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March 22, 1940 - Image 4

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PAGE FOUR

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

F DAY, Cn 22, 1940

?AGE FOUR FRIDAY, MAflCE 22, 1940

T ilE MICHIGAN DAILY

ilte EDITOR qe, 7od

Sowing Seeds For Grapes Of Wrath:

THE ASSOCIATED FARMERS

tux., It a~t o s w S- _ _ tW O n o~,. .. ....
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use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
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Stan M. Swinton
Morton L. Linder
Norman A. Schorr
Dennis Flanagan
John N. Canavan
Ann Vicary
Mel Fineberg

Editorial,
" . .

Staff

e Press, 1939-40
Managing Editor
Editorial Director
. . City Editor
. Associate Editor
. Associate Editor
. Associate Editor
SAssociate Editor
*Women's Editor
. Sports Editor
. Paul R. Park
Ganson P. Taggart
Zenovia Skoratko
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Business Staff

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Women's Business Manager
Women's Advertising Manager
Publications Manager

NIGHT EDITOR: ALVIN SARASOHN
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of The Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
only.
No Squabbling
In Real Democracy .. .
T HE RECENT charges against Gover-
nor Horner in Illinois, the charges
of corruption in Wayne County, and much of
the general criticism of democracy as a whole,
bring to the foreground the problem of admin-
istrative efficiency and responsibility in state
and local government.
It has been argued that democracy degenerates
into political squabbling, that democracy em-
phasizes politics rather than planning and ac-
tion. It must be admitted that to a certain
extent these charges are just.
Yet these contentions, on the whole, are
merely hasty generalizations. If democracy fea-
tures political squabbling rather than discussion
and action upon basic issues, that political
squabbling is not inherent or inevitable in
democracy. For petty politics, irresponsibility
of administrative officers, and lack of coordina-
tion in state administration can be eliminated,
and eliminated easily.
And there is a definite trend in modern Amer-
ican government to rid democracy of its political
evils, to coordinate and make responsible the
state's administrative officers. Under that trend,
evident since 1917 and centinuing up to the
present time, such states as New York, Nebraska,
Georgia and Colorado have revamped and mod-
ernized their administrative set-ups. For, to
differing degrees, these states and several others
have realized and adopted the fundamental
principles of administrative reorganization.
FIRST, various subordinate administrative of-
ficers have been made appointive by the
governor. It has has been understood that the
independent positions of many of these sub-
officials have been constant sources of friction
in state administration. By making them ap-
pointive by the Governor, this friction has been
greatly diminished and their responsibilty to
the Governor and ultimately to the public in-
sured.'
Secondly, the vast, unrelated series of boards,
commissions and officers have been coordinated
into a series of departments, thus guaranteeing
the maximum of efficiency in the administration
of state functions. These series of departments
thus created, have, moreover, been joined under
a system of appointment by the Governor and
responsibility to him.
Third, in each administrative department,
authority has been delegated to a single direc-
tor, thus as Prof. Bromage points out in his
"State Government and Administration," in-
suring rapidity of decision and efficiency.
Fourth, there has been the attempt to make the
terms of office of the governor and of the de-
partment heads to coincide.
Of course, in opposition to such plans of
administrative integration, contentions have
been advanced that these plans are undemo-
cratic, that such a system of coordination and
integration facilitates the creation of a corrupt
political machine by the governor.
But these reforms should not stand alone.
Added to them there should be such plans as
complete civil service regulations for all non-
policy making state employes, the use of an
executive budget, the creation of a "governor's
cabinet" and centralized, coordinated collection
of state revenue. It is these reforms that can
conplement administrative re-organization to

Unfortunate Error .. .
To the Editor:
There was an unfortunate and probably acci-
dental misrepresentation of my remarks to the
Interfraternity Council as reported in the Daily
for Thursday, March 21. The fraternity pres-
idents, and especially Miss Williams and Mr.
Knight were unquestionably distressed to ob-
serve in this story a misinterpretation of the
facts. Somewhere between the time when the
information was communicated to the Daily and
the time of going to press, one word slipped into
the story which did not belong there; which I
did not myself speak; and which, since it was
an adjective in the superlative degree, gave the
story concerning freshman Men's scholastic
achievement in the Residence Halls more glory
than the facts warrant. The story, in general,
owing to the inclusion of the word "best," sound-
ed as though I were describing a miraculous
scholastic achievement in the West Quadrangle,
whereas I said merely that "in terms of scholas-
tic achievement, statistics show that in spite
of the newness of the Jordan plan and in spite
of the disturbed physical conditions in the West
Quadrangle, the Quadrangle freshmen main-
tained the academic average of all freshman nsn
during the past ten years, and the Jordan women
slightly improved upon it." The inclusion of the
word "best" in this statement changes its whole
flavor.
The purpose of my meeting with the Inter-
fraternity Council was three-fold. I wish to
squelch rumors that the freshman pledges in
the West Quadrangle made poorer academic
records than might be expected of them, and I
quoted figures provided by Miss Williams and
Mr. Knight indicating that the fraternity pledges
actually made a better record in the first se-
mester of this year than they have in any year
of which we have record. Their improvement,
in this regard, appears to be the most important
fact concerning the West Quadrangle freshman
averages. I wished to show also that the trends
of the past have been borne out by the figures
for the first semester of this year with regard
to freshman grades: namely, that the indepen-
dent freshmen made records above the average
of all freshmen, and that the fraternity pledges
made records below the all-freshmen average,
even though the fraternity records were con-
siderably improved. I wished further to shbw
that the freshman women in Jordan Hall made
a very creditable record, improving perceptibly
upon the all-freshman women averages, both
for this year and for those in the past.
I must remark that I very carefully guarded
my statements by saying that the scholastic
achievement records of the freshman Houses
in their first semester of operation should not
be given any specific meaning. There is cer-
tainly considerable room for improvement, and
I should be much distressed if the freshman
residents of the West Quadrangle considered the
Daily story to be an official statement of the
fact that they are now able to rest upon their
scholastic oars.
In fairness to all concerned, it is important
to point out that the West Quadrangle freshmen
by no means made the best average achieved
by "all freshman men in the past ten years."
The point is that the manifold problems, distur-
bances, and the general confusion which so long
existed in the West Quadrangle, did not cause
a scholastic setback. This is quite different from
stating that they made a superlative record. If
any superlatives are to be used, they should be
used in describing the scholastic record of the
205 freshman women in Jordan Hall.
In fairness to the Daily I should say that a
written statement of my remarks was used as
the basis of the story and that the Daily editor
discussed it with me before publication. It was
after this final check that the one word which
changes the whole tone of the story was acci-
dentally included.
Karl Litzenberg,
Director of Residence Halls
India Renews
Bid For Freedom .. .
W ITH EUROPE occupied by a war the
end of which no one can prophecy,
India is holding its 53rd annual Nationalist Con-

gress, dealing with problems that involve, not
only this great country of hundreds of millions,
but the positions of countries many miles away.
The Indians, too, have a stake in this war, or,
rather, a stake in it has been provided for them
by their rulers. Whether they take up the war
into which they were declared by Viceroy Lin-
lithgow is one of the most perplexing and diffi-
cult questions they are attempting to answer,
and the Congress, colorful as ever, is taking the
lead in its sessions this days in the gigantic am-
phitheater in Ramgarh. 50,000 delegates are
in attendance.
In brief, what is worrying patriotic Indians
most of all is the fact that they have been forced
into the war that England is now waging in
Europe. No one asked the people, a vote was
not taken-the Viceroy merely declared war.
This fact-that India was not allowed to take
action as a free, democratic country-is not the
only point of variance and worry, however.
Most Indians feel strongly against the dictators
and feel that something should be done to stop
their encroachment on the liberties of man.
They, too, hate Hitler. But, they also hate Bri-
tish imperialism that has not yet given them the
dominion status they feel is their right.

In Re. Slosson ...
To the Editor:
Because Prof. Slosson has misrepresented the
position which Communists hold toward the
Russo-Finnish war, we should like to state our
case.
We believe that the war in Europe is an im-
perialist war, a war which serves the interests
of the large capitalists and is against the inter-
ests of the people. Like the last war, there is#
an attempt to drag neutrals in under the pre-
text of saving democracy, and Roosevelt is
playing the same reactionary role as Wilson did.
The Soviet Union stands for lasting peace,
and for this reason: it is a socialist nation in
which there is no capitalist class that needs
war to quell the unrest at home and to capture
sources of raw materials and markets abroad.
The Soviet Union, with the only real upward
trend of production in the world, wishes to
develop peacefully.
However, the Soviet Union realizes that it is
the only socialist nation amid a world of capital-
ism. The Soviet Union has had wars of inter-
vention waged against it by all the major powers
of the world. It knows that a strong army is
necessary to protect its achievements.
The facts in regard to Finland are clear. The
Mannerheim government was nothing more than
an agency of foreign imperialisms. Its job was
to make Finland a war base for use against
the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union forcibly
quashed this attempt to spread the war. The
Mannerheim Line, which was to be the jumping-
off point for the next phase of the Second Im-
perialist War, was removed from the war-makers
hands. Leningrad, largest industrial center, is
now protected.
Further, British Imperialism has suffered a
blow from which it will not recover. The libera-
tion movement in the colonies has received
great stimulus. The neutral Scandinavian an(I
Balkan countries are further removed from in-
volvement.
But more important, the Russo-Finnish Peace
has shattered the attempts of Chamberlain,
Daladier, and Roosevelt to spread the war. The
flames of war were extinguished before the war-
makers could fan them into a fire that would
spread over the entire world. Peace was con-
cluded before Finland could be turned into a
modern Belgium and used as a screen to attack
the first workers and peasants republic. In
the last analysis, the Soviet Union has helped
to keep us out of war by halting and exposing
the real war-makers in London, Paris, and
Washington.
The Executive Committee,
Young Communist rLeague.

(This is the second of three articles
dealing with the Associated Farmers
of California, their organization, func-
tion and threat to American Democ-
racy.)
II. Hitler's Methods
By DAVID LACHENBRUCH
McWilliams, in his book, Factories
in the Field, quotes figures on the
rapidity of mobilization of the Asso-
ciated Farmers for deputy duty as
strikebreakers, stating that in the
Salinas strike 1,500 men were mobil-
ized in less than a day; in Stockton
2,200 deputies were mobilized in a
few hours and in the Imperial Val-
ley 1,200 men were gotten together
"on a few minutes' notice."
The Associated Farmers have a
competent propaganda ministry, too.
Their entire drive is geared to the
tried-and-true Red Menace Scare.
In the Association's propaganda, the
terms, "red," "Communist," agita-
tor," "radical" and "union man" are'
interchangeable. An issue of the As-
sociated Farmers' official bulletin for
March, 1936 coos lovingly to its read-
ers: "For those who may have for-
gotten and for those who have yet
to learn: Communism stands for
hatred of God and all forms of reli-
gion, destruction of private property
and inheritance, promotion of class
hatred. Memorize these few lines
and keep them forever before you."
With an audience educated to sub-
stitute the word "unionism" for'
"communism," this propaganda,
though subtle as a kick in the teeth,
is none the less effective.
JOHN PHILLIPS, a spokesman for
the Associated Farmers, and al-
so, incidentally, a state Senator, who
has been abroad and professes to be
a great admirer of the German Fueh-
rer, wrote in an Association booklet,

"I would like to tell you how the
personality of Hitler impressed me
and how I feel that he has a greater
personality appeal, a greater per-
sonal influence on his people than
many of the nations realize." "Hit-
ler," he said in a speech Jan. 18, 1936,
"has done more for democracy than
any -man before him."
The Associated Farmers sponsored
lectures throughout the state during
1936 and 1937 by the Reverend Mar-
tin Luther Thomas of Los Angeles,
who heads a "Christian American
Crusade" similar to the "Christian
Front" brought to light several weeks
ago, and is also known for his anti-
semitic and red-baiting activities. It
was under his influence that author-
ities in Riverside County "employed
a special detective, at a salary of
$1,800 a year to spy on 'subversive
activities' of school children in the
Riverside Public Schools."
To make the analogy to Nazi meth-
ods complete, on Dec. 18, 1936, the
county counsel in Los Angeles re-
ceived instructions to draft legisla-
tion for the State Senate which
"would permit counties to spend
funds for erecting concentration
camps for use during major disas-
ters." "Major disasters," mentioned
previously in California legislation.
had been assumed to pertain to
earthquakes and the like, but now
it was clear that they also included
labor difficulties.
Throughout the state there is much
evidence of Nazified concentration
camps. McWilliams describes one in
detail in an article in The Nation for
July 24, 1935, located outside of Sa-
linas, California. "Here a stockade
has been constructed which is ad-
mittedly intended for use as a con-
centration camp. When local work-
ers inquired of the shipper-growers
why such a curious construction had
been established, they were told that

it was built 'to hold strikers, but of
course we won't put white men in it,
just Filipinos.' " Numerous other
stockades and wire fence contrap-
tions have been located, among them
one at Brentwood and one at the
giant Tagus Ranch, some of them
presumedly "to keep the lawless ele-
ment out, not to keep the contented
element in," the assumption being
that there is a "contented element."
FROM the time of the founding of
the Associated Farmers in 1933,
"trial mobilizations" were held
throughout the state of California,
including the organization of various
"vigilante" groups in many counties.
In 1935, the growers began to
order "preventative arrests," and by
Dec. 30 of that year. the Sheriff of
Imperial Valley had "launched a val-
ley-wide round-up of professional
agitators, Communists and suspects
to avert a possible strike among let-
tuce workers." And so arrests were
made in advance in the Imperial
Valley, as the workers labored at
backbreaking toil on starvation
wages that season.
"A systematic terrorization of
workers in the rural areas" before
harvest time was part of the program
of the growers' group, including fiery
crosses flaming on thenhilltops. In
February, 1935, the California Cava-
liers of Sacramento, an organization
sponsored by the Associated Farmers,
set out to "stamp out all un-Amer-
ican activity among farm labor."
Herman Cottrell, organizer for this
high-minded group and Associated
Farmers official, made a public state-
ment that, "we aren't going to stand
for any more of those organizers
from now on; anyone who peeps
about higher wages will wish he
hadn't."
(The third, and last, article in this
series will foliow.)

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

FRIDAY, MARCH 22, 1940

Drew PeasoI
nd
Roe 2WAle

W ASHINGTON-Latest to
Roosevelt on the third
Burt Wheeler, who harbors'
bitions himself.

try to smoke out
term was Senator
White House am-

The Montanan made his cast during a con-
ference with Roosevelt on the trade treaty
issue. Wheeler explained that personally he
has no objections to reciprocal trade, but that
sentiment among Montana cattlemen and far-
mers is so strong he will have to fight it to
be re-elected. Smiling broadly, the President
said he understood.
Wheeler then turned the conversation to
politics, intimated that he thought the time
had come for Roosevelt to speak out about his
plans. He owed it to the party, his friends, and
to himself to say what was what. The President
listened quietly and then with a grin said:
"Thanks for the advice, Burt. It's always
helpful to receive good, constructive views."
the time to press such demands is not receiv 4
very favorably in India. It is true that these
are emergency times, but India did not get all
the promises made to her in the last war, and,
consequently, she wants to make sure this time.
As Gertrude Emerson Sen points out in the
February issue of "Asia," India entered the
World War on the basis of promises which most
Indians today do not believe to have been ful-
filled. Does not England realize, as Miss Sen
says, "that Indians also may be susceptible to
treatment regarded as honorable." The argu-'
ment that the Indian people is divided, itself,
is weak in that most of the division usually
pointed to is mainly religious, Mohammedan
and Hindu. In this country, too, there is great
division in religion, and it means nothing poli-
tically. The situation is only slightly different
in India, even though there is a Muslim party,
one which claims to speak for all 80,000,000
Mohammedans in India. In reality, however,
this party sounds better than it is, for there
are actually more Mohammedans in the Congress
Party of Gandhi and Nehru than in the Muslim
party of Jinnah. Talk of division is subterfuge,
since there are even many Mohammedans in
the leadership of Congress. The presidential
address to the Congress' opening session Mon-

FRIDAY, MARCH 22,' 1940
VOL. L. No. 125
Notices
Freshmen in the College of Litera-
ture, Science, and the Arts may ob-
tain their five-weeks progress reports
in the Academic Counselors' Office,
Room 108 Mason Hall, from 8 to 12
a.m. and 1:30 to 4:30. p.m. accord-
Wednesday, March 20.
Surnames beginning P through Z,
Friday, March 22.
Students, College of Literature,
Science, and the Arts: Courses drop-
ped after Saturday, March 23, by stu-
dents other than freshmen will be
recorded E. Freshmen (students with
less than 24 hours of credit) may
drop courses without penalty through
the eighth week. Exceptions may be
made in extraordinary circumstances,
such as severe or long continued ill-
ness.
Assistant Dean E. A. Walter
University Lecture: Dr. Richard P.
McKeon, Dean of the Division of
Humanities, University of Chicago,
will lecture on "Discovery and Proof
in the History of Logic" under the
auspices of the Department of Phil-
osophy at 4:15 p.m. on Friday, March
29, in the Amphitheatre of the Rack-
ham Building. The public is cordial-
ly invited.
Diploma Applications: Graduate
students who expect to be recom-
mended for a degree in June, 1940,
and who at the time of registration in
February did not fill out a blue appli-
cation, please call at the office of the
Graduate School before March 23 to
file an application.
Doctoral Examination of Edison
Henry Cramer will be held at
3:00 p.m. today in the West
Council Room, Rackham Bldg. Mr.
Cramer's department of specializa-
tion is Business Administration. The
title of his thesis is "Denver as the
Financial Center of the Eastern Rocky
Mountain Region."
Dr. R. G. Rodkey, as chairman of
the committee, will conduct the ex-
amination. By direction of the Ex-
ecutive Board, the chairman has the
privilege of inviting members of the
faculty and advanced doctoral candi-
dates to attend the examination and
to grant permission to others who
might wish to be present.
C. S. Yoakum
The University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Occupational Information
has received notice of the following
Detroit Civil Service examination to
be held May 4.
Transportation Equipment Opera-
tor, salary $.73 per hour.
Applications being issued from
March 18 to March 29, excepting Sat-
urdays.
rs mnl onannocment on fie at

Elementary Conducting classes which1
which ordinarily meet Friday, 2-4,
will meet 3-4 today.
David Mattern
Concerts
Twilight Organ Recital: Palmer
Christian, University organist, will
give a special program of Good Fri-1
day music at 4:15 o'clock, on the
Frieze Memorial Organ in Hill Audi-
torium today. The public is invited..
Exhibitions
Landscape Architecture Exhibit of
plans and photographs of examples
of the workofdprofessional landscape
architects and planners from New
York to Hawaii is on display in the
exhibition hall of the Architecture
Building. It will be open until the'
end of this week. Of special inter-
est are the plans of the International
Peace Garden in North Dakota and
Manitoba, a plantation village in
Hawaii, New York City parks, etc.
Exhibition, College of Architecture
and Design: Photographs of Finnish
architecture, by Ernst L. Schaible,
'37A, Booth Traveling Fellow in Arch-
itecture in 1938. Architectural cor-
ridor, ground floor cases, through
April 5. Open daily 9 to 5, except
Sunday. The public is invited.
Lectures
University Lecture: Dr. Luigi Vil-
lari, formerly in the Italian Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and on the staff
of the League of Nations, will lecture
on "Italy and the International Situ-
ation" under the auspices of the De-
partment of Political Science at 4:15
p.m. today in the Lecture Hall of the
Rackham Building. The public is
cordially invited.
University Lecture: Professor Her-
bert Davis, Chairman of the English
Department, Cornell University, will
lecture on "Swift and the Pedants"
under the auspices of the Depart-
ment of English at 4:15 p.m. on Tues-
day, March 26, in the Rackham Lec-
ture Hall. The public is cordially
invited.-W
School of Education Students, oth-
er than freshmen: Courses dropped
after Saturday, March 23, will be re-
corded with the grade of E, except
under extraordinary circumstances.
No course is considered officially
dropped unless it has been reported
in the office of the Registrar, Room
4, University Hall.
Louis Untermeyer Lecture: Mr. Un-
termeyer will speak on "Changing
Lines in Architecture" in the Rack-
ham Amphitheatre at 7 o'clock to-
night. Please note the change in
time from afternoon to the evening
hour. Members of the University are
cordially invited. No admission

ture: Professor S. C. Lind of the Uni-
versity of Minnesota will speak on
"Chemical Action in Electrical Dis-
charges" at 4:15 p.m. Monday, March
25, in Room 303, Chemistry Build-
ing. Professor Lind is the National
President of the American Chemical
Society. The meeting is open to the
public.
Lecture, College of Architecture and
Design: John Gray Faron, Jr., former
fellow of the American-Scandinavi-
an Foundation, will give an illustrat-
ed lecture "Stockholm Builds for the
Future" in the ground floor lecture
room of the Architectural Building
today at 4:15. The public is invited.
Today's Events
Interfraternity Conturence pro-
gram for today:
12:15. Luncheon in Room 116,
Union. For: Faculty, Guests and
Panel Members.
2:00. General Assembly in Ball-
room, Union. Talk: Dean Mitchell of
Michigan State.
3:00. Panel Discussions in Union
(See bulletin board).
6:15. Initiation Banquet in Union.
Conservative services will be held
at the Hillel Foundation tonight at
7:30 p.m.
Westminster Student Guild of the
Presbyterian Church will have Bible
Class tonight from 7:30 to 8:30.
The Disciples Guild will present
the play "Brothers," at the Church
of Christ, Hill and Tappan tonight
at 8:30. No admission charge.
Coming Events
Seminar in Bacteriology will meet
in Room 1564 East Medical Building
Monday, March 25, at 8:00 p.m. Sub-
ject: "Reversibility of Antigen-Anti-
body Reaction." All interested are
invited.
German Table for Faculty Mem-
bers will meet Monday at 12:10 p.m.
in the Founders' Room, Michigan
Union. All faculty members inter-
ested in speaking German are cordi-
ally invited. There will be a brief
informal talk by Professor Albert H.
Marckwardt on "Etwas von den Fili-
pino-Sprachen."
Junior Mathematical Society meet-
ing Monday, March 25, at 7:30 p.m.
in Room 3021 Angell Hall. Profes-
sor Anning will speak on "The Sine
of Eighteen Degrees." All members
are urged to attend since freshmen
from the Math. 14 class will be our
guests and a change of the date of
meeting will be discussed.
Graduate students, and other stu-
dents interested, are invited to listen
to a radio broadcast by the Metro-
nolitan Onera Company of Wagner's

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