?A4 E QU
T HE MICHIGAN DAILY
U ____________________________________________ I
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THE MICHIGAN DAILY
High Protective -Tarriff Is Scored
As Prelude To Economic Description
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
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CHICAGO"BOSTON'LOS ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1939-40
Stan M. Swinton
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. City Editor
. Associate Editor
. Associate Editor
. Paul R. Park
Ganson P. Taggart
Harriet S. Levy
By RICHARD BENNETT
The problem of the tariff is once more raising
its ugly head. Because the tariff question will
form a fundamental part of the coming election
programs, it should be clear to every voter exact-
ly what that question is. To be sure, the govern-
ment has considered the tariff problem, though
sometimes one wonders precisely to what end.
But there are numerous voters who have little
or no idea of the basic issues behind the tariff.
The problem of the tariff is a dilemma. If the
United States levies a high prohibitive tariff, it
helps to breed wars by denying to other nations
a chance to earn a living by making goods for
us, and by shutting off their opportunity to
supply their needs from our store of raw mater-
ials and the products of our factories. It creates
a deficit economy abroad. Further, a high
prohibitive tariff denies to debtor govern-
ments possibility of repayment. Before the Land
Grant period, for instance, British and Dutch
gold financed the building of American rail-
ways. Had there not been an open international
market, the United States would have been no
more able to repay its debt than were the inter-
allied nations able to repay us when we placed
a prohibitive tariff on American imports. We
still talk of an excess of exports over imports as
a "favorable" balance of trade. Such talk is
nonsense. There is nothing favorable about
such a situation. If it continues very long, it
is bound to lead to trouble.
On the other hand, if we adopt an extensive
free trade policy, we multiply the nerves of com-
merce and industry which are exposed to every
disturbance abroad. We may become involved
in a war, because our many interests are affected.
It is infinitely more difficult for us to cushioy
ourselves against world shock. More than this,
we automatically throw, large numbers of men
out of work by exposing certain industries to
Two years ago the General Committee on
Economics and Peace, weighing these factors,
recommended that we accept the risks of enlarg-
ing peacetime commerce with foreign nations.
In advocating such a policy, however, the Com-
mittee was careful to point out that we must
take steps to insure ourselves against extreme
fluctuation on the world market and to subsidize
those producers who would be affected too
severely by a rise of imports. It felt that open
subsidy was preferable to tariff protection,
which is its equivalent. The reasons advanced
were that the cost of restriction of free trade
would "thus become visible, instead of being
concealed as indirect taxation in the form of
higher prices, and the burden would be placed
on the nation as a whole, instead of on the
purchasers of goods whose prices are thus kept
Asst Business Mgr., Credit Manager
Women's Business Manager
Women's Advertising Manager
NIGHT EDITOR: LEONARD SCHLEIDER
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of The Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
Mexieo Finds Outlet
For Expropriated Oil . .
A COUPLE of news items that ap-
peared recently indicate that Mexi-
co may at last be finding an outlet for the oil
she expropriated from American companies in
If this is true, it will probably mark the fail-
ure of the State Department's attempts to reach
a settlement between the Cardenas government
and American oil interests. As long as Mexico
could find no market for her stolen booty, there
was a possibility she-might be forced into some
settlement, but if the wells begin to pay divi-
dends, she will probably consider the case closed.
What must be particularly galling to the oil
companies and the State Department is the
fact that it is Americanacommercialism that is
providing Mexico's outlet. An independent oil
firm, unnamed in the news reports, is playing
Judas to the other companies by agreeing to buy
crude oil from the Mexican government. And
another American firm is selling machinery to
Bolivia so that that country can refine Mexican
oil and place it on the market.
UNTIL these latest developments, Mexico had
been stymied in her attempts to sell the oil
taken from her "good, neighbor," America. As
journalist Jim Marshall points out in a recent
issue of Collier's, the expropriated oil industry
has until now proved something of a white ele-
phant to the Cardenas government-the product
has been poor and the markets, especially since
the beginning of the war and the blockade of
Germany, so inadequate that the Mexicans have
been unable to pay out enough money to keep
the machinery in efficient operating condition.
It was this checkmate upon which the hopes
of Washington seemed finally to rest. At first
the State Department actively negotiated for a
solution, but was always hampered by the limi-
tations of the Administration's "good.-neighbor"
policy and by the adamant attitudes of both the
oil firms and Mexico. Neither would accept the
only feasible solution the Department could
offer-that the oil properties be operated by a
joint directorate of three Mexicans, three oil
men and three neutrals. After Assistant Secre-
tary of State Sumner Welles' blunt diplomatic
warning had been cast aside by the Mexicans,
Washington apparently began to bide its time
until possibilities of a settlement should become
THE position of American oil companies in
the squabble is not as righteous as they
maintain. Their propagandists were busy in
Mexican politics and the seizure of their pro-
perties may be partially in retaliation for thew
opposition to Cardenas. But at least there is
enough justice on their side that they should be
permitted to work toward some solution without
the interference of other American companies
seeking to take advantage of their loss. That
would be permitting too ruinous a license to
'Under The Clock'
"I'll meet you 'under the clock'," wrote a
Michigan co-ed to a friend who planned to
visit her. But the friend went up to see another
Michigan co-ed before meeting her previously
When the time came to meet her friend 'under
the clock', she started picking up her things and
above world levels." The Committee recom-
mended that subsidy to a single industry should
never be so great that it could afford to dump
products in foreign markets at prices below those
charged domestic consumers.
Further than this, the Committee advised that
the moment tariff removal occurs workers and
investors in those industries most immediately
affected should be offered financial assistance,
to tide them over the period of readjustment.
This would mean unemployment benefits for
workmen, free training to fit them for new jobs,
and indemnity to investors for scrapping or
converting equipment to new uses.
The Committee felt there should be open in-
ternational sharing of information on all those
policies and inventive processes by which is
brought about commercial and industrial change
of production costs. These changes should not
be put into effect without consulting all govern-
ments affected. "Such consultations in advance
would give the affected nations time to develop
changes in their economic policies in an orderly
and thoughtful way, and not in the spirit of
fright or of retaliation."
The Committee's advice may now seem a little
dated; but if the sort of competitive system we
have been living under in the past is to contnue
after the war-a doubtful but not impossible
contingency-, it is only right that we should
consider these problems while we are still far
enough removed from the economic troubles
that will soon arise.
War necessarily results in rising prices. To
clap a high protective tariff on our international
trade, as Republicans like Senator Vandenburg
are now asking, demonstrates, it seems to us,
gross misunderstanding of the issue. As Walter
Lippmann has recently pointed out, "if there
were ever a time when tariffs ought to be lowered
rather than raised, it is a time when goods are
beginning to be scarce and the cost of living is
beginning to rise. Since that time is likely to
be upon us by next summer the Republicans
must not be astonished if they find that once
more, as in the case of the embargo, most of
them have guessed wrong and gotten off on the
Be that last observation as it may, it seems
clear that at this present juncture, at least, a
high protective tariff is unfeasible. Despite the
enormity of our national debt, we can still better
afford the subsidization of industry and workers
than a tariff which will lead to post-war eco-
Violent emotionalism may be an excellent
catharsis, but it has never solved anything. Of
late a number of people in the United States
have become quite moral and indignant over
matters which can best be settled on the basis
of calm, rational thought. Suddenly people
are beginning to discover, after all these years,
that war is immoral, no, rather that the inno-
cent bystanders are usually the ones to be hurt.
One hundred per cent Americanism has been
equated to 100 per cent Emotionalism.
Today President Roosevelt is asking a "Moral
Embargo" against those nations who are "'obvi-
ously guilty' of unprovoked aerial bombardments
of civil centers." It seems that the bombs of
Soviet Russia are not humane enough to dis-
tinguish between government officials, soldiers,
and civilians, between airports (or railroad sta-
tions) and the homes nearby. President Roose-
velt is not the only one who feels deeply about
this; many Americans are pained.
Yet only a short time ago, when General
Franco with his mercenary legions of Fascist
German and Italian troops and Mohammedan
Moors was bringing Christianity via fire and
sword to the Spanish Catholic peasants defend-
ing their homes, the United States stood idly
by and maintained an embargo which doomed
a sister republic and many innocent people to
death. While maintaining this embargo, the
United States permitted Fascist Germany and
Italy to buy materials even though they were
'obviously guilty' of turning these materials over
to the humane General Franco for use against
defenseless civilians. The sop to conscience was
that these nations were not at war. When col-
lective security on the part of the democracies
was feasible, it was rejected on the grounds6
that such matters were none of our business.
Thus Fascism ("the lesser of two evils") was
countenanced in Spain; the destruction of a re-
public was countenanced; and Spanish men,
women and children were made to suffer.
It is a strange morality, and a still stranger
conscience, which lated adopted the cash and
carry policy, which too late to benefit the Span-
ish Republic is very advantageous to Great Bri-
tain. It is a strange morality, and a still stranger
conscience, which later adopted the cash and
political prejudice and imperialist economic in-
Yes, I grieve for the innocent people of Fin-.
land. But grief and emotion will not solve
their problem. Nor can a selective conscience
avail to solve the enigma of war. The problem
lies deeper. Its roots are inextricably bound up
with those interests who profited from the last
war as from all war, who through the Versailles
Treaty drove the German people under the rule
of a Hitler, who foster Fascism, who think in
dollars and cents and piously talk in terms of
morality and conscience. President Roosevelt?
and a number of others are no doubt sincere;
but they are looking at the personal havoc of
war (terrible as it may be) instead of excoriating
those interests, both here and abroad, who main-'
By RICHARD BENNE*TT
There has just been handed to me
a release of Mr. Aaron Copland's
notes on "A Cowboy Ballet," or, as
it is called on tomorrow night's
American Ballet Caravan program,
"Billy the Kid." Mr. Copland, one
of America's most active younger
composers and author of the music
for "Billy the Kid," is now in Holly-t
wood working on the score of a forth-
coming picture. He has for some
time been one of the reviewers for
"New Music" magazine and has been
in the vanguard for the furtherance'
of modern American music. His
observations on his score for "Billy
the Kid" give some light on Mr. Cop-
land's attitude toward the problems
and function of music. He writes:
"I don't know how other composers
feel, but as for myself, I divide all
music into two parts-that which is
meant to be self-sufficient and that
which is meant to serve one of the
sister arts-theatre, film or ballet.
I have never liked music which gets;
in the way of the thing it is supposed-
ly aiding. That is why I began with
one single idea in wrting Billy-a
firm resolve to write simply. If it is
a question of expressing one's soul,
you can always write a symphony.
But if you are involved in a stage
presentation, then the eye is the
thing, and music should play aE
modest role, helping where help is
needed, but never injecting itself as
if it were the main business of the
Mr. Copland's statement a few
pages later is also all to the point
when he says that "it is a rather deli-
cate operation-to put fresh and un-
conventional harmonies to well-
known melodies without spoiling
their naturalness." It is because of
this attempt of some "musicians" to
sophisticate otherwise elemental folk
melodies that I have never been able
to stomach the "swing" versions of
such classics as "LochLomond." The
fallacious notion of new generations
has too often been that their inter-
pretation of life can admit of no
other equally legitimate one, or that
if there is another, it can scarcely be
as "modern" as the latest one. Not
the least indicative example of
Brahms' musical perspicuity was his
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
To The Members of the Universtiy
Council: There will be no meeting
of the University Council in Decem-
Louis A. Hopkins, Secy.
Applications in Support of Research
Projects: To give the Research Com-
mittees and the Executive Board ade-
quate time for study of all proposals,
t is requested that faculty members
having projects needing support dur-
ing 1940-1941 file their proposals in
the Office of the Graduate School by
Jan. 12, 1940. Later request will, of
course, be considered toward the close
of the second semester. Those wish-
ing to renew previous requests wheth-
er now receiving support or not should
so indicate. Application forms will
be mailed or can be obtained at Sec-
etary's Office, Room 1508 Rackham
Building, Telephone 331.
C. S. Yoakum.
To Students Having Library Books:
1. Students having in their posses-
sion books drawn from the University
I Library are notified that books are
due Monday, Dec. 11, before the im-
pending Christmas vacation, in pu-
suance of the University regulation:
"Students who leave Ann Arbor for
more than a week must first return
all borrowed books."
Books needed between Dec. 11 and
the beginning of vacation may be re-
tained upon application at the charg-
2. Failure to return books before
the vacation will render the student
liable to an extra fine.
3. Students remaining in town may
charge and renew books for seven-
day periods beginning Dec. 11.
4. Students leaving town who have
urgent need for books during the va-
cation period will be given permis-
sion to take such books with them,
provided they are not in general de-
mand, on application at the office of
the Superintendent of Circulation.
Wm. W. Bishop, Librarian.
SUNDAY, DEC. 10, 1939
VOL. L. No. 65
H eywood Broun
It is possible that in the course of time all
dictators .will be destroyed, not by conflict but
by the newsreels. No man can have his picture
countries must be in the office of the
International Cente'r by Dec. 15. This
information is required from the
University by the United States Gov-
J. R. Nelson.
English 127: Make-up for novel quiz
will be given Monday, Dec. 11, at 4
p.m., 2225 A.H.
taken over and over again
without feeling and looking
a little foolish.
This is prompted by the
report of a friend who has
just returned from Italy. He
says that the Italians are
beginning to laugh at Mus-
solini in the cinema thea-
tres. Benito has played up
virility for a number of
years, and the performance does not improve
as the years roll along. The hairs on his chest
One of his favorite shots is the sequence in
the fields where Il Duce, in person, mows down
the wheat so that his countrymen may have
bread as well as circuses. In all fairness to the
Latin top man he is structurally rather im-
pressive. If he had been caught young he might
very well have been a second-string fullback
for Rutgers. But time takes its toll. The divid-
ing line between a'stalwart chest and a palpable
abdomen grows dim. Benito is by now a shade
too tubby for acrobatics.
* * *
Heroic To Farcical
And, in particular, one of his favorite devices
moves over from the heroic to the farcical. Over
and over again Mussolini has sent himself out
in cans with a short reel in which he is first
capturEli at the top of his oratorical bent and
then fades out by ascending a steep stairway.
And it has been the practice of the great man
to amaze the peasants by taking the incline
three steps at a time.
It is a good trick when you can do it, but
by now the sound track catches a wheeze which
is not wind in the willows but the protest of
bellows which are growing older. According to
my informant, this is the precise point where
the Italian audiences begin to say "Ha! Ha!" in-
stead of "Viva! Viva!" For my own part I re-
gard staircases as a nuisance, and even when
I might have been a shade more alert I took the
steps one at a time and never strained myself.
* * *
President Eliot Decides
But once I saw and heard a man who applied
the test to himself with an eloquence which was
moving. I was in Harvard when President Eliot
decided that the time had come for him to
transcriptions of early German folk ibrary Hours: During the vacation
in which there is not a note period the General Library will be
or rythmicpattern teaccom-open daily from 8 a.m. till 6 p.m.
paniment figures which contradicts beginning Dec. 16, except on Dec. 25
the essential meaning of the original and Jan. 1, when it will be closed all
'day, and on Dec. 23 and Dec. 30 (Sat-
air. This is an achievement gotten
by ,easn hoeve. I demndsa Iurdays), when it will close at noon.
by reason however. It demands a The Departmental Libraries will be
cosmopolitan sympathy for the cul- m
tures of other times and other peo- Dec. 16, and regularly each day from
ples. As Mr. Copland says, "it is a 10-12 a.m. and 2-4 p.m. Monday
moment for the composer to throw 'through Friday, beginning with the
caution aside and to depend wholly week of Dec. 18.
on his instinct for knowing what to Thed R nm.
do. Courage and instinct are the The Graduate Reading Rooms will
only things that can be of help at close at 6 p.m. Friday, Dec. 15, and
that point." observe the usual holiday schedule
thereafter: 9-12 a.m. a'nd 1-5 p.m.
Ballet Comes Of Age Monday through Friday, and 9-12 on
The whole idea of the American Saturdays.
Ballet Caravan, its purpose and way
of doing things, appeals to me very Juniors and Seniors, College of Lit-
much. Its very existence is proof erature, Science, and the Arts, who
that the American ballet is growing expect to qualify for the Teacher's
up. It is no longer copying the Certificate, but have not yet regis-
European tradition of ballet. It is tered with the Teacher's Certificate
beginning to feel for itself, to choose
American themes and treat them in Committee should do so immediately.
an American way. If we are ever Those concentrating in Group I (Lan-
to have a fully developed ballet in guages and Literature) should see
America, it must do just this. It will MWF, 11-12, TuTh 2-3; in Group II
be something quite apart from the Prof. C. D. Thorpe, 2214 Angell Hall,
"nervous" Franco-Russian style. Pro- (Science), Prof. Paul S. Welch, 4089
viding music, choreography, seting, Natural Science Building, WF 11-12;
and costumery are integrated and and in Group III (Social Studies),
complementary of each other-some- Prof. B. W. Wheeler, 316 Haven Hall,
thing Hollywood still has failed to TuTh 3-4.
achieve as a consistent policy-the
American ballet should soon be able The Automobile Regulation will be
to boast a highly individual autono- lifted for the Christmas vacation
mous art of its own. period from Friday noon, Dec. 15, un-
til 8 a.m. on Wednesday, Jan. 3.
War On Women
The Bureau of Appointments and
If it is not too much to be asking Occupational Information has re-
on the morning before the first ceived announcement of the following
houseparty night of the season, we. Detroit Civil Service examinations for
have always wanted to know just summer jobs:
what were the great benefits be- Lifeguard (Pool) (Male and Fe-
stowed upon the nation by the nine- male)-60c per hour.
teenth or woman's suffrage amend- Swimming Instructor (Male and
ment-a law which was ballyhooed Female), $5 per day.
to set America on the road to Requirements: 20 years of age, De-
Utopia? troit residence, Senior American Red
According to the history books- Cross Life Saving Certificate.
we were too young to know about it Applications blanks may be ob-
from personal experience-female tained at the office of the Bureau,
suffrage would stamp out vice, greed 201 Mason Hall, office hours 9-12,
and crookedness in politics, bad 2-4. The blanks must be filed at the
morals, drinking, smoking and Detroit Civil Service Office by Dec.
swearing, and would bring peace to 13. Examination to be held Dec. 20.
The vice which the ladies played TheUniversity Bureau of Appoint-
to the skies when they were agitating ments and Occupational Information
for equal rights is raging just about has received notice of the following
as strongly as ever before, if we can Michigan Civil Service examinations.
believe what we read in the New York The last date for filing application is
Mirror . . . noted in each case:
The women voted for Huey Long, Geologic Map Draftsman I (open
and were the strongest faction be- to men only), salary range: $150-190,
hind James J. Walker, and thought Dec. 21.
Mr. Harding was a fine president and Military General Clerk B, salary
backed Big Bill Thompson . . . range: $105-125, Dec. 21.
As for drinking and swearing, it Military General Clerk A, salary
is getting so a respectable citizen range: $130-150, Dec. 21.,
who wants to drop into one of Han- 1 Blue Print Machine Operator B
over's restaurants during houseparty j (open to men only), salary range:
time for a quiet scrambled eggs and $105-125, Dec. 21.
coffee cannot avoid being embar- Institution Power Plant Mainten-
rassed by the language and mental ance Helper B, (open to men only),
condition of the girls who are guests salary range: $105-125, Dec. 21.
of the town over the weekend . . . Graphic Presentation Designer I
It's not that we're advocating re- (open to men only), salary range:
"Messiah" Concert will be given
under the auspices of the University
Musical Society this afternoon at
4 o'clock sharp, in Hill Au-
ditorium. The general public is in-
vited without admission charge. The
program will begin on time, and
doors will be closed during numbers.
Soloists: Beal Hober, soprano; Joan
Peebles, contralto; William Hain, ten-
or; Theodore Webb, baritone; Palmer
Christian, organist; University Choral
Union; University Symphony Orches-
tra; Thor Johnson, Conductor.
Paintings by William Gropper and
prints by the Associated American
Artists shown in West Gallery, Al-
umni Memorial Hall, daily, 2-5, until
Dec. 15. Auspices of Ann Arbor Art
Exhibitions, College of Architecture
Photographs of tools, processes,
and products representative of the
Department of Industrial Design at
Pratt Institute. Dec. 1 through 14.
Open daily, except Sunday, 9 to 5,
in Third Floor Exhibition Room,
l Architectural Building. Open to the
University Lecture: Dr. Martin P.
Nilsson, Professor of Classical Ar-
chaeology and Ancient History, and
formerly rector, University of Lund,
Sweden, will lecture on "Rural Cus-
toms and Festivals in Greek Reli-
gion" (illustrated with slides) under
the auspices of the Department of
Greek at 4:15 p.m. on Tuesday, Dec.
12, in the Rackham Amphitheatre.
The public is cordially invited.
University Lecture: Dr. Veit Valen-
tin, Lecturer at University College,
London, will lecture on "Austria and
Germany" under the auspices of the
Department of History at 4:15 p.m.
on Thursday, Dec. 14, in the Rack-
ham Amphitheatre. The public is
Extracurricular Medical School Lee-
ture: Dr. Clarence D. Selby, Medical
Consultant of General Motors Corp.,
will speak at 14:15 p.m., Thursday,
Dec. 14, in Rackham Lecture Hall on
"The Relationships of General and
Special Practice to Industrial Medi-
cine." Medical School classes will be
dismissed at 4 p.m. to permit all medi-
cal students to attend.
The public is cordially invited.
Pi Lambda' Theta: The Faculty
Christmas Tea is to be held at the
University Elementary School Library
today from 6 to 7:30 p.m.
Eta Kappa Nu meeting in the Mich-
igan Union tonight at 7 p.m. Those
wishing to eat in a group will meet
at 6:30 p.m.
Scalp and Blade will meet today,
in the Union. All members are re-
quested to attend, and all Buffalo
men are cordially invited.
The Art Cinema League announces
the third of the programs in its Series
as HAMLET and THE LAST LAUGH,
with Emil Jannings today. Member-
ships in the league are still available
prior to the 3:15 and 8:15 perform-
Lutheran Student Club annual
Christmas program and dinner to-
day at 6 p.m. Students from dif-
ferent countries will tell how Christ-
mas is celebrated in their lands.
Christmas carols will be sung, and
small gifts exchanged.
Chanukah Party will be held at the
Hillel Foundation tonight at 8 by
the Avukah, student Zionist organi-
zation. A short program will be fol-
lowed by dancing and refreshments.
All students are cordially invited.
Botanical Journal Club meeting
Tuesday, Dec. 12, 7:30 p.m. in Room
Su Hsuen Wu: "Development of the
embryo sac of Plumbagella micran-
Robert Lowry: "Application of the
Altmann Freezing-Drying technique
to plant cytology."
"A procedure for growing, staining
and making permanent slides of pol-
James McCranie: "The effect of