Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue


Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

December 11, 1939 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1939-12-11

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.



MON-DAY DEC:-' 11. 1039,

......._ _.._... . is~a 1T 1.'VM Z <T..[ANl . i'bAIL

171LI lAV': nL'UT! 11y 1 iO J a




Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session.
Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is' exclusively entitled to the
us Idr "republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
rights of republication of all other matters herein also
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class mail. matter..
Subscriptions during regular school year by carrier,
*4 ,.0;,by mail, $4.50:
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College' Pablsher, Representative
Rember, Associated Collegiate Press, 1939-40

Carl Petersen
Elliott Maraniss
Stan M. Swinton
Morton L. Linder
Norman A. Schorr
Dennis Flanagan
Ann Vicary
Mel Fineberg

Editorial Staff
B . . .
. , . .
Business Staf

Managing Editor
Editorial Director
SCity Editor
. Associate Editor
. Associate Editor
SAssociate Editor
Associate Editor
*Women's Editor
. Sports Editor
. Paul R. Park
Ganson P. Taggart
Zenovia Skoratko
Jane Mowers
*Harriet S. Levy

Business Manager
Asst. Business Mgr., Credit Manager
Women's Business Manager
Women's AdvertisingrManager
Publications Manager

WASHINGTON-To some 4,000.000 youths .the South when Hopkins commandeered him
in every state in the Union the most important to help get the first New Deal jobless aid pro-
New Dealer in Washington is a tall, lantern- gram under way. The following year, when
jawed Alabaman whose career has been as the WPA was set up Hopkins chose Williams
varied and romantic as a Horatio Alger hero's. as his second in command.
As head of the National Youth Administration, It was in this post that Williams, with the
it is the job of Aubrey Williams to give these potent behind-the-scenes backing of Mrs.
unemployed, out-of-school boys and girls a Roosevelt, conceived the NYA and sold the idea
chance to work so they can learn a trade or to the President. FDR agreed to establish the
complete their education. He is a crucial in- youth agency provided Williams ran it.
fluence on young lives. But also he is no "It's your baby," Rosevelt said. "It's up to you
stranger to adults. to show its worth."
As Deputy WPA Administrator under Harry So Williams handled NYA as well as the bulk
Hopkins, Williams' strongly humanistic views of WPA administrative work. In fact, he was
sometimes made him the butt of bitter political WPA's official "no" man to pork-hungry poli-
controversy. He has been singed and scorched ticians-which may explain some Congressional
by many a tirade. Yet, no New Dealer has bitterness toward him. He handled this tremen-
more and warmer friends in the political arena. dous load by working 15 hours a day, including
NYA Unscathed Sunday, and never taking a vacation.
Last summer the National Youth Administra- Man's Man
tion was one of the few agencies to emerge un-
scathed from the congressional economy ax. Among the New Dealers, there is none more
When the House Appropriations Committee determined in holding his humanistic convic-
slashed the NYA budget to $81,000,000, members tions. His early grim struggles bred in him a
of all factions joined in restoring the figure to profound compassion for the underdog. He is
$100,000,000 on the floor of the chamber. The as unswerving as Senator George Norris, bN
same thing happened in the Senate. Supported ideal.
by leading educators and newspapers all over But although atwo-fisted fighter for what
the country, the NYA was saved from the chop- he believes, there is nothing of the sour-puss
ping-block so that thousands of youths would about Williams. Personally, he is a man's man.
have a better chance. Slender and handsome, he is a natty dresser
But while Aubrey Williams is well known as and has a passion for ritzy ties. Another strong
But hil AureyWiliamsis ellknon ~ love. is good horses. He will get up early and
a name, few know him personally or appreciate doveis o ses. He islngetu r
his unique and colorful background. For example,
the fact that he once was a lay preacher and And with his southern drawl, easy geniality
later a battle-scarred veteran of the famed and booming laugh, Williams is an inimitable
French Foreign Legion, is something he seldom story teller. He is in much demand as a speaker
mentions. but dislikes the chore of preparing written
Williams was born on an Alabama farm in speeches so the press can have advance copies.
1890. His family was impoverished by the Civil Usually he puts this off to the last minute and
War, and at the age of seven he went to work tries to reach the platform before the reporters
in a laundry for $1 a week. Up to the age of can grab him. Even when he has a prepared
20 he had only one year of formal schooling; speech he sometimes chucks it aside and talks
what education he had was self-taught or from extemporaneously.
his mother,a deeply religious woman. This happened recently at a gathering of na-
While his schooling was skimpy, Williams tional educators. The conference had heard
hle histschoolingtiwastskinmn, HWliad speaker after speaker for hours on end. Finally
had a wealth of practical trainings He worked Williams was introduced. Looking the weary
as a salesman of all sorts of things-frombooks audience over, he drawled, "You don't want to
to haberdashery. He was a window dresser, a hear me make a speech. You're tired and I'm
sign-painter, livery stable hand, social worker tired from hearing too many already. I'll just
and director of a Birmingham boys' club which tell you a few stories so we can all relax before
he helped organize . calling it a day"
In 1911, Williams decided to study for the For 15 minutes the dignified academicians
ministry and entered Maryville College, Tenn., or15 inuted
paying his way by manual labor. A year later rocked with laughter.
he transferred to the University of Cincinnati, Williams one hobby and recreation is farm-
where he was when the World War brokeout i ing. He lives on a little farm on the outskirts
Europe he hen the "ok on of Washington and there raises all his own
tEup. The heroic stand of the "Old Con- vegetables and poultry. In this, he has the
tenptibles," first British force that was prac- help of what he clls his "private youth move-
hticaly wiped out, stirred him profoundly and ment," four husky young sons, ranging from 13
e went to France with an ambulance unit: to 17.
When the United States entered the-conflict Williams is proud of his farm and loves to load
in 1917, Williams joined the Foreign Legion and down guests with produce and eggs. Once a
saw fierce shock-troop fighting. In one en- friend who had listened to his agricultural
gagement, his company was cut in half in the
first fifteen minutes of attack. When the First boasts disguised his voice and called up Williams.
Division of the A.E.F. reached France, Williams "This is the White House," he said. "The
transferred to it. Enlisting as a buck private, President would like to get some of those fine
he came out a lieutenant, eggs of yours. Send around a couple of dozen."
Williams fell hook, line and sinker and it took
Pulpit To WPA some time for the friends to explain that it was
all a joke.
After the Armistice, Williams studied at the The European war may soon hit the U.S.A.
University of Bordeaux, then returned to Cin- a trade blow that will make the laying up of
cinnati where he became a lay pre'acher. After the 88 transatlantic merchant vessels seem mild
several years in the ministry he turned to social in comparison.
workas secretary of the Wisconsin Conference Confidential word has been received from
of Social Work. London that the Allies will tighten their block-
. In -1932 he became a field director of the ade of Germany and retaliate against ruthless
American Public Welfare Association, and was sea warfare by restricting U.S. exports to certain
engaged in establishing relief organizations in European neutrals.

+. .
i ..

The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of The Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
Thanks To You,
Goodfellows . ..
BY YOUR PURCHASE of this Good-
fellow Edition of The Daily, you
have helped to make this Christmas a merry
one for some whose Christmas would otherwise
have been a dull and sordid affair.
It is true that the activity of the students
and townspeople who have cooperated in mak-
ing this drive possible is a mere drop in the'
bucket in the face of the widespread poverty and'
want that exists in this country. It is also true,
however, that the activity of these people and
your action in buying a Goodfellow Daily indi-
cates a realization of, and a sympathy for, the
plight of those who economic vicissitude has
placed in an unfortunate position in this Christ-
mas season.
Recognition of the fact of want and illness
existing in the midst of plenty is a long ste3
toward elimination of those conditions which
generate them.
This is the fifth annual Goodfellow Drive of
The Daily. It has passed the experimental
stages, has come to be accepted by the Uni-
versity community as one of the primary human-
itarian activities of the campus. On behalf of
those who will benefit from this Drive, we extend
to you and to the students and townspeople
who have lent their time and energy to making
this activity possible, our sincerest thanks.
-Carl Petersen
All-Am erica's
(Text of the address made by Iowa's All-American,
Nile Kinnick upon receiving the 1939 Heisman
Trophy, annually awarded to the best football
player in the United States.-Ed.)
" THANK YOU very, very much, Mr. Hol-
comb. It seems to me that everyone is
letting his superlatives run away with him to-
"Every football player in, these United States
dreams of winning this trophy. The fact that I
ai actually receiving it overwhelms me, and I
feel what those who have received the Heisman
award before me must have felt.
"From my personal viewpoint I consider this
a tribute to the coaching staff at the University
of Iowa, headed by Dr. Eddie Anderson, and to
my teammates sitting back in Iowa City. A
finer man and a better coach never hit these
United States and a finer team never performed
on any gridiron than the Iowa team of 1939. I
wish they might all be with me tonight t re-
ceive this. trophy. .
"And I would like, if I may, to make a com-
ment which I think is appropriate at this time.
"I thank God that I was born to the gridirns
of the middlewest and not to the battlefields of
Europe. I can speak confidently and positively
that the football players of this country would
rather fight for the Heisan trophy than for
the Croix de Guerre."
Barred Roads-Barred Minds
The great menace of these war-torn days is
a return to provincialism in thinking. That
may seem at first glance to have little con-
netion with the fact that three departments
of the Federal Government have joined with the
Council of State Governments in an attack
oh the development of interstate trade barriers
in the United States. Yet this movement to

Of all the pictures Mr. Jack L.
Warner has to his credit there is
none he may feel more proud of
than "We Are Not Alone," the cur-
rent film now showing at the Majes-
tic theatre. The choice of the fa-
mous Hilton novel is indeed a happy
one for all concerned. It stands as
the apogee of all the significant
themes Mr. Warner has brought to
the screen. It serves as a most ap-
propriate medium for Mr. Paul Muni,
despite an unfortunate case of 'over-
acting, once more to exemplify the
need for tolerance and understand-
ing in times of national and racial
hatred. And it offers Miss Jane
Bryan for the first time in her com-
paratively brief film career an op-
portunity to demonstrate her abilities
as one of the screen's most talented
and certainly most sincere young
actresses. (She really quite outdid
Mr. Muni.) It is to be hoped that
from this time forward Miss Bryan
will be given roles which prove
worthy of her acquirements.
Absorbed In Spirit
Director Edmund Goulding has ap-
parently been absorbing the spirit
of the better European films: for
the usual tricks and mannerisms
Hollywood has long found obligatory
Mr. Goulding has sternly put aside.
When a Hollywood director begins
to economize, employing only those
scenes which are essential to the
development of the theme, achiev-
ing continuity and drive by sheer
selection, never permitting the en-
trance of an unmotivated scene, and
above all unswervingly insisting that
there be a demonstrable correlation
between camera, character, music
and setting,-when he achieves this,
coupled with a subject worthy of
such effort, then you may depend
upon it, the net result will be a thing
of conviction and power, in short, a
work of art. Well, that is what Mr.
Goulding has done. It has been
done before,-granted. A few high-
lights such as Richard Thorpe's
"Night Must Fall," John Ford's "The
Informer," also John Ford's "Stage
Coach" (with reservations), George
Cukor's "Camille" (with reserva-
tions), a few others,-there have not
been many. And now Edmund Goul-
ding's 'We Are Not Alone."
Extremely Significant
But Mr. Hilton's story in one way
is more significant than that of
any of the other classics cited be-
cause of the extraordinary rele-i
vance for the theme to the present
day. The basic plea of "We Are Not
Alone"-a plea introduced as just
another problem in the drama (since
a work of art must never be didactic)
-is that we must not find in the'
face of every man and woman the
personification of the particular
society he happens to belong to, That
is to say, we must not condemn every
German on the ground that Herr Hit-
ler "rules" the Fatherland; or every
American communist because Russia
is now invading Finland; or every
Jew because we are so hopelessly
gullible as to find an "international
banker" (sic. Father Coughlin) in
the face of every son of Sarah. That
false transference is rotten, says Mr.
Hilton, it leads to the worst of trage-
dies, affecting not only the immedi-
ately persecuted, but their sons, and
their sons' sons, even unto the tenth
generation. Mr. Hilton asks us to
remember that the world is made up
for the most part of very simple peo.
ple desiring nothing more than the
normal rights of giving birth, taking
and receiving what modicum of affec-
tion they can get, and finally a quiet
death. Upon this normality often
burst the clouds of war. But, says
Mr. Hilton, shall we take the part
of the war 1prds (they who have
"learned nothing in two thousand

years") and encourage in our local
communities the cause of prejudice,
hatred and violence? If we do, if
we abuse, plunder and kill, we shall
find after it is too late that all we
have gained is the bitterness of re-
morse and the tardy knowledge that
the folly of unbridled emotionalism
has destroyed, perhaps forever, the
very thing we sought to preserve.
"We Are Not Alone" is a tragic
prayer for the preservation of de-
mocracy no matter what comes, no
matter how long the battle, no mat-
ter how hated the foe. It has the
sincerity of "Juarez" and the artis-
tic integrity of "Good By, Mr.
Chips." Don't fail to see it.
The Eitor
Gets Told ...
TO the Editor:
Some public utility executives are
crooks and liars; Mr. Wendell Will-
kie is president of Commonwealth
and Southern Corporation; therefore
Mr. Willkie is a crook and a liar.
Such is the logical reasoning of Rob-
ert Speckhard in the lead editorial
of the Michigan Daily on Wednes-
day, Dec. 6. Quoting freely from
the findings of the Federal Trade
Commission, the editorial proceeds to
prove(?) thati It is impossible for

CAPITAL CITY by Mari Sandoz
Little, Brown and Company.
Capital City can scarcely be
called a proletarian novel-it isn't a
novel. It is, rather, a powerful pro-
letarian portrait or landscape, giving
the reader a broad though specific
'view of the many problems and ills
besetting the American social and
economic systems.
The book consists of a broad, re-
lated series of pictures of the rot-
tenness which has become the rule
in Kanewa, a fictitious American
state, centering in Franklin, the capi-
tal city. Through the book runs the
story of Hamm Rufe, grandson of
one of Franklin's founders, who has
turned against the decadent "better
class" of citizens of whom he had
once been a leader. Hamm's story,
beginning with the days when he
lived in Herb's Addition, the slum-
miest slum of Franklin, tracing his
life from boyhood up to that point
and following his struggles for the
working classes to the time of his
death, connects the varied events and
scenes described by Miss Sandoz.
Biased View
No one could reasonably deny that
Capital City presents a biased view
of .the problems of Kanewa. Miss
Sandoz is 100 per cent on the side
of the laborer, and she exaggerates
the. corruption and other faults of
the so-called upper classes. Yet it
seems impossible that anyone could
read Capital' City without feeling that
she is right, that something is radi-
cally wrong with the workings of
our American society, that the work-
ing man is being given unfair treat-
ment, that the capitalist class is pre-
dominantly rotten and Fascistic. No
matter what one's political views
may be-anything from radical to
reactionary-he seems to be boundi
to be led into Miss Sandoz' viewsI
while reading her book: such is the
power of the writing in this volume.
Capital City tells the reader justI
what is wrong with Franklin, thei
capital of Kanewa, sparing no de-I
tail and bringing out the idea that
what is rotten in Franklin is rotten
throughout the nation. Franklin
might be the capital of any trans-
Mississippi state. Its showy capital
building, its "first families of Frank-
lin," its dishonest politicians, its
tongue-tied press, its palatial homest
and wretched slums, its cries oft
"Red" and "Communist" and its
emphasis on money rather than on
true worth might be observed in the
capital of almost any state.
Miss Sandoz has pictured thee
working man and his unions as
hobbled, even crippled, by the forces1
of the employers and their superior
capital. The laborers of Franklinr
make no unreasonable demands:t
they want living-wages and oppor-
tunities to work. The employers, onb
the other hand, almost invariably
greet requests for higher wages ort
more work with denunciatpns which
proclaim the workers as unAmericant
or the victims of unAmerican propa-
A reader, having finished perhaps
the first half of the book, cannot help
wondering how such a high per cent,
of the employer groups could be soc
completely unfair in the ideas andt
actions. Miss Sandoz shows fully
95 per cent of the white-collar groupt
as either lackadaisically stupid or as
deliberately unreasonable and cruelt
-and most of the members of theirx
class who want to aid labor and thet
poverty-stricken unemployed a r e.
shown as hobbled by fear of losing
their positions.l
Franklin Described
Each of the "top" families-finan-
cially speaking-of Franklin is taken
apart by Miss Sandoz. Its history is
told from the time when its fore-
fathers first settled in Franklin; itsI
decadence is recounted. Hamm Rufe,
scion of one of the three "ruling'
families," is portrayed as despised by l

the selfish members of his own for-
mer associates-merely because he1
chose to live among the poor, write
for one of their publications and aid
them in running their cooperative
Capital City passes lightly over no
person, no institution. And it deals
with characters who seem to be
flesh-and-blood people-one might
be the very reader of the book him-
self. It blasts scandal, blindness to
corruption, deliberate class discrim-
ination-it hits at every class and
every place, with the emphasis on the
vested interests of money whose un-
checked control of American life is
choking individual freedom and kill-
ing the old pioneer spirit of our
contained in Mr. Speckhard's ac-
count. Nowhere does the Federal
Trade Commission's report say that
"large holding companies like Com-
monwealth and Southern 'impair the
vitality of free enterprise'." Under
Mr. Willkie's management, Com-
monwealth and Southern Corpora-
tion has never, as a matter of fact,
extracted "various kinds of exces-
sive fees from controlled operating
companies," has never done anything
to bring about "inflation of capital
structures accompanied by pressure

Untermeyer; Harcourt, Brace and
Company, $3. Courtesy The Book
To the reader who has been badg-
ered these last several years by the
autobiographies of every man and
his brother Who felt he had ever ex-
perienced anything worth retelling,
Louis Untermeyer's autobiog, From
Another World, comes like an un-
guent on sunburn.
This is not because Mr. Untermey-
er has anything extraordinary, cac-
tus-growing-in-the-oceanish, to tell
about himself. It is just that he tells
very little about himself and much
about his contemporary artists. As a
matter of fact, the book might have
been more appropriately entitled,
"History of the Arts, Circa 1915-1939,
with Character Studies of the Lead-
ing Artists."
Biography's Development
That can be said of the major por-
tion of the volume. But it is interest-
ing to study the development of this
"autobiography." It is as though the
author had felt the urge to write, sat
down at his typewriter and hap-
hazardly pounded away. The first
few chapters are about Louis Unter-
meyer. Then Louis tires of Louis
and switches to Louis' friends. This
continues until D. H. Lawrence is
reached, whereupon the Jewish prob-
lem is taken up. From there on to
the end, which comes soon after,
politics is the subject at hand. In-
tentional or not, this is indeed as good
a way as any of representing the de-
velopment of the mind: the juvenile
concerned with self, the adolescent
with immediate surroundings and the
mature with the world at large.
The introductory chapters earn
their paper and ink inasmuch as they
offer a picture of the early years of a
man destined to bcome one of the
best known authors, critics and an-
thologists of this period. It is en-
couraging to the struggling student
to find that Untermeyer became this
in spite of his inability to master
geometry, and therefore his ditto to
graduate from high school.
Middle Interesting
But the real nourishment of this
book, as in that other brain-food, the
fish, is between the head and the tail.
Here Untermeyer runs down' the list
of his acquaintances, synonymous to
the artistic great of the last two de-
cades. He introduces the reader to
and makes him feel at home with
Amy Lowell, Vachel Lindsay, Sara
Teasdale; Robert Frost, H. L. Menk-
en, Elinor Wylie, Rockwell Kent, Isa-
dora Duncan, John Reed and many
more. "Looking back from the dis-
advantage point of years," he reveals
much of the real men and women
who bore or bear these names. He
does not tell the date of birth, im-
portant works and general philosophy
of darl Sandburg, but rather of the
time Carl phoned him at 3 a.m. in a
Chicago hotel because Carl thought
that it's "a good thing for a man to
be wakened in the middle of the night
in a strange place once in a while."
That is the sort of autobiography
Louis Untermeyer writes, -and one
hopes that it will serve as an autobi-
ography to end all other kinds of au-
Untermeyer's political theorizing in
the last chapters is rather a let-down,
or perhaps it is only his diatribe on
the Jew, brought on by the mere
mention of D. H. Lawrence, that set
this reviewer off. The Jew, when
speaking of his race and its problems,
seems always to generalize, if I may
be allowed to do so myself. The
Jew to the Jew is always a race,
never an individual. oTherefore, the
argument accomplishes nothing.
Should Appeal To Students
From Another World should ap-
peal particularly to students here for
a reason far from literary. The Uni-
versity was particularly fortunate in
having Untermeyer here as "Poet in
Residence" immediately preceeding
the writing of this work. The Uni-

versity's name and the stories of lit-
erary figures in connection with in-
cidents occuring here appear often
throughout the book, and in one place
Untermeyer asserts that "it was the
most stimulating month I had ever
spent on any campus, and my center
of activity was not the literary college
but the college of engineering . .. It
was significant (and, I thought, logi-
cal) that the only place at Michigan
where a course in modern poetry was
given was at the engineering college."
Although there are many items dis-
tributed here and there in his auto-
biography with which one might
easily disagree (such as "that other
great American bard, Edgar Guest,
the uncrowned laureate of Michigan")
one must offer a vote of thanks to
Mr. Untermeyer for his document,
for that it is, of the personalities who
created the American literary ren-
aissance of the 20th century.
tion to prevent the abusive results
referred to above. Even the most
rabid, intelligent New Dealers and
advocates of utility regulation are
wont to admit that if all utility ex-
ecutives were of the caliber of Mr.
Wiflkie, they would have little to fight


HtE SOeems To Me

But for the prompt and intelligent action of
Governor Lehman the state of New York might
well have added one of the most morbid chapters


ever written in the strange
history of criminal proced-
ure. Twelve years ago a
man named Henry Vich-
nitzer killed two policeman
and was duly convicted and
sentenced to the electric
chair. While in the death
house fear of his impending
execution gripped him to
such an extent he went rav-

ing mad. Seemingly there was no question of
his guilt, in the first place, nor of his subsequent
insanity. A lunacy commission reported to
Governor Smith, and the man was sent to
Dannemora State Hospital for the insane. The
maniac was 20 years old at the time he made
his escape from reality into the dream world.
He pulled madness about him as if it had been
a cloak conferring obscurity. And since he was
no longer of the world, they took him from out
of the shadow of the chair into the darkness of
And for 12 years he had his being with the
living dead. His terror of the chair had saved
his body from the burning but blotted out his
brain. And for 12 years he continued to exist
because his 'mind could not endure the fact of
dea'th. Almost alone among mortals. he was
able to exercise a veto power when his time hail
come and postpone his appointment in Samarra.
But. of course, he paid a price.

no choice in the matter. The law in such mat-
ters is mandatory.
Vichnitzer went back to the death house under
the stipulation that he should go to the chair at
the end of six weeks.
However, after a single day Governor Leh-
man commuted his sentence to life imprison-
ment, saying, "It appears to me to offend all
humane considerations to permit the execution
of a man who since his conviction and for a
period of 12 years has been in an insane asylum,
under judgment of an officially appointed state
commission. And so there it stands.
Better men than this convicted murderer are
dying of violence in many quarters of the world
today. But that, I think, makes it all the more
creditable that the Governor of New York
should speak for humane considerations.
No low price should be put on any human life,
however warped or abject. And I have a feeling
that something more than the life of the prison-
er was saved. I am curious to know more
about the facts of the cure. It seems to me
extremely doubtful that the man at Dannemora
moved wholly spontaneously out of madness
and back into sanity. My guess is that some
physician in the institution took a peculiar in-
terest in the case. But the lesson which he had
to induce thq patient to accept is not easy, alf
though it happens to be ancient.
In effect, the healer, as soon as he could com-
mand any trust at all on the part of the mad
man, would have to begin to hammer home the
truth tlaltiii life in full function can be had only

Back to Top

© 2021 Regents of the University of Michigan