T-HE MUCGHG-AN. D AI LY-
WEfNFSDAY, ArmL2, 1941;
. . . . . . .... . ......
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
FIRE andC WATER
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The editorials published in The Michi-.
gan Daily are written by members of The
Daily staff and represent the views of the
Defe se Delay
Not Labor's Fault . .
N WASHINGTON, a few days ago,
the Senate Civil Liberties Commit-
tee reported on its investigation of the "Little
Steel" strike of 1937. The importance of the
findings of this Committee may be evaluated
when they are applied to the existing difficul-
ties between the labor unions and management
"Any company," the report read, "which
stands up and flatly refuses to enter into a
signed bargaining contract under all circum-
starnces, and any employer association which
supports and assists it in such a position, are
endangering the national security.
"Such conduct not only threatens the vital
continuity of production, but it challenges the
nation's domestic authority, weakens respect of
labor fol' national aims, and destroys the sense
of unity and common effort."
THIS IS PROBABLY AS GOOD AN ANSWER
as any to those who maintain that manage-
ment is doing all in its power to keep the na-
tional defense production moving and that the
delay is all the fault of labor.
To repeat, a simple, basic fact-the right to
strike is labor's strongest weapon. The men
who. are out on strike now are unquestionably as
interested in keeping production lines moving
as the rest of the nation. But industry is making
all the profit from defense contracts; labor is
not; and industry needs labor, just as much as
the nation needs the products of industry. That
is the time to strike.
A ND HOW HAS THE NATION fulfilled its end
of the bargain with labor? The 'Ford Motor
Company has violated the National Labor Re-
lations Act several times, but has not been prose-
cuted for these violations; they continue to get
defense contracts from the government; prom-
ises have been made by OPM officials as in the
Allis-Chalmers strike, but they have not been
kept; unions have been threatened with legis-
lation which would prohibit striking in defense
industries. This does not create "the respect
of labor for national aims.''
The blame for strikes and delays in defense
production is not all labor's as the report of
the Civil Liberties Committee shows, as we can
see from the unwillingness of management to
bargain with labor and from management's vio-
Jation of the National Labor Relations Act. It
takes two to make a strike: labor, which strikes
that it may get better working. conditions, its
own barganing agent and its share of profits
from the tremendous government spending pro-
gram; and management, which is unwilling to
meet the programs of the labor unions.
IFCHARGES are made against the unions that
they are halting defense production and are
putting the United States in a vulnerable posi-
tion, the same may be made against manage-
ment. It is just as much management's respon-
sibility to the national defense program to meet
the demands of labor, as it is for labor to pro-
duce the arms and materials for the nation's de-
"WE SEEK FREEDOM FROM WANT, and we
impoverish ourselves. We seek freedom
from fear, and we terrorize ourselves. We seek
freedom of worship and freedom of speech and
we suppress them." . . . "we will emerge from
this var with a "government scarcely distin-
guishable from those which we went forth to
fight . . . there will be enormous debt, repudia-
tion, inflation, hunger, want and fear. To win
this war, we must have peace."
Thus last Sunday did the University of Chi-
cago's President Hutchins make what we con-
sider one of the most penetrating and cour-
ageous speeches of our day and era. The com-
plete speech is well worth reading, especially by
the "liberal" interventionists.
"o, to be in England now that April's there"--
Browning, Hitler and President Roosevelt.
We may soon be.,
For April is the dread, sinister month. In Ann
Arbor it is the month of alternate sleet and sun-
light; in Europe it is ever the month of intensi-
fied warfare; in Washington, D.C. it is the
month of full bloom for the cherry blossoms and
traditional month for a U.S. declaration of war.
Although Franklin D. Roosevelt in his more,
than eight years of office has broken many
traditions, we are afraid that there is one Amer-
ican tradition he will not break. In April, 1941,
we suspect that the U.S. will again be fully at
BUT THE GREATEST TRAGEDY is not in
the mere declaration of war or in the mere
acts of war alone. There is tragedy in our prob-.
able entrance into a war for democracy when
the people have not been fairly consulted. There
is possibly even greater ironical tragedy in our
entrance into a war for democracy when we
at the 1939 Panama Conference of American
foreign ministers. Nine American nations,
United States, Brazil, Mexico, Dominican Re-
public, Colombia, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Bolivia
and Paraguay, signed a convention to set up the
bank in May, 1940. Senate ratification of the
convention is all that is necessary to make possi-
blee the organizing of the bank.
UNDER THE PROPOSED PLAN each partici-
pating nation will buy, stock in proportion to
its foreign trade in 1938. There will be a stand-
ing capital of $100,000,000 to which the United
States will contribute at least $5,000,000 and the
other countries as near an amount as possible,
Reports are that the Administration is working
on a charter to be enacted by Congress which
will grant the bank power to stabilize currency,
foster industrialization of the Americas and aid
the economic systems of the various nations.
S HILE THE BANK will stabilize Latin-Amer-
can currency and economy, its chief pur-
pose will be to promote Inter-American finan-
cial and economic cooperation. It is for thi
reason that it is of such importance in making
the dreams of hemisphere unity a definite actu-
ality. No one disputes the fact that the hemi-
sphere will never be united without financial
and economic cooperation. Of course, there
are other means being tried to bring about
economic collaboration. Reciprocal trade trea-
ties, loans through the Export-Import Bank to
our southern neighbors and a proposed cartel
to handle export trade are some. None of these,
however, have been as effective as was desired.
Reciprocal trade treaties, although seemingly
they could be of great benefit and have been as
far as they have gone, are continually hampered
by the opposition of the agricultural population.
The farmer objects strongly and naturally, of
course, to the importation of any products which
he himself produces. Clearly indicative of this
attitude is the dispute over beef imports from
THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK, another bene-
ficial agency as far as it goes, would be able
with the aid of an Inter-American Bank to
greatly increase its activities. ,Easier facilities
for making loans and other financial agree-
ments would be provided. The new bank would
also be of some help in handling the huge South
American surpluses. The export cartel, much in
the news a few short months ago, seems to have
been conveniently dropped. This plan would
have involved a great expense froln the Ameri-
can point of view and was even looked upon un-
favorably by many Latin-American leaders.
Through the bank, however, some form of x-
change control could be developed through
which all trade deals could be handled. Basic
prices could be set, thus removing the South
American nations from the mercy of any possi-
ble totalitarian buyers.
VERY IMPORTANT. also, is the government,'s
plan to give the bank power to promote in-
dustrialization of the Americas. There are many
products in South America that could be devel-
oped to a greater extent and that are vital to
our own defense. These include rubber, tung-
sten, tin, iron-ore and oil. Industries now oper-
ating on a small scale but which could be in-
creased by more capital secured through an
Inter-American Bank are the Chilean porcelain
dinnerware and glassware industry, leather-
glove making in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile,
and the wines in Chile and Peru. By more indus-
trializing these nations will less have to depend
on exports to Europe.
IT IS APPARENT, therefore, that an Inter-
American Bank would solve many of the
ourselves are becoming most undemocratic;
there is the greatest tragedy when a nation en-
ters a war without any specified war aims or
specifications for lasting peace. There is also
tragedy in our national hypocrisy.
WE CAN CONCEIVE of a national policy,
practical, democratic, which would enable
us to give all-out aid to Britain, in fact, even
to participate militarily in the war, without
wrecking the democracy which we think we are
saving. We could term that program a positive
one.It would call for stipulated war aims and
war methods in the international sphere; it
would call for a definite domestic war or defense
First, an international program. It can be
almost generally agreed that Hitler can win the
battle in the Balkans without winning the war,
although a successful Nazi invasion of England
would probably mean victory for the forces of
fascism. But England, probably together with
the United States, cannot win the war without
a smashing defeat of the German armies on the
continent. The allies, U.S. and Britain, could
conceivably win this battle on the continent by
sheer overwhelming superiority of military
strength. That, however, will take years to
accomplish, despite the blockade of Europe.
Mere military superiority, however, overlooks
the greatest ally which Britain and the U.S.
could possess in their battle against the Nazi
Government: the whole-hearted, active support
of the down-trodden peoples in Europe, in the
Balkans, in the low-lands, in France, in Scan-
dinavia, in Poland, even in Germany itself. But
such support cannot be gained by negative
promises to these peoples: mere "ridding the
world of Hitlerism" or as Laski puts it, "replac-
ing a German army of occupation with the suc-
cessors of Becks and Ridz-Smiglys, with Sap-
iehas and Lubomirskis; the interests they rep-
resented compelled the failure they symbol-
SUPPORT OF ALL THE PEOPLES of Europe
as well as full aid from the peoples of Amer-
ica and Britain then depends upon definite war
aims, given in good faith, which would chiefly,
ask a world federation of nations depending for
its strength on economic as well as political ties.
These would consist in the sacrificing of com-
plete state sovereignty; the end of tariff bar-
riers; the end of imperialism and the stimula-
tion everywhere to the creation of a social sys-
tem which would destroy the forces that germ-'
Such a program would mean the end of privi-
lege in Europe, in Britain, in the U.S. It would
almost amount to a peaceful, social revolution.
It would mean a world-wide economy based
upon the specialized industrial abilities of each
nation; it would mean, specifically, the end of
domination by the major powers of such areas
as the Balkans and the granting of at least
Dominion status to India; it would mean by
example and by aid the destruction of the ter-
rific inequalities of income and opportunity and
the elimination of poverty, insecurity and fear--
the causes of fascism. It would result at last
and at least in a clear basis for lasting peace.
BUT no such program has been advanced by
the leaders of either the British or American
governments. In fact, no definite program or
war aims have been announced by them. The
lone voice of a positive program has been that
of Laski in "Where Do We Go From Here?" and
he makes the false assumption that his projected
policy because of its rationality will be the, ac-
cepted program of the British government. No
such assurances have been given, however. In
fact, American Administration leaders have in-
dulged in ridiculing the necessity for such a
program, rather than advancing anything more
specific than the "necessity of beating Hitler to
YOU DON'T SIGN a petition or contract or
letter until you read it. It is also extremely
stupid to fight when you are not informed of
what you are fighting for. It is tragic to fight
for democracy when you have no program that
is projected to achieve democracy, when you
have no plan for gaining lasting peace, when
you have no assurance that you will not be
called upon to fight again and again and again
since the fundamental causes of war are al-
lowed to continue.
We'll continue our discussion of a positive
American program as well as international in
COMMUNISTS "SELF CRITICISM"
When a high Soviet dignitary i's removed from
office or his position in the Communist party
it may well be an ominous sign for his future.
But if it is not the first time the thing has
happened to him it is rather reassuring than
otherwise. It is at the very least a sign that he
is still alive, which does not always happen after
a man high in Soviet counsels has once lost
favor. There may be a good many people to
whom the news that Maxim Litvinoff has been
expelled from the Communist Central Commit-
tee will come as a surprise. They probably wrote
him off long ago
The frank confession that industrial short-
comings at the Communist conference and even
franker demotions and expulsions are a part of
what has long been known as Communist "self-
criticism." In practice self-criticism may be de-
fined as a system of publicity under which Jo-
seph Stalin always emergest as the greatest
man in history. --New York Times.
TO THE EDITOR
To The Editor:
MR .ROBERT MANTHO in his edi-
torial of Wednesday, March 25,
stated the need for legalized wire-
tapping in these threatening days of
national tension. Federal officials un-
der the leadership of Attorney-Gen-
eral Jackson and the FBI-he states
-must be free to obtain evidence
for cases of espionage, kidnapping
and sabotage. If that power is with-
held, the result would be "to defeat
the purposes of good government"
and "would be the same as flashing
the green light to spies and criminals,
guaranteeing to them safe use of the
wire channels.' '
Wire-tapping has been blessed by
the common-law rules of evidence:
that is, evidence, regardless of the
method by which obtained, is always
admissable in the court room. That
this rule subjects the individual to
constant fear and arbitrary govern-
mental action and renders his home
a castle without walls was apparent
to the 'men who drew up the 4th
Amendment, which protects the in-
dividual from "unreasonable searchea
and seizures" of "persons, houses,
papers and effects." The men with
the black robes have joined to this
the 5th Amendment; and, thus, evi-!
dence is secured "unreasonably" by
Federal officers will never have its
day in court. Unfortunately we must
add that qualification-"by Federal
officers"-for a 1921 Supreme Court
decision holds over private persons
a socially unwelcome penumbra.
J UST WHAT CONSTITUTES an
"unreasonable search and seiz-
ure" is of course a judicial question for
the Supreme Court to answer. And
when the Court made wire-tapping
the minor premise in its syllogism, it
followed the words of Justice Holmes,
who has written excellent words on
" . ..we must consider the two
objects of desire both of which we
cannot have and make up our
minds to choose. It is desirable
that criminals should be detected,
and to that end all available evi-
dence should be used. It is also de-
sirable that the government should
not itself foster and pay for other
crimes, when they are the means
by which the evidence is to be ob-
tained . .. For my part I think a
less evil that some criminals should
escape than that the government
should play an ignoble part."
The mere fact that every story
has a moral does not permit the
preacher to play with facts just to
make them dovetail with his little
yarn. Mr. Mantho tells us very strong-
ly that the Communications Act of
1934, whose obvious purpose was "to
prevent unauthorized persons from
intercepting telephone comunications
and to punish telephone operators
who. may disclose the contents of a
message which goes through their
hands," was badly, misread by the
Supreme Court. Although one gets
burned too often holding the torch
for the Supreme Court, in this in-
stance we can take the chance and
spread the light.
THE Communications Act of 1934
provides that "no person not
being authorized by the sender shall
intercept any communication and di-
vulge or publish the existence, con-
tents, substance, purport, effect or
meaning of such communication to
any person." Are government officials
tied by this statute? No. says Mr.
Mantho, it extends only to "unau-
thorized persons" and to telephone
operators. However, the statute does
not say this. It reads "no person" and
contains no exemption for govern-
ment officials. Were this omission
due to negligence alone, the Congress
possessed the ultimate power and
could have amended the act; however,
it did not act. The statute also reads
"no person not being authorized by
the sender"; so he who dials the num-
ber determines who shall listen in.
WHAT 'about the proposed law?
The answer is a simple one:-it
should be defeated. The reasons are
simple, too. During World War I, the
Wilson Administration took especial
care that the telephone and the tele-
graph were not tapped; official
eavesdropping, it was felt, opened
the road to blackmail and even a na-
tion fighting a war should not be
subjected to this form of tyranny.
The second reason is found in the re-
actionary and anti-labor personnel of
the FBI. Many of its members agree
with Mr. Hoover in agreeing with
Representative Dies as to the mean-
ing of "espionage" and "sabotage."
Civil liberties cannot be trusted in
the hands of an undemocratic organ-
ization; the freedom of men is far
I T DOESN'T take much, apparently
to amuse a Mosher-Jordan girl.
The house president received a post
card yesterday, and on it some friend
of the family, who is also somewhat
of a humorist, proposed marriage in
a light sort of way. The girls, true
to their sex, read the card in the mail-
box and have been teasing her ever
Mlost any night you can walk
through the Union tap room and
hear red-headed Henry Beale shout
to the world that the United States
doesn't need war, doesn't want war,
and in particular, doesn't require
the military services of Henry
Beale. Quick-to-excite-Henry re-
ceived his questionnaire via U. S.
Mail a fortnight ago.
STUDENTS who applied may not
know that an announcement of
winners of most of the campus schol-
arships will be forthcoming shortly.
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 2, 1941
VOL. LI. No. 131
Publication in the Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to allj
members of the University. _
Student Tea: President and Mrs.
Ruthven will be at home to students
this afternoon from 4 to 6 o'clock.
Vocational Guidance Talk on Grad-
uate Studies: Dean C. S. Yoakum of
the Horace H. Rackham School of'
Graduate Studies will speak on the,
requirements for admission to thisj
School, and various asects of gradu-
ate work, in the Small Ballroom of
the Michigan Union on Thursday,
April 3, at 4:15 p.m. Students inter-
ested in entering the Gradaute School
are urged to attend the meeting -
The following scholarship appli-
eants in the College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts should appear
in 1208 Angell Hall today for an in-
terview with the Scholarship Com-
mittee at the time specified:'
Reserve Officers and Advanced
Corps Students desiring tickets to
the 1941 Military Ball, to be held Fri-
day, May 9, can reserve a ticket in
their name by signing a list at ROTC
headquarters. Tickets will be aval-
able when commutation checks are
issued. Sale of tickets will be opened
to basic students after spring vaca-
Institute of the Aeronautial Si-
ences Journals and Aeronautical Re-
views for March are now available
in the East and West Engineering
The University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Occupations has received
notice of the following Civil Service
Examinations. Application may be
filed until further notice.
United States Civil Service
Principal Shipyard Inspector
(Hull), Salary: $3800.
Senior Shipyard Inspector (Hull),
Shipyard Inspector (Hull), Salary:
Associate Shipyard Inspector (Hull)
Assistant Shipyard Inspector
(Hull), Salary: $2600.
Junior Shipyard Inspector (Hull),
Shipyard Inspector (Hull, Outfit-
ting) Salary: $32Q0.
Principal Shipyard Inspector (Ma-
chinery), Salary: $3800.
Senior Shipyard Inspector (Ma-
chinery), Salary: $3200.
Associate Shipyard Inspector (Ma-
chinery), Salary: $2900.
Assistant Shipyard Inspector (Ma-
Junior Shipyard Inspector (Ma-
chinery), Salary: $2300.
Senior Shipyard Inspector (Elec-
trical), Salary: $3500.
Shipyard Inspector (Electrical),
Associate Shipyard Inspector (Elec-
trical), Salary: $2900.
Assistant Shipyard Inspector (Elec-
trical), Saary: $2600.
Senior Shipyard Inspector (Join-
er), Salary: $3500.
Shipyard Inspector (Joiner), Sale
Associate Shipyard Inspector (Join-
er), Salary: $2900.
Assistant Shipyard Inspector (Join-
er), Salary: $2600.
Senior Commodity Exchange Spec-
ialist, Salary: $4600.
Commodity Exchange Specialist,
Associate Commodity Exchange
Specialist, Salary: $3200.
Assistant Commodity Exchange
Specialist, Salary: $2600.
Inspector of Miscellaneous Sup-
plies, Salary: $1800 to $2000.
Complete information on file at the
Bureau, 201 Mason Hall. Office
Hours: 9-12 and 2-4.
The Bureau of Appointments and
Occupational Information has also
received notice from the HOLLAND
FURNACE COMPANY that they
want men for their Sales Organiza-
tion Expansion Program. Complete
information on file at the Bureau,
201 Mason Hall. Office hours: 9-12
and 2 to 4.
$otanical Seminar will meet to-
day at 4:30 p.m. in Room 2003 N.S.
Bldg. Paper by Ernst A. Bessey of
Michigan State College on "A Botan-
ist in the Hawaiian Islands." Illus-
Chemistry Colloquium will meet to-
day in Room 3Q3 Chemistry Building
at 4:15 p.m. Mr. A,B. Ness will speak
on "Syntheses in the field of sex
hormones." Dr. J. C. Sheehan will
speak on "Relation between chemical
structure and plant hormone activ-
Chemical and MVetallurgical En-
gineering Seminar today at 4:00 p.m.
in Room 3201 E. Eng. Bldg. for grad-
uate students and faculty in Chemical
and Metallurgical Engineering. Mr.
D. J. Girardi will talk on "Equili-
brium Between Copper--Copper Ox-
ide-Carbon Monoxide-Carbon Di-
Doctoral Examination for Roy Mil-
ton Chatters, Botany-Wood Tech-
nology; Thesis: "A Study of the Ash
(Continued on Page 6)
Haskins, Gerry G, ...... .
Levine, Milton......... .
Levinstein, Henry ......
Miller, Allan C......
Morrison, Edgar C. . .
O'Brien, John R. ....
Parmelee, Harry S...
Petteys, Robert M. ....<
Recknagel, Arnold H. . .
Rewoldt, Stewart H. ...
Rogers, Dexter ......
Rosen, Samuel ........
Roth, Betty ..........
Roth, John H. .........
Rude, Arthur M. .......
Schwartz, Muriel ......
Van Aken, John T. ... .
Van Aken, Mark J. ... .
Warner, Robert M. ....
Weiss, Irving J......
Woods, Clifton J., Jr. ..
Men's Residence Halls: Present oc-
cupants of the Men's Residence Halls
may secure reapplication forms for
the year 1941-42 from their House
Directors. As soon as a form is com-
pleted, it should be returned to the
House Director, and it should be in
her hands by April 25.
Captain W. M. Estes, U.S. Army,
will be at R.O.T.C. Headquarters to-
day and Thursday to interview stu-
dents interested in becoming Flying
Cadets. Applications will also be
taken for those students interested
in non-flying training.
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