
Q-What good would the Assembly be if it
could only make recommendations?
A-It could marshal public opinion and ini-
tiate studies into situations which might menace
peace. Also, the Assembly would elect non-per-
mahent members of the Council, members of the
Economic and Social Council and admit new
Q-What is the connection between Dumbar-
ton Oaks, Bretton Woods, Hot Springs, UNRRA,
the I.L.O. and other international agencies?
A-An Economic and Social Council is provided
to give overall direction to international groups
by special agreement. It would be up to Congress
to carry out our end of agreements in particular
Q-What international plans are there for
controlling education in Allied countries; in
Axis countries?
A-An organization was proposed in London
last spring. It, would be cooperative and not in-
tended to regulate schools in Allied countries.
As for the Axis, that's up to occupation author-

THE RIGHT of free speech got off to a good
start in Ann Arbor in 1861, when University
seniors maintained order at an abolitionist
Wendell Phillips, anti-slavery speaker, had
trouble getting a hall because the previous
speaker's meeting had been broken up with
much violence by Southern partisans. Finally,
he was given the use of the old Congregational
Church at Fifth and Washington Streets-the
trustees said they were willing to risk losing
the building for the cause of free speech.
Word spread, and the class of '61 called a mass
meeting on campus to aid Phillips. When an
angry crowd attempted to hiss the orator to
silence, it was faced with students armed with
hickory clubs. The meeting was then conducted
without further interruption.
And, according to Noah Cheever who record-
ed the incident in 1895, "there has been no
serious disturbance of public meetings since."
-Milt Freudenheim

Rushing Reform.
Last week The Treadmill pre-
sented a thorough discussion of the
rushing system as practiced on this
campus. It was not only a timely
subject, but an imperative one. If
sororities are to remain and to justify
their existence on any campus, they
must find a way to solve this, their
own biggest problem. No sorority
woman after this year (a curious
combination of hush-hush followed
by three weeks of furious rah-rah)
could possible approach midsemester
exams with anything close to mental
serenity. Even worse, it seems to me,
is the effect those three weeks must
have had on the underclassmen who
were rushed.
True enough, the present rushing
system was successful from a less
stodgy and academic point of view.
Every sorority on campus was pleased
with its direct results-pledges. That
is as it should be, but it does not solve
the problem. The problem, for a
large number of sorority women, is
how to carry two majors-one in the
university and the other in dear old
Chi Zeta Hoo. Those three weeks,
virtually "on vacation," were no cas-
ual consideration for most of us who
find it necessary to open books at
frequent intervals.
I believe that sororities sincerely
desire to achieve their agreed objec-
tives. Good scholarship is surely a
campus-wide, common objective. If
for no other reason (and there are
other obvious reasons) the rushing
system must be managed in such a
way that it will augment, rather than
detract from, the primary aim of col-
lege attendance. I think it could be
First + of all, there should be no
rhingof any kind during the school
Second, if under normal peace-
time conditions all women can live
in dormitories, I see no reason why
they should be deprived of this
privilege. Entering freshmen would
have at least one year in a dormi-
tory, during which they could get
their bearings, academically and
socially, without the complications
of sorority obligations. During this
year, there would be no "silence,"
no artificial barriers between soror-
ity and non-sorority women, ex-
cept those maintained by the soror-
ity women themselves who must
honorably support the system to
which they are committed. "Dirty
rushing" has no place and no ne-
cessity at the University of Mich-
These freshmen, then, would not
be rushed until their second year.
They would have made their grades
and have had an opportunity to de-
cide whether or not they wanted to
join a sorority.
Finally, for a week preceding the
beginning of the fall term of their
second year, those women who
wished to go through rushing would
come back early for a week devoted
to that purpose. The sororities,
under such a plan, would have
ample time to do all the neces-
sary organization, and when clases
begin, they would be ready to begin
with them, as would their pledges.
This plan is hardly a revolutionary
one; it has been used successfully in
many colleges. With the backing of
our strong Pan-Hellenic and consid-
eration for the sound advice of Dean

Lloyd, who hasbeen working with
them, I see no reason why it would
not be practicable on the Michigan
Undeniably, something must be
done soon.
Peggy Goodin, '45
Afidihary Training
I was both annoyed and alarmed
by the recent Elkus-Shinn editorial
on military training. I have read
enough editorials by both writers to
have a certain amount of respect for
them as intelligent, mature thinkers;
but when they produce such a mas-
terpiece of fallacious argument, my
faith drops fast.
The tone of the article is similar to
that found in mud-slinging election
speeches rather than on an editorial
page. Surely here, if anywhere, sub-
jects should be examined logically
and charges should be answered
simply and to the point. The petty,
personal tone of ridicule sounds like
cover up for a weak argument. Also,
the writers do not answer Miss Shive-
ly. She favors military training as
preparation in case Dumbarton Oaks
falls through, but she does not advo-
cate raising a big standing army.
Ridicule of a standing army is no
answer to arguments for military
training of one year.
This attitude of dodging the issue
alarms me even more because I agree
that the military training program
is negative. The constructive part of
their editorial is excellent. But the
unfavorable impression created by an
editorial supporting my view hurts
my position more than an editorial or
letter stating the other side.
Actually, Miss Shively's letter is
answerable. Though the editorial-
ists don't seem to realize it, Miss
Shively confuses the body of men
we wouldehave under training with
the smaller standing army we plan
to use as la police force. This con-
fusion may explain their charge
that she demands a large standing
army. We must talk only in terms
of actual bills before Congress, and
they are for training, not fighting.
Further, her argument about a well
informed public is beside the point.
Military training in 1931 to 1941
would have made very little difference
so long as the public attitude was the
same. There is still the argument that
a head-line reading populace could
hardly be called well informed even
if we were sure our press is free and
unbiased, but that is not mentioned
in her letter and does not concern
military training directly. Personally,
I feel that alert participation in Dum-
barton Oaks added to or, if you are a
cynic, instead of an alert public is
more worthwhile on a realistic as well
as idealistic basis.
Finally, the whole question of
military training in peacetime has
larger connotations than those
mentioned here. Since a statement
of my views would take too much
space, I suggest Hansen Baldwin's
article on this subject in the March
issue of Harper's. I do not agree
with him absolutely since I had
formed my opinions before I read
his article. Nevertheless, this seems.
the best statement I have seen of
just why military training does
nothing which can not be done bet-
ter by other agencies spending the
same amount of time, effort and
Shirley Hastings

Dominic Says
IN a nearby county the divorces per
year have already outrun the mar-
riages. Marriage, for the religious
man, is the inclusive experience be-
cause in the family are defined a
wider compass of energies and loy-
alties than in other orientations. Here
is the drive of reproduction, the pro-
tective prowess of parent abroad for
food and at home providing security,
status and guidance for children. ,
This reversal of ratio can hardly be
charged to city life, for the county
is rural, not urban. A few years ago,
when the slump registered that every
tenth marriage ended in divorce, we
blamed the church for lack of home
training, the school for progressive
leniency, the state for easy contracts,
modernism for sex levity, secularism
for immorality and industrialism for
bad manners. Who shall be the scape-
goat today, when this drop has taken
place rapidly while all of the chief
institutions are holding steady and
the war is putting us through a dis-
zipline? What of religion?
Religion and its leaders, historic-
ally, have been the key to an arch
forced by emotion and intellect. It
is at the juncture of feeling and
thought that every crisis takes
place: birth; naming or christen-
ing; puberty and reception into the
adult community; engagement and
marriage; choice of occupation and
first break from home; sickness or
accident; retirement and death. At
these stations we visit the altar or
the pastor temporarily takes over
the life of the community. That is
the function of the minister of re-
ligion. Psychological and social rea-
sons for this fact reside in the
theory of existence. Religion is
man's private acceptance of the
facts of life in a submissive, con-
ciliatory, temperate fashion. Here
the religious leader gets his specific
place among the agencies, institu-
tions, practices or habits of the cul-
Now, in the past one hundred years
in the United States and also in Euro-
pean nations we have failed to bring
our religious leadership and religious
methods abreast of the life men must
lead. We have sung: "The Old Time
Religion, It was good enough for
Father, it is good enough for me." It
sings well but it is not quite true. I
dare say, were it true, that old time
religion would have saved us. Had
the old time religion been adequate,
homes would be able to endure the
changes, namely: women put into
industry and greater freedom granted
the sexes. But you ask, why assume
that the homes, by means of an ef-
fective religion, would have withstood
all of the many social changes? Are
we not asking too much of that single
institution? Why select the home and
not the state, the school, the church,
the business, the union, the club, as
the central agency?
The late Charles Horton Cooley,
one of Michigan's great scholars, gave
an analysis which was so simple that
few, if any, of his contemporaries
credited it with having value.- He
pointed out that a civilization will be
strong in proportion to its ability to
produce in general society the atti-
tudes and habits which we treasure in
the primary, or family group.
This is a Judeo-Christian thesis,
but Cooley stated it in sociological
and scientific terms. His work will
live for a century after most of the
writings of his day have been for-
gotten. To move close to that tra-
dition which is the soul of our
western culture, the Bible, but also
make use of every technique pe-
culiar to our scientific period is
asking much, but, the solution of
such problems as the tendency for
divorce to overtake marriage de-
mands it. Prof. Cooley qualified at

the point of that need. Such men
are the creative spiritual leaders of
our complex century.
Edward W. Blakeman
Counselor in Religious Education
later than Saturday, April 28.
Report cards are being distributed
to all departmental offices. Green
cards afe being provided for freshmen
reports and white cards for reporting
sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Re-
ports of freshmen and sophomores
should be sent to 108 Mason Hall;
those of 'juniors and seniors to 1220
Angell Hall.
Midsemester reports should name
those students, freshmen and upper-
classmen, whose standing at mid-
semester is D or E, not merely those
who receive D or E in so-called mid-
semester examinations.
Students electing our courses, but
registered in other schools or colleges
of the University should be reported
to the school or college in which they
are registered.
Additional cards may be had at
108 Mason Hall or at 1220 Angell
E. A. Walter.
Applicants for Combined Curric-
ula: Application for admission to a
combined curriculum must be made
before April 20 of thefinal pre-
professional year. Application forms
may be obtained at 1220 Angell Hall
and should be filed with the Secre-
tary of the Committees at that office.
Spanish Play: The Sociedad His-










Clothig Drive

SUNDAY, APRIL 15, 1945
VOL. LV, No. 122
Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all miem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to tie President,
1021 Angell Hail, by 2:30 p. mn. of tihe day
preceding publication (10:30 a. m. Sat-
Memorial to President Roosevelt:
The University will commemorate
the death of President Franklin Del-
ano Roosevelt in a memorial service
to be held at 3 p.m. (4 P.M. EWT),
today, in Hill Auditorium. Seats will
not be reserved. Students, members
of the faculty and staff, and citizens
of Ann Arbor are invited to attend.
To the Members of the University
Council: There will be a meeting of
the University Council on Monday,

VOU complain that everything-including that
new pair of saddles you wanted-is rationed.
There is something, however, that has never been
subject to rationing: generosity. The United
National Clothing Collection which will continue
until Saturday, April 21, has called this week,
"Clean Out Your Closet Week." Everyone is urged
to dig out that old sweater, skirt, suit or pair of
shoes to help give some destitute person in the
devastated European countries a "new lease on
This is a chance for us to do our part. We're
not being asked to give up a precious dime or two
for some charity drive, not being asked to sacri-
flce any little thing in our daily lives.
Dormitories, league houses, sororities and fra-
ternities have been urged to organize clothing
collections within their houses. Clothing pick-
ups may be arranged by a call to the Office of
Civilian Defense, or deposits can be made at the
Ann Arbor Armory (corner of E. Ann and Fifth)

April 16, at 3:15 p.m., in the Rack-
ham Amphitheater.
School of Education Faculty: The
April meeting of the faculty will be
held on Monday, April 23, instead of
April 16 as o'riginally scheduled.
Honors Convocation: The 22nd an-
nual Honors Convocation will be held
on Friday morning, April 20, at 10
o'clock, CWT, at Rackham Lecture
Hall. Provost James P. Adams will
deliver the address, "Standards of
Thinking." The only seats reserved
will be those for honor students and
their parents. There will be no aca-
demic procession, and academic cos-
tume will not be worn. To permit
attendance at the Convocation,
classes, with the exception of clinics,
will be dismissed at 9:45. Doors of
the Lecture Hall will open at 9:30.
The public is invited.
Orchestra Rehearsal: The Univer-
sity Symphony Orchestra, Gilbert
Ross, Acting Conductor, will meet in
Lane Hall at 3 p.m. CWT, Tuesday,
April 17, for regular rehearsal. On
Friday, April 20, the orchestra will
meet in Hill Auditorium at the usual
Group Hospitalization and Surgi-
cal Service: Through April 16, the
University Business Office (Rm. 9,
University ,Hall) will accept new ap-
plications as well as requests for


Did Gus's friend teach him
how to walk through closed
doors yet, MO'aly?


He practiced all e
too. He was a pre
bruised Ghost wh(
the haunted house

vening, Why don't Joke and Gus
esty badly go to yourofc nthes
en I leftyor
e.. . Joke datm oadtyour

By Crockett Johnson
Yes, I know. But Jake insists upon
gliding in through locked doors. As,
he says, Ghosts are supposed to ...

I 1


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