THE MICH IGAN DAILY
SATURDAY, MAY 10, 1941
1 . U-
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
I D4MC. n ors _. ^ E- ~~... , .
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NIGHT EDITOR: HOMER SWANDER
The editorials published in The Michi-
gan Daily are written by members of The
Daily staff and represent the views of the
Conivoys Will Lead
U.S. Into War . .
A ID-TO-BRITAIN WAS GIVEN a big
boost this week through the out-
spoken views of both Secretary of War Stimson
and Florida's Senator Pepper, but little signifi-
cance seems to be attached to the fact that the
United States cannot help but be drawn closer to
actual war with the Axis or Japan through any
acceptance of their recommendations.
It is true that one of the watchwords of the
Help Britain clique is "All aid short of war." But
in this day of war without formal declaration,
of unquestioned-though shaky-peace one day
and blitzkrieg only twenty-four hours later, who
is to say where the line of demarcation between
actual military assistance and "aid short of
war" shall be drawn?
FROM TIS standpoint Secretary Stimson's
address was rather unpleasant. Even a hur-
ried glance through its context reveals that al-
though the Administration may not be taking
another step toward American participation in
the war, it is certainly getting restless where it
stands. And a more careful perusal of Stimson's
remarks- points even more strongly to this con-
Secretary Stimson advocates full naval con-
voy in the Atlantic to safeguard the shipping of
American supplies to Britain. Granting that
such a convoy plan would undoubtedly get more
supplies across, it must, at the same time, be
pointed out that such an action could not pos-
sibly go without some sort of positive counter-
action by Germany, possibly restricted submar-
ine warfare, or increased aerial blockade.
IN EITHER OF THE ABOVE POSSIBILITIES,
it would be only a very short time before
American shipping, either mercantile or naval,
would be affected. And then the real> cry for
military action against Germany would be set
On the basis of this analysis, Senator Pepper's
appeal for immediate action would seem a bit
premature. His is the "real cry" coming well be-
fore the "incident". Obviously any action of the
type he recommends-occupation of Atlantic
islands and Dakar, West Africa; and bombing of
Tokyo by American pilots in American planes-
would open the United States to the probability
of war on two oceans, the very thing we are
trying so hard to avoid.
T MIGHT BE ARGUED that the United States
is bound to get into the war eventually, and
that its force might better be applied now than
later. However, if we must 'go to war (and why
should we?) it is clear that the longer we can
keep peace and malde our preparations, organize
our industry and, above all, keep our youth off
the battlefields, the better chance we have of
coming out of the war with still a few threads
of democracy with which to start rebuilding.
Aid-to-Britain is a good thing: it is acting in
the interests of democracy and against oppres-
sion. But for the United States to take it upon
herself, through the use of naval convoys, to see
that Germany is kept out of the Atlantic can
lead only to war. It isn't worth it!
By KARL KARLSTROM
THE ATTENTION-COMPELLING overture to
Wagner's "The Flying Dutchman" opened
the afternoon concert yesterday. One of Wagner's
earliest operatic efforts, we find it to be a showy
piece of mixed brilliance and noise. It contains
in it all the germs of the later music-dramatist,
but is not a work of intrinsic musical value.
Mr. Caston's conducting, simple, almost severe,
firm, and not at all something of personal dis-
play, brought out its greater worth well."
THE CHORAL WORK "Saint Mary Magdalene"
by d'Indy was performed by the Youth Chor-
us under the direction of Juva Higbee. Credit
must be given to all participators and trainers
for the assiduous labor involved in bringing such
a refreshing presentation out of a group of com-
paratively unpicked voices. Miss Sten did not
show to particular advantage, due greatly to the
fact that she was buried und'er the sound of the
chorus when she should have been at least audi-
ble over it. Her diction is clear, and her artistry
WE DEFINITELY DID NOT like the choice
of pieces which sandwiched such light and
pleasant performances of the chorus between the
primitivistic suite from Stravinsky's 'The Fire
Bird" and the overture previously mentioned. It
does not speak for a particular regard for the
musical worth and receptive quality of the con-
cert as a whole.
THE SUITE was admirably done. the influ-
ence of Slavic and Rssian themes and moods
was evident. The subtle rhythm of the introduc-
tion, and the vivid passages of the Dance of the
Fire Bird took on great clarity. The Dance of
the Princess was graceful and lovely, and the
rhythm and sound of the Infernal Dance have
a way of getting into the blood and under the
skin in a remarkable fashion which speaks for the
genius of the chorus and the very capable hand-
ling of the entire by the orchestra and conductor.
The Berceuse was spellbinding in its bare har-
monies and slow, solft melody that roused into
the finale with full orchestra and sweeping
THREE SONGS, The Cricket, To a Crocus, and
A Mouse in the Clock, by M. E. Gillet were
pretty little things, and were given a charming
performance with the first and third somewhat
Jose Iturbi appeared with the orchestra in
Liszt's Concerto No. 1 in E-flat major. The con-
certo carries with it an air of greater musical
sincerity than accompanies much that is Liszt.
Iturbi's touch was clear and precise, and his
quiet hands held the poise of efficiency through-
out. Particularly artistic was his interpretation
of the adagio movement.
IN SPITE of one or two entries that could have
been improved upon, we must again compli-
ment Mr. Caston, who gave more attention to
the soloist than we have witnessed of many
conductors. It was one of the too few times we
have heard a concerto as just that, and not
as a vehicle for a soloist to orchestral accom-
FOR ENCORES, Mr. Iturbi played the Spanish
Cradle Song by Orquin, which was pre-
sented for the first time anywhere, and Debussy's
General Lavine. The pianist continued the dem-
onstration of his artistic, musical and technical
The suite from the "Water Music," by Handel,
was very well chosen as the entree for the eve-
ning's performance. The simplicity of structure
and forthright rhythms throughout were entire-
ly of a pleasant nature. The orchestra displayed
splendid ensemble and except for one or two
minor incidents, declared the decision and
purity of the music in excellent fashion.
Dorothy Maynor entered onto the scenes, pre-
senting first Pamina's aria from the "Magic
Flute," by Mozart. The entrancing melodies of
the composer combined gloriously with the
amazing voice of the soprano. With few excep-
tions, her tones were clear as a bell, round and
rich, demonstrating nearly perfect control of
dynamics, a beautiful penetration on even the
lowest notes, and perfect diction. There was
no apparent change in the texture of her voice,
no matter what the register. She continued
her grand performance in the "No Mi dir" from
Don Giovanni, also by Mozart, and was greeted
at the end by an audience that rose to the
frenzied heights of acclamation that only the
great deserve. No eulogy is too superlative in
the description of this incomparable voice.
The symphony "Matthias, the Painter," by
Hindemith, followed iri an electrifying fashion.
While it departs greatly from the orthodox
symphonic form, it does not depart from the
integral "form" of music. We felt more about
his music than we knew or understood, and we
realized that it will bear much more listening.
We heard a definite noble purity and a majestic
simplicity, combined to give the angularity of
the work great strength and power. There is the
stature of innovative genius, as well as freedom
expressed by a composer in full control of his
musical faculties. '
Again the golden tones and a fine rapport with
the orchestra were displayed as Miss Maynor
sang "Pourquoi," from Lakme, by Delibes and,
"Les Adieux de l'hotesse Arabe," by Bizet.
The orchestra next presented the Ormandy-
arranged piano piece "Reflets dans l'eau," by
Debussy, which was a splendid effort, very effec-
TO THE EDITOR
Of May Festival
Y THE GRACE of the University Musical So-
ciety, Ann Arbor is this week a musical
center. In Hill Auditorium a celebrated orchestra
and well-known artists are performing composi-
sitions -of great masters. Bach, Beethoven, Mo-
zart ,Wagner, Hindemith are generously repre-
sented. All that is very beautiful and very <n-
teresting. Unfortunately the works played and
the implications of the word "festival" do not
respond to the powerful means at the dis-
posal of the University Musical Society.
MUSICAL FESTIVALS, to have some definite
value, are usually centered around some
composer or some definite period. There are
Bach Festivals, Mozart Festivals, Modern Music
Festivals. In a rather short space of time the
public has the opportunity tohave a panoramic
view on a composer and his school or on a def-
inite time. The glory of the name of the composer
or the prestige of the period studied and
interpreted, throw a bright light on the whole
Festival. Eventually the audience receives an im-
pression of unity and harmony. He learns how
to know better a composer and how to understand
more thoroughly his development. The Orches-
tra and the soloists have a chance to display
their talents at the service of some great in-
THERE are no such intentions underlying the
Ann Arbor May Festival. For the organizers
the main thing is music; and music we have ...
every composer is represented in a huge musical
cocktail. Everybody in the audience will be hap-
py. Verdi and Beethoven join Handel and Wag-
ner in less than two hours. Igor Stravinski con-
trasts violently with Liszt. Harl McDonald chal-
lenges Bizet. But the audience gathers only intel-
lectual confusion and esthetic bewilderment. His
experience is neutralized constantly. In all and
for all the May Festival is a kind of Musical
Fantasia, with neither Stokowski in the fore-
ground, nor Deems Taylor in the back.
THE PROGRAMS are mostly uninspiring. They
seem to have been composed according to
fancy. Most of them do not even make justice
to the talent of the artists . . . Gregor Piatigorsky
has not much chance to display his talents in
the amusing but uninteresting "Don Quixote."
Jose Iturbi's talent is entirely shown in the rather
artificial Liszt Concerto.
THERE IS NO UNITY and not much taste in
the elaboration of these programs. The lis-
tener comes out of Hill Auditorium rather weary
and overwhelmed by the quantity and by the
difference in quality of the works performed.
Richard Straus, ending a concert comprising
Brahms' 'Requiem,' is no longer humoristic -
he's a comic. In the the middle of a program in-
volving Hindemith's "Mathis the Painter" and
Harl McDonald's "San Juan Capistrano," two
songs of Bizet seen flat and misplaced. Beethov-
en's "Seventh Symphony", has enough power
to take away all the flavour of Verdi's Arias.
G ENERALLY SPEAKING the whole May Fes-
tival has been irrationally planned. The only
concert presenting any cultural value is the all-
Sibelius program, on Saturday afternoon. At
least here we have some clear intentions in the
minds of the organizers. The last concert, Eu-
gene Onegin, is the flowering of the Festival.
There are few works more uninspiring, more
old-fashioned and more superficial than this
BECAUSE of its lack of unity, because of the
differeilce in quality of the works played,
the May Festival seems to be only a great musi-
cal humbug and a massive display of miscon-
ceptions of the needs of music. It is not the way
to educate the public in music appreciation. It
is rather misleading to believe, as the organizers
seem to do, that the public seeks variety when
there could be order and qualtiy.
T HERE is also something awkward in the "In-
troduction" to the concerts (see the pamphlet
published for that purpose a few months ago.)
The organizers emphasize too much great
name of interpreters and their origins, and they
overlok the program and the composers. It is
pitiful to think that the name of some well-
known singer has more appeal to the public than
that of Beethoven. Perhaps the very set-up df
the Festival obliges the University Musical So-
ciety to give more importance to the performer
than to the performed. This point, for art's sake,
should be brought up.
WHEN THE LAST MEASURE of "Eugene One-
gin" will have been played, Hill Auditorium
will be empty again. I doubt that the cause
of music will have gained anything (at least
in depth) by that ill-organized series of concerts.
The public will remain with an impression of
confusion and disorder. Some sparkles of beauty
will have struck his mind, but they will have
dimmed under the lack of balance of the whole
AS IT IS NOW, the May Festival plays practi-
cally no role in musical life. After it has
finished it'will be worthless to talk about.
- Guy Serge Metraux
Interstate Cooperation.. .
The Port of New York Authority is observing
its twentieth birthday, and the occasion is worth
the notice of the country at large. An agency
Millikan Vs. Compton
WITH AN ALMOST COSMIC CALM, two great U.S.
physicists, both Nobel Prizemen, last week joined
a gain in spirited dispute over the nature of cosmic
rays. The scene of the controversy was the annual
meeting of Washington's National Academy of Sciences.
It was not the first such dignified disagreement between
devout, handsome. Arthur Holly Compton, of the Uni-
versity of Chicago, and pious, white-crested Robert
Andrews Millikan of California Institute of Technology.
Several years ago Millikan reached the conclusion that
cosmic rays consist of tiny, electrically neutral packets
of radiation called photons. By 1936 most physicists
judged that Compton was right. And Millikan agreed-
for science is an even more sporting game than teni.
ITHREE big cosmic ray questions then remained to be
answered: 1) The rays may be electrical particles,
but are they electrons, positrons, protons,sor what?
2) From what parts of space do the rays shower the
earth? 3) What events in space produce them and en-
dow them with highly penetrating energies up to several
hundred billion electron volts?
When the speeding particles of cosmic radiation hit
the earth's upper 5% of atmosphere, like billiard balls
they pass their energy on to other particles knocked
from the nuclei of atmospheric atoms. Hence cosmic
radiation at sea level is of a secondary nature, consisting
largely of mesotrons-particles intermediate in mass
between electrons and protons. So up into high alti-
tudes Physicist Compton sent his instruments to seek
the nature-not the number, as earlier altitude studies
had sought--of the primary rays.
LAST WEEK he reported that the primary particles
1) can penetrate as much as seven inches of lead,
2) do not set off showers of new particles when striking
a lead plate. But electrons, physicists know for sure,
can penetrate only four inches of lead and definitelyj
produce secondary showers of lead particles. Concluded
Physicist Compton: primary cosmic rays cannot be
electrons, must consist almost solely of the heavier,
more energized protons.
But unruffled Physicist Millikan insisted last week
that the primary rays are mostly electrons. He then
went much farther. He announced, -after some ten
years of brooding and research, that cosmic rays result
from the self-annihilation of atoms in interstellar space.
CERTAIN NEBULAE in interstellar space seem to
contain five elements-helium, carbon, nitrogen,
oxygen and silicon-each of which is ten times as
abundant as any other element except hydrogen. Ex-
periments with atom-smashing machines and theoreti-
cal reckoning indicate that annihilation of a helium
atom produces energy of 1.9 billion electron volts, of
carbon 5.6, of nitrogen 6.6, of oxygen 7.5, of silicon 13.2.
The earth itself is a great spinning magnet which
deflects incoming electrical particles in several ways.
Only the strongest cosmic rays can penetrate the earth's
far-flung magnetic field at the magnetic equator, but
even the weakest can get in near the magnetic poles.
Thus a physicist traveling away from the magnetic
equator should be able to detect one by one the appear-
ance of new bands of cosmic energy as the earth's
resistance weakens. And these energy bands should
correspond to the kinds of disintegrating atoms far off
SO MILLIKAN, with his young, whip-smart colleagues
Henry Victor Neher and William Hayward Picker-
ing, voyaged to India, through which the magnetic
equator passes. The scientists' hopes were fulfilled. At
Bangalore in southern India, cosmic rays shot 500 to
the minute through their instruments. This repre-
sented the 17 billion electron volt debris of such heavy.
atoms as iron and chlorine. At Agra in central India,
the 17 to 14 billion electron volt zone, there was little
radiation increase-but this was expected, since ele-
ments which might produce such voltages are rare on
earth and in space. At Peshawar, near Khyber Pas,
See I t ...
Physicists, Millikan and Compton have vigorous argument
on the nature of cosmic rays - tie-up between viruses and
genes seen - motherless frogs.
Science Editor, Time Magazine
Academy Of SeienceHighlights
radiation increased 21%. This was the predicted ap-
pearance of the 13 billion electron volt particles from
ILLIKAN did not pursue cosmic rays through Ka-
zakstan and Siberia, instead substituted the same
magnetic latitudes in the U.S. In Texas the six billion
electron volt carbon rays began coming through, in
Nebraska the four and five billion electron volt rays of
beryllium and boron, in North Dakota the two billion
electron volt rays of helium.
Why the interstellar atoms curiously annihilate them-
selves, Millikan has no idea. William Francis Gray
Swann of the Bartol Institute at Swarthmore, Pa.,
pooh-poohs the theory of ironically suggesting atomic
boredom or loneliness. But Millikan's co-workers shrug
their shoulders like detectives who have not found a
motive but are sure they have evidence of crime: The
bigger question is: whose evidence is right? Compton's,
that cosmic rays are protons? Millikan's, that cosmic
rays are electrons?
Among other disclosures at the National Academy
meeting were two huge contributions to genetics, the
science of heredity:
Genes & Viruses
AT THE COLD SPRING HARBOR, L. I. laboratory
of the Carnegie Institute, Geneticists Albert Francis
Blakeslee and Amos Geer Avery have zealously raised
acres of Jimson weed. By careful breeding they pro-
duced plants with narrow leaves, spineless fruit cap-
sules, petals instead of tubular flowers- the same
characteristics that Jimson weed has when attacked by
virus disease. This, according to Dr. Blakeslee, bears
out the idea that there is a kinship between genes-the
protein molecules in the nuclei of cells which determine
inherited characteristics-and viruses-the self-repro-
ducing protein molecules which cause many diseases
of man, aninials, plants.
The major difference seems to be that genes are
locked within the nuclei of cells, where their influence
is controlled to a specific end, but viruses are "free to
proliferate uncontrolled. It is tlhus possible, speculated
Dr. Blakeslee cautiously, that virus diseases-and per-
haps even cancer-may sometimes be caused by genes
which have escaped the cellular discipline and become
FIVE YEARS AGO Physiologist Gregory Goodwin
Pincus of Clark University produced fatherless
rabbits by removing ova from virgin females, fertilizing
the ova with a salt solution, replanting the fertilized
eggs in other females to gestate. Last week Dr. Keit
Roberts Porter of the Rockefeller Institute announced
that he had produced a greater wonder: motherless
tadpoles. He removed the nucleus from a frog's egg at
the moment of fertilization, but before it could unite
with the nucleus of the male sperm. This made the
mother's contribution apparently a mere anonymous
drop of protoplasm with no inheritable characteristics,
while the sperm alone contributed a share of genes.
THE EGG not only produced a tadpole, but a tad-
pole which showed some characteristics of its
mother. The obvious and significant conclusion: The
intricate mechanism of embryonic development is not,
determined by genes alone, as most geneticists have
thought, but depends on the whole protoplasm of the
Poison Gas Course Offered
CHICAGO, Ill.-(ACP)-A course to prepare doctors
and chemists to fight the dangers of poisop and poison
gas in time of 'war will be offered by the University
of Chicago in its summer session. Dr. Eugene Ceiling,
in charge of the course, titled "Toxicology and National
Defense," stated that it will be open to medical and
chemical students as part of the university's contribu-
tion to the preparedness program.
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
(Continued from Page 2)
Schools are invited. Bring your own
lunch; cold drinks will be sold. Meet
on the steps of the Rackham Build-
ing at 4:30. The big fireplace and
the baseball diamond at the Island
have been reserved.
All those interested in living in one
of the men's cooperative houses next'
semester can be interviewed at 1:30
p.m. today in Room 302 of the Union.
There will be a meeting of the per-
sonnel committees of both men's and
women's houses at 1:00 p.m. today
in Room 302 of the Union.
German Table for Faculty Mem-
bers will meet Monday at 12:10 p.m.
in the Founders' Room, Michigan
Union. Members of all departments
interested in German conversation
are cordially invited. There will be
a brief talk on "Eine Reise im Suden"
by Mr. Henry A. Sanders.
Music Education Majors: All Music
Education majors in the School of
Music are asked to attend a mneeting
at 7:00 p.m. Tuesday, May 13, in
the School of Music Auditorium, at
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church:
Sunday at 8:00 a.m. Holy Commun-
ion; 9:30 a.m. High School Class,4
Harris Hall; 11 :00 a.m. Morning-
Prayer and Sermon by the Rev. Hen-
ry Lewis; 11:00 a.m. Junior Church;
11:00 a.m. Kindergarten, Harris Hall;
7:00 p.m. College Work Program,
Harris Hall. Student Panel Discus-
sion, "The Christian Student's Re-
sponsibility Now;" also reports on In-
ter-Guild Conference and Racinei
Conference. Games and refresh-;
ments. Tuesday and Friday from 4
until 5:30 tea will be served at Harris
Hall. There will be a celebration of7
the Holy Communion on Wednesdayi
at 7:30 a.m. in the Chapel.3
Disciples Guild (Christian Church):
10:00 a.m. Students' Bible Class, H. L.'
10:45 a.m. Morning Worship, Rev.
Fred Cowin, Minister.
The Disciples Guild will leave the
Guild House at 4:00 p~m. for t he
Saline Valley Farms. There will be
a tour of the farms, picnic supper
and twilight vesper service.
In case of rain there will be Open
House at the Guild House from 7:00;
to 9:00 p.m.
Student Evangelical Chapel: The
vr'oiikai'Siinda~v 10.30' A .ym amid 7. "R
per and fellowship hour at 6:00 p.m.
followed by meeting at 7:00 on the
council ring, weather permitting, on
"God of the Out-of-Doors," led by
Charles Miller. Sunday Evening Club
First Church of Christ, Scientist:
Sunday morning service at 10:30.
Subject: "Adam and Fallen Man."
Sunday School at 11:45 a.m.
First Methodist Church: Student
Class with Prof. Carrothers at 9:30
a.m. in the Wesley Foundation As-
sembly Room. Morning Worship
Service at 410:40. Dr. Charles W.
Brashares will preach on "A Family
Centered Church." Wesleyan Guild
meeting at 6:00 p.m. in the Assembly
Room. Mrs. Horace Dewey, recent-
ly returned from China, will speak
on "Chinese Homes and Customs."
Reception and Tea following the
First Congregational Church: 9:30
a.m. Junior and Intermediate De-
partments of Church School.
10:30 a.m. Kindergarten and Pri-
mary Departments of Church School:
10:45 a.m. Services of Public Wor-
ship. Dr. L. A. Parr will preach on
"Missing the Great Things of Life."
4:30 p.m. Student Fellowship pic-
nic will be heldat Saline arms.
Transportation will be provided at