rV-1-ILK M-TV U-T V- A M Tlh A I I v
SATURDfAY, AP~RIL 1.1 1942
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NIGHT EDITOR: ROBERT MANTHO
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of The Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
Why Labor Unions
Must Be Defended .
THOSE OF US who write what are
sometimes called "pro-labor" edi-
torials have in the past few days been subjected
to a good deal of friendly criticism by a member
of the economics faculty. He has taken us to
task-both in and out. of class-for "constantly
presenting a biased view on the labor question"
and for "never admitting that unions are some-
times in the wrong."
His criticisms are not ones which we can
politely ignore or lightly brush aside-they are
legitimate ones and they are difficult to answer.
They raise a problem which has troubled liberals
from the very beginning of the trade union
Tr MANY READERS of our "pro-labor" edi-
torials it must, indeed, seem as though we
find no fault with labor; it must sometimes ap-
pear that we think trade unionism is as perfect
in practice as we believe it is sound in theory.
The important point here, however, is that this
appearance stems not from any denial on our
part of the sins of labor, but rather from a deter-
mination not to join the daily attacks upon
unions which are all out of proportion to the
evils-both real and imaginary-that are de-
This distinction is important. We have never
denied that there are racketeers in labor, that
unions have used illegal methods to coerce
employers, that some labor leaders are only after
personal power and glory, that unions have been
known to be as totalitarian in technique as
Nazi Germany or Fascist Italy. But we have
always insisted that these evils existed in only a
minority of trade unions; we have always in-
sisted that the reactionaries and the majority of
newspapers have constantly placed the faults of
the minority at the feet of the entire labor
SUCH ACTION on the part of labor's enemies,
however, cannot be used as an excuse for not
cleaning out every vestige of the parasitic
growths which are constantly adding fuel to
reactionary fires. No labor movement which is
not entirely democratic, which does not rid itself
of all its racketeers, thugs and power-mad poli-
ticians can ever hope to earn the complete confi-
dence of the American people.
But we believe that the majority of unions,
are honest and that the majority of labor lead-
ers are honestly striving for the good of the
workers. We know that there are men like the
Reuther brothers, like Philip Murray, tike Sidney
Hillman, like James Carey and thousands of
others who make the trade union movement
what it is today-an essentially progressive,
clear-headed, vital force for democracy.
AND THIS IS WHY, when we find time to
write an editorial for the columns of The
Daily, we feel that the time is best spent in
arguing for democracy--in the form of labor-
rather than against it. We weigh the good in
trade unionism against the bad; and in view of
shortened hours, higher pay, better conditions
and higher living standards for the working
man we can come to no other conclusion than
that the good far outweighs the bad.
And we choose to fight for the good, We choose
to help protect this dynamic force for democ-
racy from the repeated and determined attacks
of the West.bronk Pviers. Ihe Clare Ilnffmran
Vocational Education Is
Secondary To Academic
1rTHE federally financed program of
vocational training for defense oc-
cupations in the public schools and colleges of
engineering should be continued and expanded
in terms of the demands for trained workers
which will be created by industrial expansion,
the transfer of workers from industry to the
armed forces, and the displacement of workers
in the shift from a peace-time to a war-time
So runs a definition of one of the policies set
forth by the Educational Policies Commission of
the National Education Association as released
last month in their pamphlet, "A War Policy
for American Schools."
The statement continues, "Since the war is in
large part a contest of production and since it
is likely to extend over a period of years, it is
important to continue the vocational training
of all youth, particularly in the basic mechanical
skills which are common to many industrial
operations. Although it has long been a purpose
of American education to equip every youth with
a mastery of some useful occupational skill, the
schools have not been fully successful in reach-
ing this goal. The war situation offers both a
challenge and an opportunity to do so."
PERHAPS one of the greatest problems facing
present-day educators is that of vocational
vs. academic training-both as to extent and as
to relative emphasis.
Since so much has been made of the demand
for labor throughout American industry and
agriculture, it would seem natural that the
schools should be called upon to do their part in
filling this deficiency. Again, if the war is to
last for years, such a policy would appear long-
range in effect.
On the other hand, there stands the argument
that it is not up to the schools to abandon the
horizons they have been seeking thus far, and
that what they are now giving American youth
in the way of academic background is bound to
be more reaching in its effect than would be a
switch to vocational training.
WHEN any concern sends out a call for work-
ers, it may take one of two stands on requi-
sites: it may demand skilled labor, those who
have had either experience or training in their
particular lines, or it may state a preference for
unskilled, untrained men who are open to the
coaching offered by the industry itself. Since
employers themselves have expressed both of
these viewpoints, it would seem that the argu-
ment in favor of vocational training in the
schools is considerably weakened.
Further, though the war may last far longer
than is now expected there will eventually come
a time when war production in itself will-neces-
sarily cease abruptly and leave labor the need
to change its interests and skis to provide for
civilian consumption. While a great part of the
man power now being used to manufacture
shells, tanks and airplanes has been and will be
able to make the changeover with little loss.
education must see that the war trainees' back-
ground will not be so specialized as to hinder
their orientation to peace-time activities.
ATHIRD CONSIDERATION and one which
has always been the cause of controversy
among those connected with education is that
of the over-all relative importance of academic
and vocational training. In order to have a
happy and a full life, man must acquire criteria
upon which to judge values and make decisions
relating to his own welfare. He must also have
sufficient background in purely academic fields
to enable him to understand and appreciate the
cultural heritage into which he has been born.
"Man does not live by bread alone," and it is
the duty of far-sighted educators to provide the
means by which man finds avocations and in-
terests to enrich his life.
THE NATURAL CONCLUSION for education.
to reach, then, is that in spite of the com-
plete industrialization undergone recently in this
country and in spite of the seeming importance
of vocational training in the school program,
the American school system must not neglect
its academic program in seeking its part in the
Vocational edu-ation has a part in our eco-1
nomi setup,buits importance is only second-
arY. It s;hould remain fuindamerntal and augment,
rather thmn supplant the academic curriculum.
- Barbara Jenswold
Legal Picketing Defined
UNIONS won one picketing case and lost an-
other in the Supreme Court . In New York,
the Court upset an injunction previously vali-
dated by the state Court of Appeals against pick-
eting by bakery drivers. The drivers were
objecting to a system in which the employer, by
the use of independent "peddlers" instead of
actual employes. maintained a long working
day. The Supreme Court decided that the pick-
eting was peaceful, involved no threat of unlaw-
ful acts and was a legitimate exercise of free
speech. In Texas. the high court upheld an
injunction issued against picketing of a shop
which was unionized and had no dispute with
the employes, but was owned by a man who let
another property to a non-union contractor.
This picketing, the state court held, was in vio-
lation of the Texas anti-trust law, and a major-
ity of the Supreme Court agreed that the state
had a right to its interpretation.
It is noteworthy that the Court divided five
to four in the second ease, Mr. Justice Frank-
furter writing the majority opinion, Mr. Frank-
furter, though a lifelong defender of union rights
before he came to the bench, also leans over
backward in opposing federal interference with
the states. The decision does not necessarilv
GRIN AND BEAR IT
WASHINGTON - Joseph Patrick Kennedy,
former U. S. Ambassador to the Court of St.
James', scarcely has been on speaking terms with
the President of the United States since he re-
turned from London.
Once the two were great friends, but Kennedy
differed radically with Roosevelt regarding the
war, contended that the President was going too
far in aiding Britain. Most of last year, there-
fore, Joe sulked in the background, frequently
referred to Roosevelt in derogatory language.
The other day, however, the President wrote
Joe Kennedy a letter, making the amazing pro-
posal that the ex-Ambassador take over the
construction of all merchant ships for the war
program. This is one of the most important
jobs in the Government.
Ex-Ambassador Kennedy did not accept with
alacrity. He wrote back a letter outlining the
terms and conditions under which he would take
WITH the tremendous war expansion of the
Army and Navy air branches has come an
accompanying frequency of press reports of
crashes by fledging pilots. These stories have
brought a flood of worried inquiries to Washing-
Relatives of aviators have expressed concern
over the number of these accidents and the ade-
quacy of the training programs.
The Washington Merry-Go-Round has investi-
gated both matters. For military reasons detailed
figures cannot be disclosed. But the following
generalizations can be published:
1. That the U. S. percentage of accidents is
less than that of the British, and appreciably
under the best available German figures. The
casualty rate among Nazi trainees is reported
to be quite high due to limited training facilities,
personnel and equipment.
2. While U. S. accidents have increased nu-
merically because of the greatly increased num-
ber of men in training, the percentage of acci-
dents has not increased. Today it is about the
same as the ratio in 1940. This fact is of key
importance, since it means there has been no
deterioriation in the basic quality of the Army
and Navy air training system despite speed-ups
and other war factors.
3. The present training systems are far su-
perior to those of the World War. Trainees are
selected more carefully and given much more
and better instruction before they get their
The question of allowing, military air crashes
to be reported has been a subject of inner circle
debate for some time. Some authorities con-
tend this is valuable information to the enemy.
and cite the fact that Britain has banned such
The President, however, has not entirely
agreed with this view. He is against publication
of totals or percentages but sees no objection to
press reports of individual mishaps. This is the
policy being followed but the question is still'
THE PRESIDENT got a letter the other day
that touched him deeply. It was delivered
by Representative John McCormack, Democratic
House leader, and was from a 13-year-old boy of
Hyde Park, Mass., who wanted to join the Army.
His name is John McGrath, and this is what he
"You may think me silly. but please try to
understand. I know I'm too young to enlist as a
fighting man, much too young, but what I'm
asking is, please could I be an Army mascot or
serve some other way? Please.
"°I have my father's and mother's permission
to join up to defend our country. I don't want
to sit home and only buy defense bonds and
stamps. I want to do something with the U. S.
Army. I don't care if I don't get one cent pay.
You see, the war may be over by the time I'm
old; enough to join.
"Don't think I'm fantastic, because I realize
what I'm writing, so please, please let me be a
mascot or SOMETHING. Please."
The President was so moved by young John-
ny's plea that he referred the letter to Secretary
of War Stimson, but Army regulations contain
no provision for 13-year-old mascots. Decreed
Major General James A. Ulio, Adjutant General
of the Army: "John will have to await his 18th
birthday before he will have an opportunity to
\X/AR PRODUCTION CHIEF' Donald Nelsoni
was guest of honor ad, a recent luncheon
given by Alabama congressmen and gave them
some interesting information about the struggle
to convert reluctant industries to war production.
Nelson spoke of the criticism he and other WPB
officials have had to endure on this score.
"What most of the critics do not seem to
realize," he observed with a grin, "is that there
are not two sides to every question, but three----
1heir .Side, our side, and the truth."
I F Federal Judge ,James V. Allred decides to
step down , fro te be'h and run against
Senator "Pappy" O'Daniel, the able, liberal jur-
ist can be certain of strong Administration back-
SATURDAY, APRIL 11, 1942
VOL. LII. No. 142
Publication in the Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all
members of the University,
University Council: There will be a#
meeting of the University Council on'
Monday, April 13, at 4:15 p.m., in the
Rackham Amphitheater. All mem-
bers of the University Senate may
attend the meeting:
Minutes of the meetings of March
9 and March 12, 1942.
Subjects offered by members of
Report of the Committee on Pro-
gram and Policy concerning Regula-
tions for Council Membership, J. P.1
Report of the Advisory Boarid on
University Policies concerning ti H
Problem of the Instructorship, W. C.
Report of the Committee on Edu-
cational Policies concerning Physical,
Examinations of Members of the
Faculty, R. Schorling.
Reports from the Standing Coin-
Louis A. hopkins, Secretary.
To the leads of Departments: In
order that we may make up in detail
our Repairs and Maintenance Bud-
get, will you kindly send in a coin-
plete list of improvements or repairs.
or both, which you would suggest
being made in those buildings or
parts of buildings which your depart-
ment occupies. It will, of course, be
necessary to differentiate between the
repairs to buildings themselves and
equipment, the repairs to the latter
not bein included in the Buildings
and Grounds Budget.
Any suggestions for imlprovemnelts
in the or buildings,
whlethier pertaining! to yourt deparlt-
ment or not, will be gratefully re-
ceived. Also, we will be thankful for
any suggestions relative to the execu-
tion of oi work. We want to make
it, plain that we expect always t
take car'e of lainienance woik in a
maner satisfactory to the o'clipants
of th l1iebuilngs andl to this ci'1d6we
ar(, always op)en oII es orl 1
If you so desire. kindly notify ts
andwe illbe pleased to .send a
Pereesentltive irom our o elll' lo take
We wold appreciate his inlorlin-
lion at. your earliest coeiience and
preferably not later than May 1,
1942. Thanking you foi' your c()-
operation in ti )>matter.
E. (. Pardon, Superintendent,
of Budlding, and Grounds
bers during the 11th week of the sem-
ester. This report will be due about
April 18, Report blanks will be fur-
nished by campus mail, Please refer
routine questions to Miss Buda, Of-
fice of the Dean, (Extension 575),
who will handle the reports; other-
wise. call A. D. Moore, Head Mentor,
The University Bureau of Appoint-
ments has received notification of
the change in the announcement for
Senior Technical and Scientific Aid,
Technical and Scientific Aid, $1,-
Assistant Technical and Scientific
Junior Technical and Scientific
Optional Branches for above: Ra-
dio. Explosives, Chemistry, Physics,
Applications will be rated as soon
as p'actic'able after receipt until
June 30, 1942.
The first paragraph under Recency
has been changed to read . . . "eli-
gibles will be considered first who
show that they have had at least 1
year of the required education or
experence within the five years im-
mediately preceding the date of re-
ceipt of application." Women are
urgently needed who have completed
two years of college education with
cou:'ses in mathematics.
Fhi'ther infor'mation may be ob-
taimed from the announcement which
is on file at the office of the Bureau
of Appointments, 201 Mason Hall;
office hours 9-12 and 2-4.
Bureau of Appointments and
'he University Bureau of Appoint-
ments has need of an applicant with
the, follow ing qulalifications: a young
man with shorthand speed of 100 or
over. accurate typing; must be draft
rejecec. This position is for a stu-
dent h.lo0 wishis to do graduate work
in an Eastern University.
Further information may be ob-
tained from the University Bureau
of Appointments, '01 Mason Hall;
office hours 9-12 and 2-4.
Bureau of Appointments and
Comi Oi els
Student tecital: Richard Goolian,
Pianis,. will include works of Bee-
thoven. Scriabine, Stravinsky, Szy-
nianowski and Brahms in his recital
in Lydia Mendelssohn Theater to-
night at 8:30. Given in partial ful-
fillmient of the requirements of the;
degree of Bachelor of Music, the,
program is open to the public. Mr.
moolan is a ptupil of Joseph Brink-
m ran of the School of Music,
_". s F . ag .PU-S at t. A-P Rs . A--
"I know nothing about gardening, but I suppose there's as much
in it to brag about as there is in golf!"
DA I LY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
The University of Michigan Con-
cert Band, William D. Revelli, Con-
ductor, will present its 29th Annual
Spring Concert at 8:30 p.m. on Tues-
day, April 14, in Hill Auditorium.
Johana Harris will appear as soloist
in the Concerto for Piano and Band,
composed by her husband, Roy Har-
ris. The public is cordially invited.
Exhibition: Museum of Art and'
Archaeology, The Maud Ledyard von
Ketteler Collection of the University
of Michigan, Rackham Galleries,
April 9-22, Hours 2-5 and 7-10 p.m.,
European and Far Eastern Art Ob-
University Lectures on War Prob-
lems: Dr. Haven Emerson, formerly
Professor of Epidemiology, School
of Medicine, Columbia University,
and a trustee of the W. K. Kellogg
Foundation, will lecture on the sub-
ject, "Public Health in Wartime,"
under the auspices of the University
War Board, at 8:00 p.m. on Tuesday,
April 14, in the Rackham Lecture
Hall. The public is cordially invited.
The Alpha Omega Alpha lecture
will be given by Dr. Morris Fishbein,
Editor of-'the Journal of the Ameri-
can Medical Association, on Monday,
April 13, at 8:30 p.m. in the Rack-
ham Lecture Hall. Dr. Fishbein will
speak on "American Medicine and
the War." The public is cordially
Events Today -
Graduate Mixer tonight at 9:00 in
Rackham Assembly Hall. Games,
dancing, refreshments. Informal,
dating optional. Open to all gradu-
ate students and faculty. Sponsored
by Graduate Council,
The Suomi Club will meet tonight
at 8:00 in the International Center.
The Disciples Guild will meet at
the Guild House tonight at 7:30 to
make candy for the former Guild
members who are. now in military
Interviews of girls who would like
to be on the freshman orientation
central committee will be held in
the League Council Room today from
9-10, and from 11-12 a.m. Advisers
or other girls may be interviewed,
but the girls on central committee
will not be able to lead groups.
Acolytes: Professor Leslie White
of the Department of Anthropology
will speak on "The Function of Phi-
losophy in Culture," on Monday,
April 13, at 7:45 p.m. in the East Con-
ference Room, Rackham Building.
The Hillel Council will meet Sun-
day morning at the Foundation at
10:30. All new and old members are
requested to attend. Election of new
officers will be held.
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church:
8:00 a.m. Holy Communion; 10:00
a.m. High School Class; 11:00 a.m.
Kindergarten, Harris Hall; 11:00 a.m.
Junior Church; 11:00 a.m. Morning
Prayer and Sermon by the Rev. John
G. Dahl: 4:00 p.m. H-Square Club
Meeting, Harris Hall. Speaker: Mr.
Makepeace Tsao. Subject, "Confu-
cianism"; 7:30 p.m. Episcopal Stu-
dent Guild Meeting, Harris Hall. Re-
ports on the Pronvincial Conference.
on College Work held at Angola,
Indiana, this week-end.
First Presbyterian Church: Morn-
ing Worship, 10:45 a.m. "Living
with Ourselves," subject of the ser-
mon by Dr. W. P. Lemon.
Westminster Student Guild: Stu-
dent-led discussion Sunday at 7:15
p.m. on "Can we make our religion
Sunday Evening Club supper meet-
ing in the Russel Parlor at 6:00 p.m.
Phone 2-4833 for reservations.
Teachers, graduatesand profession-
al people cordially invited.
The Church of Christ will meet for
Bible study at 10:00 a.m. Sunday in
the Y.M.C.A. The morning worship
will be at 11:00, at which time Garvin
M. Toms, minister, will preach on the
subject: "Be Thou a Blessing." The
sermon topic for the evening serv-
ice at 8:00 will be: "Are You Sure
God is Pleased?" Wednesday at
8:00 p.m. will be the midweek Bible
study. All are invited.
First Church of Christ, Scientist:
Sunday morning service at 10:30.
Subject: "A'e Sin, Disease, and
Sunday School at 11:45 am.
,Unitarian Church: 11 a.m. Church
Service, Rev. H. P. Marley will speak
on "The Truth of Sojourner Truth,"
a discussion of social problems in the
7:30 p.m. Student discussion: "The
Place of the Negro on the Michigan
Campus," led by representative stu-
9:00 p.m. Social Hour.
[First Methodist Church and Wes-
ley Foundation: Student Class at
9:30 a.m. with Prof. Kenneth Hance.
Morning Worship at 10:40 o'clock.
Dr. Charles W. Brashares will preach
Carillon Recital: The fourth recital
Cerman 'table for Faculty lem- of the current spring carillon series
hers will meet today instead of will be given Sunday, April 12, from
Monday, April 13> at 12:10 p.m. in 7:15 to 8:00 p.m., at which time Pro-
the Foundei's' room, Michigan Un- fessor Percival Price will present
i M s of all dlepartnmlents aie works by such fanons Viennese com-
co dially invited. The guest ol hon- posers as Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, Bee-
or will be Professoir John A. Walz thoven and Schubert. Printed pro-
of llarvard Unive i'sity. gramls of the entii'e series are avail-
Sable at the desks of the League and
Hopwoo contestantssoldap-Union, in the Lobby of Burton Me-
plort cstisphouldma-sinorial Tower and the office of the
ply o tei records tis week, School of Music
that the recoi( offices may have time
to make transumpris before Monday.
R. W. Cowden Organ Recital: Frieda Op't Holt, a
The Glover Scholarship in Actuari-
al Mathematics will again be award-
ed foi' the coming at'adtmit' yea'.
T his 5(holarshil) covers tititioin foi'
two semestei's in either the Graduate
School or School of Business Admin-
istration. Applicants must be in resi-
mmib0r of the facuilty of the School
of Mtisic. will present an organ re-
cital at 4:15 p.m. on Sunday, April
12, in Hill Auditorium, The first of
a series of three Sunday afternoon
organ programs, Miss Op't Holt will
play compositions by Bach, Schmitt,
Whitlock, Bingham and Reubke.
The public is cordially invited.