THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Reflected In Letters To
By Mor y-Q.
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NIGHT EDITOR: HOWARD A. GOLDMAN -
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of The Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
And Publ cN eed...
N THES DAYS of the consequences
of appeasement it behooves the pro-
p opbts of budget balancing to think and advo-
cate with caution.
The argument of those who desire to appease
business is, roughly, as follows: Ably voiced by
Mr. Alfred P. Sloan, the first tenet is that there
exists today "a tremendous backlog of consum-
er demand." The next tenet is that the rate of
expansion in the capital goods industries is
shivering between the point of complete stand-
still and the point of letting urgent replace-
moents slide. Now the logical conclusion to be
reached, apparently,. is that if the Wagner Act
were cautiously emasculated, if the WPA and
direct relief expenditures were ploughed under,
if the Social Security taxes were further cut
(the recent revision of the Social Security tax
rates deprived American employees o 'fthe $600,-
000,000 it saved business), if the TVA were
allowed to function a little less ominously for
the private utility companies, if the coal, rail-
road, banking and other industries were allowed
to pursue their own course-in short, if the New
Deal would only Return to Normalcy, the "tre-
mendous backlog of consumers demand" would
It is, of course, entirely true that there is a
tremendous backlog of consumers demand. The
publications on income and its distribution by
the Brookings Institute, the National Resources
Committee, and the taxable wages reported to
the Social Security Board indicate how incred-
ibly low that consumers demand actually is.
The National Resources Committee's Consumers
Income in the United States, 1935-36, discovered
that about 70 per cent of the nation's wage-
earners received less than $1,500 a year. (p6
Table 2.) The data secured form the records of
Old Age Insurance reveals -that the median
' taxable wage per employee in covered occupa-
tions is $723 per year. (Social Security iulletin,
April 1939, p.6 Table 2.) Furthermore such low
incomes are not only characteristic of depression
periods. Fr the Social Security Board data are
for 1937 when the volume of industrial produc-
tion, according to the Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve Board, was at 125, while the
corresponding figures for 1929 was 127. And
the Brookings Institute data for the golden year
of 1929 shows 60 per cent of the wage-earners in
the U.S. to have received less than $2,000 in
The New Deal was designed to remedy this
situation with accepted legislative instruments.
The Wagner Act, the Wage and Hour Act, WPA,
Unemployment Compensation, Old Age Insur-
ance were innovated precisely to bolster this
mass deficiency in purchasing power. They
have all helped, undoubtedly. But the crucial
question still remains: why are there two-thirds
of the American people who are still unable to
purchase what they produce?
Under our preent economic structure, the
mechanics of the distribution of income is such
that the sum total of income apportioned to the
American people is always disproportionately les
than the current value of the goods they pro-
duce. 'And, because of the prior claim of owner-
ship on the proceeds of management and labor,
the disparity. betwen t e v.alue of goods pro-
duced and cnaubleo nf hin' nrn duc o nn the
To the Editor:
In re Slosson's "factual errors" the following
item is of interest:
1937 United State automobile exports to
Canada were 18,595 cars and 56,439 engines
Foreign Commerce Yearbook, 1938, page 195. -
I cannot find out how many were Fords, but
the principle is the same even if they were
Will your policy of no trade with belligerent
foreign nations mean a patrol'along the Canad-
ian-American frontier to keep them out?
Speaking of automobiles, the United States
uses over seven-tenths of all the world's rubber
and grows virtually none of it. Rubber can be
made artificially but only at an almost prohibi-
tive cost (Germany has virtually forbidden
private owners to use their cars except on, public
duty). The British Indies are our main present
source of supply. To be sure the Dutch East
Indies are neutral, but for how long no one
Economic autarchy will make little appeal to
No True Neutrality
To the Editor:,
Shall the United States reeal the Embargo
S4hall the United States repeal the Embargo
and carry policy as regards the sending of arms
and munitions to belligerent countries? Shall
we send raw materials to belligerent countries?
Shall we send raw materials to the belligerents
butt not arms and munitions? All these questions
do the Congressmen vehemently discuss with
each of them deciding that his solution of the
problem will solve the riddle of United States
neutrality. It is my contention that there can
not be arny true neutrality for the United States,
whatever policy we adopt; this I shall endeavour
The dictionary defines neutrality as "the
condition of' a state' or government which re-
frains from taking part directly or indirectly in
a war f etw'een other powers." With this defini-
tion as my premise I proceed with my analysis
of a possible neutrality for the United States.
If the United States retains the present Em-
bargo Act, we shall not be acting neutrally; for
by means of the act we are still able to send raw
materials to belligerents. And this is direct, or
at least indirect, aid to the belligerents. Modern
warfare does not consist in merely fighting at
the battlefield Economic warfare is just as
important. An act that merely prohibits the
shipment of arms and munitions to a belligerent
and not raw materials is not a neutrality act.
And if we send raw materials to a belligerent,
the necessary implication is that the stronger
sea power will be better able to receive these
goods; and thus we shall be directly aiding the
latter in its combat with the enemy. For we
would not be acting as a neutral as far as prac-
tical results were concerned.
If we repeal the Embargo Act and adopt a
cash-and-carry policy, which policy is the only
measure offered as an alternative to the Embargo
Act, we still would not have a neutrality. The
country with the greater financial resources and
better naval equipment would be the one to re-
ceive the direct benefits from these transactions;
and in terms of modern warfare which must cer-
tainly be approached from an economic point of
,view, this is not neutrality.
Having reduced the problem to one of either
the retention of the Embargo Act or its repeal
and the consequent adoption of the cash-and-
carry plan, I maintain that neither policy will
lead the United States to a condition of real
neutrality. In this matter we must judge a
policy in terms of its practical implications and
not in terms of international law. The issue
is thus not one of neutrality. It simply amounts
to our deciding which policy will better serve
our 'interests and which will prevent us from
actually shouldering rifles for the longest time.
For whatever procedure we follow, considering
the matter from the standpoint of its necessary
economic implications, we are in the war.
-Norman B. Klibe
WFake Safe For Democracy?
To the Editor:
I read with amazement and distress the sug-
gestion in The Daily yesterday that the United
States should again try to save the world for
democracy and defeat Hitlerism. The majority
of those Americans who fought in the last war
sincerely believed they were fighting a peopleX
whose attributes were summed up in the word,
"Hun," and whose leader was an utterly ruth-
less paranoiac. When the Kaiser was unseated,
millions were shocked because he went unhanged.
Still greater was the shock when-once the
arms were laid down-we were told the Germans
were really an excellent people, sincerely fighting
for the right as they saw it. But perhaps the
great disillusionment was the gradual realization
that our companions had died to make the world
safer for American investments.
It is true that the majority of the German,
British and French people are friendly, indus-
trious peace- loving citizens, but commonly so
concerned with the immediate and fascinating
business of living that the government drifts
taxes is not going to remove that diminishing
rate of profitability.
If the budget is to be balanced, it will be done
by the resolute and democratic action of public
enterprise, not private. It is only by such con-
structive undertakings as the TVA, with its 130,-
nnnnn rinrnnrr Ff n r -la t . of m a
into the hands of a tight little minority. As
Professor Slosson has pointed out elsewhere, on
of the essential differences between the British
and American ways of choosing a leader is illus-
trated by the fact that any reasonably astute
9bserver could name a very few Englishmen and
be quite confident he had included all the possi-
bilities for the post of Prime Minister for years
to come. It is with this group and the interests
they represent that we must reckon. Now we
are told by them-and surviving members of
the 1914 group are still there-that it is not the
German people, it is their leader who is being
opposed. Again science is losing its Mosleys, lit-
erature its Rupert Brooks, and the people their
lives. Does anyone believe that once Hitler is
banished to the Netherlands, English leadership
will be less selfish than in the past? On the
eve of going to war we heard a British states-
man warn the English people and the rest of
the world that aggression in Poland would create
an unfavorable balance of power which England
would not tolerate. The sincerity of these words
can not now be questioned, and they seem to
contain the essence of British policy. It is a
policy that allowed Germany to rearm and Hitler
to come to power when French influence seemed
growing apace; it had something to do with he
repudiation of the agreement with the United
States and other nations to prevent aggression
in China, when the United States on the strength
of this compact, protested the invasion of Man-
When nearly a quarter of the entire popula-
tion 'of Great Britain signed a petition to its
government requesting it to embark on a cep
tain policy during the Italo-Ethiopian conflict,
the government gave heed and made promises
which it kept only until safely reelected a few
months later. Without taking time for a de-
tailed indictment of Great Britain's official
behavior during the past two decades, I believe
few of us would trust an individual whose con-
tracts had been voided as often.
There seems little doubt that the government
of the United States, at present, is one of the
most democratic in the world. We believe in it
and naturally wish all the other peoples of this
earth to be happy and democratic too. But I see
nothing in the events of the past twenty years
to suggest that our type of democracy will spread
over Europe if England and France are agaiN
helped to win a war to preserve the (British) bal-
ance of power.
If we are to achieve the "coming World State"
which Professor Slosson forsees, it would seem
we must first assume the postion of supreme
arbiter of European affairs with complete co-
operation'from England and France. This seems
a remote possibility for which to risk the loss
of our own liberties. The choice of "going all
the way in or staying entirely out" seems the
only logical course, but it now appears sadly
probable that we will pursue the meddle-and-
muddle-way that will be so financially helpful
to some, unless sentiment changes and a few
more tons of mail deluge Congress.
-T. S. Lovering
Jfee, o l
Sigmund Freud, the disturber of dreams, died
in a nightmare world and has been gathered
back to the father image. He has gone, I be-
lieve, to the heart of a dark
continent whose fringes he
explored. And yet if he never
traveled more than half a
day's journey across the
divide which separates sleep
from waking he remainr :4
pioneer. Not since Orpheus
. has any mortal come closer
to the secret springs.
And I imagine it will be as
artist and philosopher rather than as physician
that the little Viennese will be remembered. ID
suffered too much from a sort of Sherlock
Holnes complex to be numbered among th
scientists. Like the fictional detective, he would
take a less than conclusive clew and say cog-
matically to some convenient Watson, "That
man was running for his life." He could take
the fragment of a dream and build it into a
case history as readily as Holmes might solve a
murder mystery by looking at a cigar ash through
And yet, though psychiatry may reject Freud
in whole or part, the medicine men first must
knock him down. Ironically enough, his name
and fame will be best preserved by a' motley
crew, most of whom never read a line of his
writing and got his teaching in distorted form
at fourth or twentieth hand.
At the very moment Freud's ashes are being
laid to rest, somewhere an American prize-fight
matiager, sixth grade class of 98, will be saying,
"The trouble with my heavyweight is the kid's
inhibited. He don't know his own strength."
And baseball managers have begun to ask their
southpaws with more than academic interest,
"Tell me, Lefty, what's your sex life?"
At the very least Freud has changed the sig-
nificance of a dream in popular mind from a
horse in the sixth race to a fixation in the fifth
year. And surely it will be a long day before,
the gored artist refrains from turning on his tor-'
mentor to say, "But really, Mrs. Harriman, you
fail to grasp the fact that I painted that out of
black-and-white levers in none-too-
rapid succession and on the carriage
above would hesitatingly appear a
series of words, which, when read
consecutively, would sometimes make
sense. But at least the woodpecker-
ish levers would transmit the same
words that Mr. Q. had meant to be
transmitted. "But that is aIl changed
now. Something has happened to
Mr. Q.'s infernal friend..
No matter what Mr. Q. intends the
levers to report, no matter wihat keys
he taps in an effort to telegraph
a word or two to the waiting paper,
the same words appear; sometimes
the order is shifted so that different
sentences or phrases come out, or
sometimes, in keeping with the high
literary style to which the machine
has become accustomed, synonyms
will be used. But always it pecks
out the same idea or thought. It is
So yesterday, when Mr. Q. sat down
to note a few observations, he forgot
about the amazing transformation
and planted himself in front of his
old friend. And he began to tap the
keys in the usual manner, ptting
his best index-finger forward. And
glancing up to the paper, he was
taken back by the same old phenom-
enon: the typewriter again refused
ti transmit accurately; somewhere
between the tap of the finger, along"
the key bar and finally snapping up
to meet the ribbon, there had been
the same filtering, the same change.
And there sneering at him from the
paper, was the message for the dayT,
this time in caps: KEEP US OUT
* * *
DETERMINED not to be censoredf
or propagandized by a distorted
fugitive from a munitions plant, Mr.
Q. hurried out of the building in quest
of a non-sabotaged typewriter, a good
old-fashioned machine that wouldn't
get creative all of a sudden, butf
would report accurately. So he fin-
ally found himself in the registrar's
office and there, in a corner, was a
nice quiet outfit that didn't look as
if it had creative aspirations. Itt
looked very trustworthy.
He assembled his notes on the1
table, readied the paper in the car-
riage, adjusted a couple of gadgetsE
and began anew to set down some-
thing that would go well with toast
and coffee. He felt the machine
tremble slightly as he fingered the
keys. An excellent typewriter, he
thought; how fortunate he was to
have chanced upon the registrar's1
office. And, even as he thought thus,
hie looked at the rolled paper: there
before him, in the registrar's office,
the trustworthy machine- trembling
with excitement, was the same phe-
nomenon. Traced on the sheet,x
standing out in almost third dimen-
tional emphasis, was the clipped no-
tation: RECORD ENROLLMENT.
With a hollow feeling of havingt
been let down, Mr. Q. shoved the
automatic propagandist away in dis-
gust, and left. He thought he heard1
a clicking snicker as he stamped out.t
IT WAS the same wherever he tried:
each typewriter had been geared
by some mystical fiend to relate only
what it had been instructed. So, in
the Athletic Administration Building,
it was: BIG TEN CHAMPS; And, inl
the music school, it was: CHORAL
UNION SERIES; and, in the Union,
it was: NEW DORMITORIES. It
Tired, dazed and disappointed, Mr.
Q. finally turned homeward and to
his trusty little portable that sure-
ly, in all this topsy-turvy commo-
tion, would not fail him. He made
himself comfortable, feeling buoyed.
and secure in his own room; now he
would show them, he thought: he
would get out his column despite all
these demonical efforts to make him
a tool, a puppet, a mouthpiece . He
gripped his pipe firmly, adjusted the
paper, and lovingly fondled the fam-
iliar keys. Then he started ,to tap,'
and, there it was, in faint black. PAY
Mr. Q. will try again Sunday.
might go far to nourish a more kindly
civilization than exists today. Cer-
tainly Freud was a scourge to the
Pharisees of the earth. He crusaded;
against cant; the method he espoused
served to strip the mask from men
who . clothed mean motives under
phrases of high pretensions. He did
suggest that health and integration
lay in the individual ability to keep
open covenants with himself, and it
is my notion that he forged a wedge
with which to split the hypocrisy of
race and 'religious prejudice.
a_ . ... t . L L.. . x.t.
the Rules Governing Participation in
Public Activities may be directedto
appear before the Committee on2 Stu-
dent Affairs to explain their negli-
The University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Occupational Information
has received notice of the following
Civil Service examinations. Last date
for filing application is noted in each
United States Civil Service:
Senior Oyster Culturist. Salary:
$2,000. Oct. 2.
Senior Aquatic Physiologist. Sal-
ary: $4,600. Oct. 2.
Senior Plant Anatomist. Salary:
$4,600. Oct. 2.
Senior Soil Physicist. Salary: $4,-
600. Oct. 2.
Assistant Physiologist (Plant Hor-
mones Investigations). Salary: $2,-
600. Oct. 2.
Biochemist (Nut Investigations)
Salary: $3,800. Oct. 2.
Pomologist (Fruit Breeding). Sal-
ary: $3,800. Oct. 2.
Pomologist (Physiology). Salary:
$3,800. Oct. 2.
Associate Agronomist (F o r a g e
Crops). Salary: $3,200. Oct. 2.
Assistant Agronomist (F o r a g e
Crops). Salary: $2,600. Oct. 2.-
Assistant Agronomist (Cotton).
Salary: $2,600. Oct. 2..
Assistant Pathologist (Corn In-
vestigations). Salary: $2,600. Oct. 2.
Head Scientist-Astronomer, to ba
Director, Nautical Almanac. Salary:
$6,500. Oct. 9.
Galley Designer, U.S. Maritime
Comm. Salary: $3,800. Oct. 9.
Chief Engineering Draftsman (Me-
chanical). Salary: $2,600. Oct. 9.
Principal Engineering raftsman
(Mechanical). Salary: $2,300. Oct. '
Senior Engineering Draftsman
(Mechanical). Salary: $2,000. Oct. 9.
Air Carrier Inspector (Radio). Sal-
ary: $3,800. Oct. 9.]
Junior Domestic Attendant (Seam-f
stress). Salary: $1,30. Oct. .
Michigan Civil Servce:
Social Worker A and B. SalaryE
range: $105-150. Oct. 4.
Social 'Work Administrators I, II,
III. Salary range: $150-310. Oct. 4.
Attendant Nurse C2, B2 and B. Sal-
ary range: $75-125. Oct. 8.
Detroit Civil Service:
Auto Repairman. Salary: Prevail-
ing rate. Sept. 30.4
J u n io r Architectural Engineer
(Housing Analysis). Salary:' $2,580.k
Junior Accountant. Salary: $2,580.
Senior Technical Clerk (Account-
ing). Salary: $1,860. Oct. 7.
Complete announcements on file at
the 'University Bureau of Appoint-t
ments and Occupational Information,
201 Mason Hall. Office hours: 9-12
College of Literature, Science and
the Arts, School of Music, and Schbolk
of Education: Students who received
marks of I or X at the close of theirr
last term of attendance (viz., senes-
ter or summer session, will receive a
grade of E in the course unless this
work is made up and reported to this
office by Oct. 25. Students wishing
an extension of - time should file a
petition addressed to the appropriate
official in their school with Room 4
U.H. where it will be transmitted.
Robert L. Williams, Asst. 9egistrar.
Mail for Students, Faculty and tem-
porary residents at the University:
, All students and new members of
the faculty should call at the U.S.
Post Office and make out pink card,
"Order to Change Address," Form 22,
if they have not already done so.
This applies also to temporary resi-
dents in Ann Arbor who may be do-l
ing reference or research work on
Unidentifiable mail is held in Room
1, University Hall. If you are expect-
ing mail which you have not received,
please call at Room 1, University
Hall, and make inquiry.
Phi Lambda Upsilon: All faculty
and student members of Phi Lambda
Upsilon who are affiliated with the
University of Michigan for the first
time, or who are returning after an
absence, please get in touch with me
by phone or post card.
C. W. Zuehlke,
Secy. Delta Chapter
727 S. StateSt.
Graduate Students: Dr V. E. Hull,
Examiner in Foreign Languages for"
the doctorate, will be in his office,
151 will meet
Classes in Speech C
dents interested in c
services of the Speech
correction of speech d
quested to call at'the Cl
Huron Street, sometin
week for the purpose a
of classes will follow li
(Continued from Page 2)
SOQMETHING has happened to these of the Dean of the School or College
typewriters since the first week to which the student belongs.
in September. They look the same: XI
black and white, 41 keys, black rib- Discipline. Cases of violation of
black and whiter4 kueysnlack r- these rules will be reported to the
bon, and all other accoutrements for proper disciplinary authority for ac-
mechanical palmering. But they're tion.
different. Mr. Q. remembers sit- . XII.
ting at this same machine last year: Officers, chairmen and managers of
he would press a number of the little 'ommittees and projectswho violate
I cease or begin until all
11: Will meet fro
;been thus officially registe
rangements made with th
tors only are not official c
English 31, Section 15
hereafter in 305 South V
German 167: Will meet'.;
fromn 4-6 today.
Clark, Pharmacy Serv
ment, Merck and Compar
on the topic, "Developing
tion Department," at 4
day, in Room 308,
Building. Pharmacy s
others interested are coi
ed to attend.
Candy Booth Committee: T
will be a meeting this afterr
at 4 o'clock in 'the League for
girls interested in working on
committee this year.
Informal Tea for Public He
Nurses: Themt will be an informal
for all public health nurses toda
3:30 p.m. at the Women's Field H
on For'est Ave. All public he
nursing students are invited to
Recreation Night at the Inte
tiona Center: This evening the II
national Center will have its firs
its series of weekly Recreation Nig
The Center will be open from 7 t
o'clock for foreign students and I
friends. The class for beginner
bridge will be organized and bri
games started by Conway Magee,
L. M. Ochs, the new member of
st ff in charge of the athletic
gum, will during the evening
students interested in both in
and outdoor sports to discuss
them his plans.
J. Raleigh Nelso
Physical Education for Won
Exemption tests in baseball, hoc:
volleyball, basketball and soccer
be given at the Women's 4th
ing today at 4:30 p.m.
Episcopal Students: Informal m
ing at Farris Hall tonight at 8
Hillel Foundation will hold Sa
services at the Hillel Foundatior
night at 7:30 p.m.. Ronald Freed
will officiate as cantor. Dr. J
Sachs, Dr. Isaac Rabinowitz,
Ronald Freedman will speak at
Fireside discussion following sern
A social hour will follow the fire
The Lutheran Student Associa
will hold an open house this eve
at the Zion Lutheran Parish
309 E. - Washington St., from
10:30 p.m. Games and refreshn
have been arranged. All Iutl1
students are welcome.
The Graduate Outing Chub
meet at the northwest entranc
the Rackhai Building at 3 p.in.
day, Oct. 1. The group will go
hike, which will end at the Is
where a wiener roast will be
All graduate students are cord
invited to attend.
Freshman Round Table: Prof
thur VanDuren will speak on the
ject "For What Are We Edu at
at-Lane Hall, Saturday, 7:15,p.n
freshmen men and women are
come to take part in the discus
The Outdoor Club invite
attend a bicycle hike Saturd
30. The group will meet
Hall at 2 p.m. A limited n