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March 12, 1941 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1941-03-12

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ear,_FOURTHE MIC IIGAN DAILY WJ]

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

'War For Democracy '-Retreat
Of The American Intellectual

Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session.
Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
usb for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newpaper. All
tights of republication of all other matters herein also
reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as.
second class mail matter.
Subscriptions during the regular school year by
carrier $4.00; by mail, $4.50.
REPRESENTED FOR NATIONAL ADVERTIJING BT
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publishers Representative
420 MADIsON AvE. NEW YORK. N.Y.
CHICAGO - BOSTON - .OS ANGELES * SAN FRANCISCO
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1940.41

Editorial Staff

Hervie Haufler
Alvin Sarasohn
Paul M. Chandler
Karl Kessler
Milton Orshifsky'
Howard A. Goldman
Laurence Masoott
Donald Wirtchafter
Esther Osser
Helen Corman

- - _,

Managing Editor
. . . . Editorial Director'
. . . . . City Editor
. . Associate Editor
* . . . Associate Editor
. . . . Associate Editor
. . . . Associate Editor
. . . . . Sports Editor
. . . . .Women's Editor
. . . . Exchange Editor

Business Stafff
Business Manager
Assistant Business Manager
Women's Business Manager
Women's Adverlgsing Manager

Irving Guttman
Robert Gilmour
Helen Bohnsack
Jane Krause

'NIGHT EDITOR: GERALD E. BURNS
The editorials published in The Michi-
gan Daily are written by members of The
Daily staff and represent the views of the
writers only.
ill Advocates U.S.
Control Of Airways ...
A RECENT BILL prepared by Repre-
sentative Fish of New York, author-
izing the United States government, in coopera-
tion with the South American nations, to obtain
control of all commercial air lines owned by Axis
powers covers a proposition which should have
been advocated in Congress long before this.
At the present time, although Pan American
Airways is the largest air line system in the Latin
Americas, with 28,500 miles of routes, German
controlled lines-including Syndicato Condor,
Varig and Vasp, all of Brazil, Lloyd Aero Bolivia
of Bolivia, Sedta of Ecuador, Aero Posto of Ar-
gentina, and Lufthansa Peru of Peru-cover 21,-
000 route miles.
In adition to these Nazi-controlled syndicates,
there is an Italian line, Lati, operating along the
west coast of Brazil from Natal to Rio de Janeiro.
With these facilities, providing there were no
war, Germany can provide air service from Ber-
lin to Buenos Aires almost as fast as Pan Ameri-
can can operate from New York to the same
point.
BUT EVERY AXIS-OWNED AIRPLANE in
South America, every Axis-operated airport,
every Axis-controlled flier and air line executive,
would constitute a menace to the United States
if the bulwark of British resistance were broken
by Germany.
Now, while we may proceed at leisure, and
while Latin Americans are inclined toward
friendly cooperation with us, is the time to take
over the competing air lines in Latin America.
As the sponsor of the control bill says, "It's
time we stop talking about the danger to the
United States and Axis attacks from South
America, and do something about it."
-William Baker

By ROBERT SPECKHARD
IT HAS BEEN the traditional analysis of
socialists, liberals and pacifists that the large
munition, financial and industrial magnates
are ,nearly solely instrumental in arousing and
maintaining war sentiment. That analysis is
approximately true as far as it goes, but to that
list must be added the majority of those writers,
thinkers and teachers who are generally la-
beled "intellectuals."
Today many of the intellectuals form the van-
guard of the intervention effort, actively asking
for American military participation in the war.
A larger group of them assent to the war animus
passively by remaining silent when the full
entry of America in the war appears in the not
too distant future, the utterances of Messrs.
Roosevelt and Churchill notwithstanding. How
does one explain this defection of American in-
tellectuals from their usual cry for peace? And
more generally, what twist of mind makes men
of reason become the votaries of all that is ir-
rational-war-when the tom-toms beat in Eur-
ope? Perhaps no single explanation can suffice,
but the question is worthy of discussion.
AFTER THE LAST WAR Europe experi-
enced peace, the peace that came from
exhaustion. The victorious Allies had en-
forced their peace *n their hapless oppo-
nents under the terms of Versailles. Ger-
many and most of her satellites were
crushed, a number of national states were
created, and together with France and
Britain all were joined in the League of Na-
tions. Peace and arms quotas were the or-
der of the day, and many were the intellec-
tuals who thought, the millennium was
come. Not all were as optimistic, but the
post-war atmosphere of exhaustion seemed
to justify the hope of some that reason had
triumphed. The humanitarian internation-
alism and democratic nationalism of the
League of Nations became the emotional
thread of our intellectuals' lives.
Criticism of those who did not relax their
intellects to bathe in the emotional warmth
of League morality was roundly ignored.
Those who declared that world peace must
recognize economic internationalism and
scored the League because it attempted to
petrify and federate the member nations as
political and economic units were treated as
misunderstanding incompetents. To insist
that domestic morality was prerequisite to
international morality was to be labeled a
crude isolationist.
TODAY that myth of League internationalism
-the thread of the intellectuals' thought-
has been rudely broken. Hitler, aided and abet-
ted by the dominant League powers, has turned
upon them: France is already vanquished and
England fights in desperation. The intellectual
has suddenly been forced to make a new orienta-
tion. There have been mental conflicts.
"Conflicts of the mind end either in a new
and higher synthesis or adjustment, or else in
a reversion to more primitive ideas which have
been outgrown but to which we drop when
jolted out of our attained position," Randolph
Bourne once said. Such a jolt and reversion is
evident among American intellectuals today.
The outbreak of the war has caused in America
a revival of those nebulous ideals which we were
fast outgrowing because we had passed the
wistful stage and were discovering concrete ways
of getting them incarnated in actual institu-
tions. The shock of the war has thrown us
back from, this pragmatic work into an emo-
tional bath of these old ideals. Before the war
we were making broad social experiments to
promote and realize the democracy that can be
ours in America. Today we suddenly have be-
come, through the genius of the intellectuals'
minds, a full-fledged democracy ready to fight
to insure the triumph of democratic ideals
throughout the world. Such is the retreat of
the American intellectual from the work of
analysis and study to that of syllogism and'
slogans.
tn the international sphere the same thing
has happened. Before the war the policy of
appeasement.ending in Munich had blasted the
intellectuals' life-line of League international-
ism and morality to bits. The American intel-
lectuals were lost and confused, prophets with-

out a message, leaders without a following.
Needing the comfort of something to attach
their shattered ideals to, they grabbed at the
growing tide of war sentiment and have since
become its most eloquent spokesmen. "War in
the interests of democracy"-the chant grows
steadily behind the nebulous talk of democratic
socialism in England, equitable social recon-
struction for Europe, and defense of American .
democracy in Europe. Harold Laski writes a
book, Ernest Bevin gives a rousing speech to a
labor audience about his war aims, and the
American intellectual is ready to call them facts.
"Be a realist," they declaim-"face the facts."
BUT it is the nature of labels and syllogism
to mean everything and yet nothing.
Asking the American people today to fight
for world-liberalism and world-democracy
are American intellectuals, leaders of the
most illiberal and un-democratic elements
of American society. The war sentiment, be-
gun so gradually but so perseveringly by
the preparedness advocates, who come first
from the ranks of big business, diplomacy,
wealth and their satellites, is today spread-
ing across the country as a class phenom-
enon, first touching everywPere the upper
and middle-class elements in each section.
"Great numbers of intelligent people who
1 .fa nn ra f {AM it.. "n n.... "1.:;1 . C- -I-. .

at home, have found a large fund of idle
emotional capital to invest in the struggle
abroad," Randolph Bourne wrote in June,
1917. That statement is as true today--and
at the vanguard of such sentiment is the
American intellectual.
Abandoning" the real task'of incarnating
the ideals of democracy into American in-
stitutions and culture, American intellee-
tuals are busy today asking the nation's
youth to shed their blood in a war to de-
fend, protect and foster "democracy" all
over the globe. They call themselves real-
ists yet they are ready to have us fight for
a catchword, a nebulous slogan-"denioc-
racy," the seeds of which they would sow
with cannon and bomb. They are the same
American intellectuals who built their'
ideals of international order and peace after
the last war on the economic and political
nationals that comprised the discredited
League of Nations. Now they would defend
and promote "democracy" at home and
abroad by waging war. But they fight only
for the empty symbol of democracy--peace
alone can lend vitality to that symbol.
LET THEM BE HONEST. If they want us to
fight for English liberalism, let them say
so. The liberal capitalism of England is to be
preferred to Nazi nihilism, but the difference
is not worth, the American blood, hopes and
ideals that our military participation in behalf
of England would involve.
But there are those (Pinx and many others)
who would justify our military entrance into
the war on the grounds that if Britain falls,
democracy in this country is necessarily lost.
Such is their confusion with their slogans an
symbols for democracy that these intellectuals
(like Pinx, The Daily, March 8) assert in one
breath that America is a "democracy" and in
the next declare that we in America must strug-
gle to achieve democracy. It is the same con-
fusion that led them after the last war to build
ideals of international order on national anar-
chy, and today impels them to ask for war in
the interests of "democracy."
Some day if we stay out of war we may
achieve democracy and understand and
practice freedom of speech, freedom of wor-
ship, freedom from want and freedom from
fear. If we enter the war militarily today,
even if we defeat Hitler by helping Great
Britain win, we shall forfeit our opportunity
to achieve democracy. For if the American
people suffer once more the disillusignment
that followed the last "war for democracy,"
they will be psychologically and morally
incapable of organizing themselves demo-
cratically either domestically or interna-
tionally. If we go to war now we shall think
no more of justice, the moral order and the
supremacy of human rights. We shall have
hope no longer.
Our first task is to become a democracy
so that when and if we determine to fight
fascism it is democracy that fights. If Pinx
and the other intellectuals do not believe
that an American democracy can defeat
Hitler, then to what end can they ask that
American blood be shed to defeat him?
Those who say that all is lost if England
loses have little faith in the democracy that
can be ours if we stay out of the war.
C~e
D"Pem
d
q R~ Obert$.AlIn ~
WASHINGTON If you travel from Paris
down the route of the Simplon-Orient Express
through Milan, Trieste, Belgrade and Nisch, each
city will seem dirtier, more tawdry and more
Oriental until finally, in Salonika, you think

you have come to the jumping-off place of Eur-
ope.
But if, on the other hand, you approach Eur-
ope from the Mediterranean, via Gibraltar, Al-
giers, Malta and Patras, as one of the Merry-Go-
Rounders once did, then Salonika-despite its
dusty quays, its narrow twisting streets, its tow-
ering mosques-will gleam forth like a Mecca
of modern civilization.
No matter what the approach, Salonika was
one of the most strategic cities of Southeast
Europe long before Hitler massed his mechanized
forces near its borders.
Named Thessalonica for the sister of Alex-
ander the Great, the city lay on the main road
between Rome and the East, at the head of the
long arm of the Gulf of Salonika. Alexander
himself traveled over that road from Macedonia
en route to Persia.
The Slays swept down from Serbia in an at-
tempt to capture it in the 7th century; then the
Bulgars in the 9th century. The Saracens took
it in 904, followed by the Normans of Sicily in the
12th century, the Greeks in the 13th century,
then the Venetians. Finally Murad II, Sultan of
Turkey, captured the prized city of the Aegean in
1430 and it remained under Turkish rule for
five centuries.
It was not until the Balkan. wars against
Turkey in 1912 that the Greeks finally won Sa-
lonika for their own again.

FIRE
&WflTCR
by moscott
All over this continent, varied
morning newspapers offer on some
isolated section of their pages their
little "Thought for the Day." They,
usually include such platitudes as
"Don't Put Off Until Tomorrow What
You Can Do Today"-which every
college man knows is an extreme fal-
lacy-or "Don't Kick Your Mother
in the Neck as Mother's Day Is Com-
ing"-which every college man under-
stands is sheer commercialism-or
else Edgar Guest explaining to timid
housewives and aesthetic business-
men the value of sentiment.
So we'll open our Thought for the
Day Department. We reprint Touch-
stone's sage comment from his yes-
terday's column: "Hitler doesn't have
to conquer this country to make it
over along his lines." And Touch
doesn't even know we're printing this.
Last Sunday, the lead editorial of
The Daily contained the following
statement in praise of the Student
Senate's instigation of greater schol-
arship funds: "The old cry 'What
good is the Senate?' has lost any va-
lidity it may have had. Now, this
body has a justification for respect
which equals that of any other stu-
dent organization." Sorry, bub, but
we're forced to place that bit of un-
stinting praise in our Department of
Gross Over-Statement.
As we see it, up until last week,
the Student Senate had managed to
accomplish only two things: (1) its
own election and (2) conduct of the
Winter and Spring Parleys. Its cam-
paign, however, for more and greater
scholarships can be cited as evidence
of the progressive action which its
sponsors originally hoped it would
stimulate.
But (and our Thought for the Day
Department is increased with: Will
Wonders Never Cease) the Senate is.
to be congratulated again for its
sponsorship of a student employment'
survey covering all of Ann Arbor and
all of the occupations which students
hold here. A general meeting of all
those groups and persons interested
in aiding in this survey is to be held,;
we understand, tomorrow afternoon
at the League.
The need for a survey of student
labor has long been obvious. The
long hours (with no or little payment
for overtime), the poor wages, the'
horrible conditions have been called
at various times to the attention of
almost the whole campus. But there
has always been the suspicion thatI
perhaps these were isolated cases or
perhaps these were exaggerations of
self-martyred individuals.
The projected exhaustive, impartial
survey should answer those questions.
It can answer them without reference
to any particular firm, without any
particular ax to grind, except that
of determining the actual conditions
of student labor in relation to what
they could be. But action to improve
student labor conditions within stu-
dent labor's "bargaining area" (plug
for Ec 52) will depend upon the facts
revealed by the survey.
It has always been difficult for us
to criticize the Student Senate. Its
original aims and purposes, it seemed
to us, were so high, so essential, that
the oganization should be supported

rather than attacked. But in the past
few years, the group has so utterly
failed in any realization of its rea-
sons for existence, that adverse crit-
icism by all groups seemed necessary.
Possibly all the widespread criti-
cism has stimulated the recent praise-
worthy actions by the Senate. Per-
haps, finally, the Senators are to
prove themselves worth voting for.
Criticism of the Senate, incident-
ally, is made even more difficult by
the realization of the identity of our
critical bed-fellows. Much of the at-
tack upon the Senate has originated
with those people and those groups
which dislike the very idea of student
government and student representa-
tion, who only tolerate the Senate
as long as it does nothing. But prob-
ably the decade of the 1940's will be
classified as the "era of strange bed-
fellows." Such a classification can
well apply to most contemporary
problems and discussions.

(Continued from Page 2)
Auditorium. The public is cordially
invited.
University Lecture: Ernesto Galar-
za, Chief of the Division of Labor
and Social Information, Pan-Ameri-
can Union, will lecture on the sub-
ject of "Economic and Social Effects
of the War on Inter-American Re-
lations" under the auspices of the
University Committee on Defense
Issues at 4:15 p.m. on Monday, March
17, in the Rackham Amphitheatre.
The public is cordially invited.
University Lecture: George H. Sa-
bine, Professor of Philosophy, The
Sage ' School of Philosophy, Cornell
University, will lecture on the subject
of "Objectivity and Social Studies"
under the auspicea of the Depart-
ment of Philosophy at 4:15 p.m. on
Friday, March 21, in the Rackham
Amphitheatre. The public is cordially
invited.
Public Lecture: Ben East, Outdoor
Editor of The Ann Arbor News and
Booth Publications, will lecture on
the subject, "Islands of the Inland
Seas" (illustrated) under the auspices
of the Department of Geography at
8:15 p.m. on Thursday, March 13,
in the Hill Auditorium. The public
is cordially invited.
French Lecture: Professor E. L.
Adams will give the third lecture on
the Cercle Francais program: "Une
Vieille Institution Francaise," today
at 4:15 p.m., Room 103, Romance
Language Building. Tickets for the
series of lectures may be procured at
the door.
Mathematical Association Lecture:
Dr. George D. Birkhoff, Perkins Pro-
f. 1 . 1

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

ART

The Ann Arbor Art Association
sponsors currently in Alumni Memor-
ial Hall a show of posters from the
collection of the Museum of Modern
Art of New York. These posters date
from the late 1890's to the present.
The exhibition traces the history of
the poster as an art.
The earliest and among the most
effective of the posters are those of
Steinlen and Toulouse-Lautrec. They
are simple and forceful in their style.
and the influence of these artists on
later designs is patent. The Freneb
come off rather the best in the whole
show. Their tradition is continued by
Alois Carigiet and A. M. Cassandre.
The former's utterly lovely Arosa is
one of the finest pieces of the col-
lection.
The Germans are shown notably
by the famous painter, Schmidt-Rott-
luff, whose poster might well have
been one of his prints. Tschicold's
Konstructivisten is important histor-
ically, for its sort of calculated typo-
graphy is the great influence between
that of the painters of the School of
Paris and Toulous-Lautrec. The Ger-
man tradition is expressed even more
elegantly by Lucian Bernhard, whosE
political poster evokes unexpectedly
the whole tradition of the Viennese
Secession, which now seems deader
than the remoter Dark Ages.
The Americans have two represent-
atives of real distinction, Otis Shep-
ard, the Wrigley man, and E. Mc-
Knight Kauffer, whose reputation has
been made in England. The latter is
best represented by one of the most
famous of all modern posters, his
piece extolling Westminster Abbey.
Social commentary is present in the
two Spanish posters, both excellent
in their diverse ways, the colored one
being quite witty. Ben Shahn, an
Ameiican, also shows a social con-
science, but one cannot help but feel
that his ought better stay in the art
galleries and not be smeared over the
country to frighten the uninitiated
into the mysteries of the proletarian
conscience.
- John Maxon

fessor of Mathematics, Harvard Uni-
versity, will lecture on the subject,
"Uniform Rectilinear Drawing," un-
der the auspices of the Michigan Sec-
tion of the Michigan Academy of
Science, Arts and Letters, at 2:15
p.m. on Saturday, March 15, in the
Amphitheatre of the Rackham Build-
ing. The public is invited.
Events Today
The Sociedad Hispanica will pre-
sent a Spanish play "Puebla De Las
Mujeres" tonight at 8:30 in the Lydia
Mendelssohn Theatre.
The Slavic Society will meet to-
night at 8:00 at the International
f Center. All members are urged to
attend. There will be 'a surprise as
a special feature of the evening.
Alpha Phi Omega, the national
service fraternity, will meet this eve-
ning at 7:30 in the Michigan Union.
All members and pledges must at-
tend this meeting.
Motion Pictures: "Approved by the
Underwriters," the story of protection
of life from fire, accident and crime,
will be presented today at 4:45 p.m.
in the Rackham Ampitheatre by Al-
pha Chi Sigma. The public is cordi-
ally invited.
Harris Hall: A Lenten Lunch will
be served this afternoon from 12:00
to 1:00. Proceeds will go to the Stu-
dent Lenten Project.
J.G.P. Dance Committee: All those
of the committee who have not been
,ontacted for other danceshmay try
out for' the Men's Athlete Chorus to-
day at 4:15 p.m. in the League. Room
notice will be posted on the bulletin
board.
J.G.P. Music Committee will meet
today at 5:00 p.m. in the League.
Room-notice will be posted. All those
who are unable to attend must call
Phyllis Waters, 2-2547, or be dropped
from the committee.
Coming Events
Pi Lambda Theta will have a guest
tea from 4 to 5:30 in the Rackham
Building, on Thursday, March 13,
instead of on Wednesday, as was
previously announced.
Sons and Daughters of Rotarians:
3l sons and daughters of Rotarians
who are attending the University this
;emester are invited to be the guests
A the Ann Arbor Rotary Club at the
noon luncheon on Wednesday, March
u6, in the ballroom of the Michigan
Union.
If you have not already received an
invitation please consider this as an
official invitation. Please leave your
name with Miss Louckes in Room 4,
University Hall AS SOON AS POS-
SIBLE.
Ann Arbor Rotary Club
The Senior Ball Committee will
meet Thursday, March 13, at 8
o'clock in Room 305 of the Michigan
Union.
Ancient Chinese Bronze Mirrors:
Gallery talk at the Exhibit in the
/ezzanine Galleries, Rackham Build-
ng, by Mr. Plumer, Thursday, March
13, 4:00 p.m.
,Neville Collection of Siamese Pat-
tery: Gallery talk at the Exhibit in
>he Mezzanine Galleries, Rackham
Building, by Mr. Plumer, Friday,
March 14, 4:00 p.m.
The Lutheran Student Association
will have a rolle skating party and
hike on Saturday afternoon, March
15. The group will meet, in front of
Lane Hall at 1:45 p.m. Slight cost.
The Gar'den Section of the Faculty
Women's Club will meet at 2:30 'p.m.
Thursday, March 13, in the Amphi-

theatre of the Rackham Building.
Mr. F. Alton Collins will show color
slides of the four seasons in the gar-
den.

U.S. Army Abolishes
Outdated Regulations

. . .

TIHE UNITED STATES ARMY, which
numbers the Maxim gun, the war
tank, and the airplane among its past rejections,
is finally showing some signs of practical lead-
ership. In a new manual issued last week from
Washington, enlisted men are excused from sa-
luting officers while off post, and soldiers at
mess are allowed to continue eating at the en-
trance of an officer. The regulations abandoned
all date back to the days of mercenary armies
that acknowledged the dollar sign as their only
allegiance. The men being drafted into the army
today have lived their lives under comparative
liberty, and thus they are unable to see any con-
nection between clitking heels and democracy's
future.e
Even though the army modernized its personal
training in the latest manual, it still does not
demonstrate any desire to abolish outmoded
features of its combat work. It is possible for a
man to graduate from a university as a second
lieutenant in the Reserve Corps without any com-
marid and leadership experience outside of close-
order drill. Not only does this lack of actual
practice lessen his competence, but he is taught
theory based on principle of trench warfare,
thirty calibre rifle fire, and belly-crawl advances.
THE ARMY has always been the step-child of
the nation's defense agencies. It languishes

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Greek railways to the Monastir and
Strumica fronts.
Millions of dollars worth of mili-
tary supplies lay strewn about her
harbor. Extending ten miles westward
lay the great British ammunition
dumps-artillery, field kitchens, hos-
pital units, oil tanks, surplus locomo-
tives, mounds of earth with warning
signs: "Dynamite"-all the supplies,
the debris, the necessary waste of a
modern army.
It was the Salonika campaign in

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