THE MiICHI GAN DAILY
WEDNESDAY, MAY 17, 1939
Human And Cultural Achievements
Stimulated By WPA Arts Projects
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board irk Control of
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. Carl Petersen
Stan M. SWinton
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I~4IGHErWIToR: HOWARD A. GOLDMAN
TThe editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
And The Public . . .
NN ARBOR, as has been frequently
'indicated, has its administrative weak-
nesses, yet it is encouraging to note that the
loeal =police department has recently made a
sincere effort to improve the quality and effi-
ciency of its personnel..
Working' chiefly on their own time, members
off the force have just completed an intensive
course in the latest police methods and public
relationship contacts. The point to be noted in
relaio'n to this course work is the attitude toward
it taken by the force. The whole-hearted recep-
tion of the opportunity offered and general thirst
for knowledge on the part of the individual
ioliceman illustrates the recent trend in police
work striving toward a more harmonious rela-
tionship between law-enforcing agencies and the
The traditional view taken by the public
toward law-enforcing agencies has been one of
fear or disrespect. Too often the policeman is
looked upon as a threat to individual liberty. He
has been regarded as the "flat-foot" who takes a
genuine pleasure in nabbing a speeding motorist
or in exploding a tear-gas bomb in the- face of
some jubilant student.
This misconception of the true purpose of a
police force, it true, has not been held by the
public alone. There are many examples of police-
men who have built up a public-be-damned com-
plex, but the widespread acceptance of the police
training and public relationship courses which
arc springing up in cities all over the country
illustrates the effort being made by police officers
to right the popular misconception.
The potential efficiency of this new attitude
toward police work is well illustrated in the case
of the Wichita department. Under the theory
that courtesy and human understanding are as
important a part of police equipment as marks-
manship and jujitsu, that department has built
up an' enviable record in the low crime and
accident rate achieved, not to mention the im-
proved relation with the citizens of Wichita.
This marked improvement was not attained
by increasing the size of the force or the de-
partmental budget, but rather by a sane pro-
gram of education. The first step was to build
up a well educated force. Members of the de-
partment were selected. from among students
at Wichita Municipal University. These, pros-
pective policemen were taken on as rookies and
encouraged to continue their studies. Above all,
they were trained in courtesy and encouraged to
develop a pleasing personality.
Ann Arbor has so far taken the first step
toward the creation of a better police force. The
result' will depend upon the sincerity of the police
personnel and the cooperation of the students
Bayonte 0GeS AmericanIit
Bayonne. N.J., adjoins Jersey City in Hudson
Courity. Though ~Jersey City is the larger, the
two municipalities in other respects are virtually
twins-in their factory-ridden environment in
the composition of their population. Yet Bayonne
has just decided it has had enough of Hague
Variety And Regionalism
Aims Of Federal Artists
By ELIOTT MARANISS
When the United States Government entered
the lists of art patrons in the summer of 1935 it
found itself faced with a peculiar problem. It
must be remembered that the immediate task
facing the WPA was to get people back to work:
a man didn't have to be a Picasso or a Stravinsky
to be hungry and eligible for a job. Not only
starving geniuses were admitted to the projects,
and the directors had to work out a program
which could make use of all artists, good and bad.
Charged with the task of finding useful work
for men of varying abilities, the various national
directors had to plan their projects in such
ways that would take into consideration the
human resources at their command, and at the
same time turn out important and worth while
It is exactly' at this point that most of the
criticism of the arts projects arises. The placing
of a thousand murals in public buildings, it is
said, does not in itself produce great mural art;
nor does the simultaneous opening in 17 cities of
Sinclair Lewis' "It Can't Happen Here" in itself
signal a return to the old days of a flourishing
and vital theatre. Too much of the work of
federal writers, painters, actors and musicians,
it is maintained by some critics; is mere hack
production, insipid, uninspired stuff. Ir addition
the cry is raised that many of the federal people
cannot even turn out good hack art, and would
be much better off on a road-,gang oi' a farm.
Now it is beyond any doubt true that many of
the people on the projects are incapable of pro-
dueing first-rate stuff, let alone works of genius;
for every Mitchell Siropin and Joseph Sheridan
there are scores of second-rate muralists; and
every production like Detroit's ". . . one-third of
a nation . . ." is accompanied by many badly-
acted and hastily-contrived plays; and for every
ten pages of .colorful, well-documented writing
in the state guides there is a tremendous amount
of hackneyed and poorly written material. No-
body, least of all the directors themselves, would
deny these charges. But there are two important
considerations, usually overlooked by the critics,
that supply sufficient answers to the criticisms.
In the first place, it is not at all true that the
great bulk of "merely competent" work produced
by WA artists is a condition, to be regretted.
The nineteenth century emphasis upon solitary
masterpieces is primarily a collector's idea, and
has little relation to an art movement. It may
very well be true that not all of the thousand
murals painted by federal artists are great art,
but it must be apparent to all that wall-ainting
under government auspices, has been firmly
established here; perhaps as in no other country
in modern times; and that in giving opportunity
to hundreds of painters, the project has turned
up hitherto unknown muralists who are compe-
tent to produce creative work, according to art-
critic Sheldon Cheney, beyond any standards
believable five years ago.
A Guide To Michigan
Furthermore the directors have made im-
portant use of all the human material on hand.
Illustrative of this method of using available
talent to produce work that will have major
significance in' the national cultural scheme is
the Federal Writers Project. Early next month
the Michigan writers will publish a guide to the
state of Michigan. It will be a meaty, full-sized
volume more than 400 pages in length, with
over a hundred photographs of places of interest
in the state. Following the main road tours,
the book will provide a rapid-running encyclo-
pedia of background and facts requisite to an
understanding of the spirit of the state. This. will
be no mere guide in the traditional sense: into
it will go all the ability of a competent group of
men, alert to the possibilities of such an under-
taking, and out of it will come, if the previously
published guides can be taken as a criterion,
sensitive description and authentic history and
invaluable tools for the imaginative portrayal of
the particular life and materials of this region.
Put the Michigan Guide in its place in the
national writers project and its importance be-
comes still more enhanced. Though the project
was originally designed to give useful employ-
ment to needy writers and research workers, it
has gradually developed the more ambitious
objective of utilizing the talent among the un-
employed writers to create a comprehensive por-
trait of America. The result has been a collec-
tive work to which each writer and research
worker contributes according to his talents.
State projects compile their guides as separate
and independent units, but when completed ea ch
guide takes its place in a series of 55 projected
volumes that will cover the entire United States,
Alaska and Puerto Rico.
Regiondisnm In The Theatre
Still another new method evolved by the WPA,
and also of great cultural significance, is ex-
emplified in the work of the Federal Theatre.
Previously the most damning criticism made of
the American theatre has been that the American
theatre hardly existed at all outside of a few
square blocks in the Broadway district of New
York; In the great cultural desert areas of the
United States there are millions of people who
have never seen a first-rate production, and
there are thousands who have never seen a play
at all. In addition, those plays that have been
made available to people outside of New York,
have for the most part only been those that
have gained the acclaim of the narrowly-restrict-
ed group of wealthy persons who can afford to
pay $3.30 on enough successive evenings to put
a new play in the hit class.
It is hardly to be wondered at, then, that
zens not hitherto able to afford theatre-going,
a planned theatrical program, "national in scope,
regional in emphasis, and American in demo-
cratic attitude." Note the things that the Federal
Theatre has emphasized, and its value becomes
apparent: centralized, yet. geographically-con-
scious planning, developing great regional
theatres; exploration of the theatre itself, its
relation to radio, movies, and television, its use
of:speech, of dance patterns, of the dynamics of
light, sound and movement; yet the exploration
also of the human material involved, of the vast
and exciting new audience it has created.
The Federal Theatre is a working example
of how a true regionalism can profoundly affect
the nature of our culture. It is not the insulated,
romantic regionalism of, the self-conscious
Agrarians, nor the sophisticated, regionalism of
New York and Chicago; it is rather, a regional-'
ism that allows each section of the country to.
evolve its own particular program, but in which
each region is considered in its relation to the
whole national picture. Washington does not
dictate arbitrarily to Detroit, New Orleans or
Denver. Federal Theatre, as the name implies, is
a federation of many theatres, each responsible
for exploring its own dramatic possibilities.
The experiences of the Detroit Federal The-
atre is typical of this program of local responsi-
bility. Organized in the latter part of 1935, it
had presented five major dramas, including "It
Can't Happen Here," Robert Sherwood's "The
Road to Rome," and the Negro "Macbeth," when
its lease at the Lafayette Theatre expired. Faced
with the problem of operating a theatrical group
without a theatre, the director decided to tour
the company as a vaudeville unit, playing
throughout the metropolitan area at community
houses, churches, orphanages, hospitals, schools
and other institutions to an estimated audience
of more than 14,000. In the early part of 1937, thg
Detroit project leased the People's Theatre, and
since that date it has been a continuously-func-
tioning organization. Detroit, in conjunction
with every other city in the project, has put on
certain stock plays, of tested universal appeal:'
plays like "Arms and the Man," and "Anna
Christie" will pack them in, no matter what the
locale. But only in Detroit could Albert Bein's'
"Let Freedom Ring," a dramatization of Grace
Lumpkin's powerful novel about the hill-folks
who have been driven off their dusty mounds and
into the factory-towns, play to enthusiastic audi-
ences of over 3,000 every night for a long period
Index To American Design.
Perhaps the most highly developed example
of a project that has undertaken to conserve the
talents and skills of individual artists, and at the
same time to stimulate in the community a
greater appreciation of the arts, is the Federal
Art Project. While most of the creative divisions
of the Michigan Art Project are engaged in the
production of murals, sculpture, ceramics, gra-
phics for buildings in the local comnlunities of
the state, other divisions' are at work upon a
national project of the greatest significance-the
Index of American Design.
Established to make a pictorial record, in
black-and-white and in color, of the historical
decorative arts in America from the earliest
settlement days of the 17th century through the
19th century, the Index of American Design has
become one of the most fruitful undertakings
of the entire WPA program. The Index has un-
covered hidden and long-neglected sources of
American design in furniture, costumes, textiles,
ceramics, metal-work and other examples of
native' o-igin: it has accelerated interest in th
decorative arts in America in all their regional,
historical and functional phases. When pub-
lished, these portfolios of authenticated graphic
and pictorial research material will be compar-
able to the exhaustive collections of native de-
sign compiled and made widely accessible in Euro-
Once again, the emphasis has been upon the
region. Michigan, for example, has one of the
largest populations of Wooden Indians, Scotch-
men, Turks and Don Juans of the type which
used to stand outside cigar stars, and the local
artists have recorded all of these in carefully-
drawn plates for inclusion in the Index. Michi-
gan also possesses an unusual number of early
puppets and marionettes, and many of these
have been recorded, giving an idea of a type
of folk-carving thatno longer exists. In addition,
Michigan has been a fertile source of pioneer
tools, such as wrought-iron plow heads, wooden
plates, and cabinet-makers clamps, many of
them of a fine simplicity and functional design,
and also scheduled for inclusion in the Index.
When the final story of the Federal Arts Pro-
jects is written, then, it may very well be claimed
that the necessity that led to the establishment
of group projects that could best make use of
available talent, was its greatest source of life
and significance. For what the Federal projects
are preparing in America. is the groundwork
from which great national art movements will
(The final article in this series will be published in
Farley Scouting Again
WASHINGTON--Exactly eight years ago
James A. Farley made a trip across thq country
which led to the nomination of Franklin D.
Roosevelt for President a year later. Now the
Democratic national chairman is headed West
again, on a similar scouting trip of the greatest
potential importance politically.
* * *
A reasonable guess is that this trip may lead to
one of two things, either the nomination of Farley
next year or the renomination of Roosevelt for
a third term.
-by David Lawrence -
WASHINGTON, May 15.-For sev-
eral months now the Temporary Na
tional Economic Committee, some-
times called the Anti-Monopoly Com-
mittee, has been nibbling away at
some of the larger problems of busi
ness operation, but only this week is'
the committee getting down to fun-
damentals. It is about to penetrate the
complicated but highly important
question of capital flow in America.
Up to now, the committee has had
a somewhat legalistic approach,
keeping the idea ofconcentration of
economic power within rather nar-
row areas of business practice, such
as grow out of patent monopoly or
price-fixing. This angle might be pur-
sued for years without revealing
much more than the existence of
two opposite schools, which believe
in amended anti-trust laws and ag-
gressive competition, on the one hand,
and the establishment of government'
cartels or regulation of price levels
on the other.
This week, however, the committee
in effect concedes that all elements of
competition, fair and unfair, and all
characteristics of monopoly, quasi-
legal or unlawful, are directly re-
lated to the method by which capital
s accumulated and distributed.
Something basically different from
anything which used to happen be-
fore 1930 has come into the picture
of capital flow. The old methods of
floating issues of common stock to0
make capital available to large en-
terprise, and even, to a large extent,
the old ways of floating large bond
issues, have been modified, if not
reduced to a relatively small opera-
Today, big business gets its capital
from its own surpluses and reservesI
or sells privately a large issue of1
securities to an insurance company,i
and the days of numerous so-called
public issues have passed into his-
The investment banking machinery
lies idle, and, so far as small business
is concerned, it never had any means
of getting capital except by the hardi
way of finding individual capitalists
here or there, or 'occasionally, and
very occasionally, by persuading local
banks to make three to five-year capi-
The reasons why investment bank-]
ing machinery is idle have never been
scientifically penetrated by a public
inquiry. There will 'be some bankers
in New York, for instance, who will
insist that no "confidence" prevails
and hence large issues cannot be
offered to investors except now and
then in a few gilt-edge cases. Other
financial men will say that the rigid
terms of the Securities and Exchange
Act are at bottom responsible and
that corporations fear to take the
risks of the racketeering lawsuits
that might follow if their directors1
have to take personal responsibility
for signing the prospectuses on whichj
loans can be issued.
Certainly, the Securities and Ex-
change Commission itself, which is
conducting the inquiry before the
Temporary National Economic Com-
mittee, is not inclined to put itself
or the present law on trial on these
points, so the main purpose of the
commission's counsel doubtless will]
be to get at the facts of capital oper-
ation without discussing remedies at
The study of capital flow is not a
sudden affair. Peter Nehemikis, Jr.,
one of the able counsel of the SEC's]
staff, who is Director of Investment
studies, has been working for several
months now to get an objective sur-
vey made on what is actually hap-
pening to American capital in respect
to large and small business.
Witnesses from Wall Street in-
vestment banking houses wile de-
scribe past and present practices
with particular reference to the cus-
tom that has grown up among big
corporations of avoiding the invest-
ment bankers altogether by having a
direct private deal between a big
bank or insurance company and the
corporation in question, a practice
that is allowable under present law..
The step taken by the Harvard
Crimson in waging open and flagrant
war on the tutorial schools infesting
the mellow Cambridge atmosphere
is courageous as well as costly. It is
costly only to the Crimson, recipient
of $20,000 in advertising from this
source each year.
Actually the fight evolves around
the point-what is an education?
Everyone has a different answer. Is
it something where every man must
sit down and learn certain pre-
scribed answers? Or is it an oppor-
tunity for young persons to under=
stand the world about them, to be-
come acquainted with the process of
In the former case, we say that
the tutorial school is a valuable aid
to such."education." However, we say
that if that is "education" we'll take
In the latter case, the move start-
enby the Harvard daily is a wise,
well-considered step. A tutor will not
maint., May 27.
Public Health Nurse A.
range: $130-150, May 30.
Public Health Nurse I.
range: $150-190, May 30.
Public Health Nurse II.
range: $200-240, May 30.
Public Health Nurse III.
range: $250-310, May 30.
All Speech Concentrates and Grad-
uate Students in Speech please call
at 3211 A.H. at one of the following,
hours this week to complete concen-
Choral Union Members, Refund on
deposit for Choral Union music books
will be made from 9 to 12, and from 1
to 4 o'clock daily, up to noon Friday,
May 19, at the general office of the
School of Music. Members are cau-
tioned that no refunds will be made
after that date.
Charles A. Sink.
Notice to N.Y.A. Applicants: Stu-
dents who feel they will need finan-
cial assistance through the National
Youth Administration next year
should leave their summer addresses
with Miss Elizabeth A. Smith, Room 2,
University Hall, before the close of
Senior Lit Class Dues will be col-
lected on Wednesday, May 17, in both
the League and the Union. It is im-
portant that these dues be paid be-
fore Commencement Invitations are
(Continued from Page 2)
has received notice of the following
Michigan Civil Service Examinations.
The last date for filing application is
noted in each case:
Cartographic Engineering Drafts-
man Al. Salary range: $140-160 May
Prison Vocational School Super-
visor I. Salary range: $150-190 less
University Girls' Glee
rehearsal this week.
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Assistant: to the President until 3:30 P.M.
11:00 A.M. on Saturday.
German Departmental Library:
library books are due.
Academic Notices I
Final Doctoral Examination of Mr.
William Charles Bell will be held on1
Wednesday, May 17 at 2:30 p.m. inl
Room 4065 N.S.
Mr. Bell's field of specialization is
Geology. The title of his thesis is
"Revision of Cambrian Brackispoda
Professor E. C. Case, as chair-
man of the committee, will conduct
the examination. By direction of the
Executive Board, the chairman has
the privilege of inviting members of
the faculty and advanced doctoral
candidates to attend the examination,
and to grant permission to others who
might wish to be present.
Final Doctoral Examination of Mr.
Augustus Taylor Miller, Jr., will be
held on Wednesday, May 17 at 3 p.m.
in 4017 E. Med. Mr. Miller's field
of specialization is Physiology. The
title of his thesis is "The Effects of
Prolonged Exposure to High Concen-
;rations of Carbon Dioxide on Acid-
Base Balance, Blood Cells and Hemo-
Professor R. Gesell, as chair-
man of the committee, will conduct
the examination. By direction of
the Executive Board, the chairman
has the privilege of inviting mem-
bers of the faculty and advanced doc-
toral candidates to attend the ex-
amination and to grant permission to
others who might wish to be present.
Seminar in Physical Chemistry,
which was scheduled to meet today
in Room 122 Chemistry Building, has
Zoology Seminar: Mr. James W.
Moffett will report on "A Limnologi-
cal Investigation of the Dynamics of
a Barren, Sandy, Wave-swept Shoal
in Douglas Lake, Michigan" and Mr.
Robert S. Campbell on "Vertical Dis-
tribution of the Rotifera in Douglas
Lake, Michigan, with Special Refer-
ence to Submerged Depression In-
dividuality" on Thursday, May 18, at
7:30 p.m. in the Amphitheatre of the
Physics Colloquium : Professor Ger-
hard Herzberg of the University of
Saskatchewan will speak on "For-
bidden Transitions in Molecular Spec-
tra" at the Physics Colloquium at
4:15 p.m. today in Room 1041 E.
Professor Mickle's M.E. Class will
have a blue book this morning in
Room 336 West Engineering Building
at 9 o'clock.
the eleventh in the Journalism Sup-
plementary Lecture Series todayat
3 p.m. in Room E, Haven Hall, speak-
ing on "The Canadian Press." The
public is invited.
Student Tea: President and Mrs.
Ruthven will be at home to students
this afternoon from 4 to 6 p.m.
There will be an assembly of the
School of Forestry and Conservation
at 11 a.m. today in the amphithe-
atre of the Rackham Building, at
which Mr. E. L. Demmon, Director of
the Southern' Forest Experiment Sta-
tion, U.S. Forest Service, will speak
and show some colored motion pic-
tures on "Forestry in Puerto Rico."
All students in the School of Forestry
and Conservation are expected to at-
tend and othersdinterested are cor-
dially invited to do so.
Transportation Club: There will be
an important meeting of the 'Trans-
portation Club this evening at
7:30 p.m. in Room 1213, East
Engineering Building. The election of
next year's officers will be held, and
various other important matters will
come up for discussion. It is abso-
lutely indispensible for a quorum to
attend this meeting, and therefore all
members are urgently requested to
come. Refreshments will be served.
A Graduate luncheon will be held
today at 12 o'clock noon in the Rus-
sian Tea Room of the League, cafe-
Prof. Arthur Aiton of the History
Department will speak on "Aphival
Experiences, Past and Present." All
graduate students are cordially in-
Hiawatha Club: Members of the
Hiawatha Club will meet for the last
time this year tonight at 8 p.m. in the
Michigan Union. Refreshments will
F-4 Scabbard and Blade. There will
be aretreat ceremony at 5 o'clock
this afternoon. Meet at ROTC
Headquarters. Installation of new
officers will take place at this cere-
mony. Uniforms required.
Ann Arbor Independents: Lantern
Night rehearsal, today, in the game
Room of the League from 4 to 5.
Tau Beta; Pi.
A meeting will be held at Barton
Hills Country Club today. The elec-
tion of officers for next year will be
held and it is imperative that all
members attend. Buses will leave
the Engineering Arch at 5:45 p.m.
Please sign the list on the bulletin
Research Club will meet today at 8
p.m., in the Amphitheatre of the
Program: Professor R. C. An-
jell will speak on "Society, Com-
munity, and Contemporary America";
and Professor N. R. F. Maier, on "Ex-
perimentally Produced Neurotic Be-
havior in the Rat."
The Council will meet at 7:30 p.m.
in the Assembly Hall.
Phi Lambda Upsilon, national hon-
orary chemical and chemical en-
gineering society, will hold its last
regular meeting of the year tonight
at 7:30 p.m. in the Men's Lounge of
the Rackham building.
Election of officers and plans for
the picnic form the business of the
evening. Refreshments will be served.
Members of Pi Lambda Theta
are invited to an initiation service
this afternoon at 5 p.m. in the
Michigan League. Following the in-
itiation there will be a dinner and
business meeting, also at the League.
The program for the evening will
begin at .8 o'clock in the University
High School Auditorium. Dr. S. A.
Courtis will show moving pictures and
lecture on his recen trip in the Bal-
kans. Guests are invited.
English Honors candidates will be
interviewed this evening in Professor
Rice's office, 3223 Angell Hall.
Annual Phi Sigma Banquet to-
night at 6:30 p.m. Ethel Fountain
Hussey Room, Michigan League. Dr.
denry F'. Vaughn wil lspeak. Late
reservations may be made by calling
K. E. Goellner, Univ. Museums, Ext.
82. No charge to this years initiates.
American Student Union: There
Executive Committee at 4 p.m. to-
day in the League.
Varsity Glee Club: The election of
officers will take place at the business
meeting which is to be held on Thurs-
day, May 18, at 8:15. Those nominat-
ed by the Executive Committee are:
ing 5 will
5 of Mechanical Engineer-'
not meet at 11 a.m. today
Charles W. Spooner, Jr.
i .. . i