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March 18, 1939 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1939-03-18

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kryk. IV, 1 ,1

a -
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Sumn r Session.
Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
rights of republication of all other matters herein also
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class mail matter.
Subscriptions during regular school year by carrier,
$4.00; by mail, $4.50.
National Advertising Service, inc.
College Publishers Representative
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1938-39

Board of
Managing Editor. .
Editorial Director
City Editor
Associate Editor -
Associate Editor . .
Associate Editor- .
Associate Editor
Associate Editor. ,
Associate Editor. .
Book Editor .
Women's Editor
Sports Editor .

* Robert D. Mitchell
. Albert P. May1o
* Horace W. Gilmiore
- Robert I. Fitzhenry
* . S. R. Kleiman
. . Robert Perlman
* . .Earl Gilman
William Elvin
Joseph Freedman
. . . Joseph Gies
. . Dorothea Staebler
. . Bud Benjamin

Business Department
Business Manager. ..* Philip W. Buchen
Credit Manager . . . , Leonard P. Siegelman
Advertising Manager William L. Newnan
Women's Business Manager . . Selen Jean Dean
Women's Service Manager . . . Marian A. Baxter
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
Clericalism And
Catholicism . .
W E ASK forbearance fromjour readers
who by this time, no doubt, have
grown tired of seeing the Spanish question aired
in these columns. However, the letter yesterday
in the Daily attacking Father Lobo as a suspend-
ed priest and quoting a telegram from Cardinal
Goma, Primate of Spain, has compelled us to
outline the conditions under which a Spanish
Catholic priest appears to have been censured
by his superior.
That Father Lobo's suspension, if it is actually
a fact, has been motivated because he stuck to
his post in Madrid instead of fleeing as did his
superiors, can scarcely be doubted. It remains
a further blotch upon the record of the Spanish
hierarchy that they wish to suspend a humble
priest who has served his Church by remaining
at his parish. His crime, in their eyes, is that
he has at the same time stood by the Loyalist
government. Because he felt as did many other
Catholic priests that the interests of the Church
could be best safeguarded by remaining with the
people of Madrid, saying mass, giving the sacra-
ments, proving to them by his actions that the
Roman Catholic way of life did not mean that
they should be shot and shelled with the blessing
of the Cardinal Primate, Father Lobo has coun-
teracted in some degree at least the hatred for
Spanish Catholicism which the hierarchy has
instilled in the hearts of the masses of Spanish
people, themselves nominally Catholic.
Even if Franco and the hierarchy do win in
Spain today, they can look backward over Span-
ish history to see what the future will bring.
For Spain may be crushed now by the Fascists
and compelled against its will to observe Catholi-
cism as the state religion, but it will rise again,
as it has risen so many times in the past. And
when it does, there will be a terrible price to
pay, mitigated only by the memories of how some
Spanish priests stood with their people against
their common oppressors.
\Catholics in this country have fought bitterly
against Loyalist Spain because they have, we
think, confused clericalism with Catholicism as
they know it. Because they have seen in this
country officials of the Church who in the full-'
est sense live and practice the ideals of their
Church, they have thought that the clergy of
Spain was also clean-lived and blameless.
A great spiritual force, the Spanish Church
had in the last few centuries come to have a
great influence over the political and economic
life of the Spanish people. Thus, prior to 1931,
canonical law and civil law existed side by side,
and bishops and priests nominated by the king
shared political power with lay officers Despite
the fact that its great landholdings had been
taken away during the course of the nineteenth
century, the Church had through its numerous
orders become an active competitor with private
business. Exempt from taxes, using often unpaid
or poorly paid labor of their members, the re-
ligious orders, particularly the Jesuits, had run
factories, laundries and flour mills in most suc-
cessful competition with the rest of Spanish
industry. In return for the lands which it lost,
the Church furthermore had received annual
lump sum subsidies from the State.
Tn n Aprc.+mnr 4-l.a rnnr~n of fim vfnfn-

even provide subsistence for its owners. This third
of land bore one-half the total land taxes. It is
not difficult to see why there should be an anti-
clerical attitude towards the church, when the
class least able to afford it was forced to pay
a great part of money which was paid to the
Church by the State. In addition, the Church de-
rived a great deal of its income from masses,
baptisms, marriages, burials, an income contrib-
uted by the people because of the Church's relig-
ious monopoly.
Salvador de Madariaga, Spanish scholar, has
stated the problem of anti-clericalism in his book
Spain written in 1930. He says: "Clericalism is
an evil unknown in Protestant countries. In
Catholic countries it is sometimes mild as in
Belgium or even France, where the evil is per-
haps anti-clericalism. But it would be difficult
to find a country in which clericalism is more
rigidly inimical to all reasonable compromise
with the zeitgeist than contemporary Spain.
"Cases might be told of excellent, useful men
broken and lost to the nation by the relentless
persecution of hard-,headed and hard-hearted
bishops with an undue and generally, an illegal
influence on the State. And the pity of it is that,
through the unintelligent intolerance of its atti-
tude, the Church is blocking the way towards a
real solution of the spiritual life of the country,
which cannot be a bigoted Roman Catholicism,
but which is certainly not to be found in an
equally limited rationalism unsuited to the Span-
ish genius. The only hope is in a movement with-,
in the church itself which may turn inwards its
present over-zealous activities for the education
of others. The Spanish Church stands in great
and urgent need of self-education.,,
Jacques Mauritain, the French Catholic phil-
osopher, has defined the position of the Spanish
Church in the following words:
"Every one who knows Spain knows that the
psychological relationship between people and
clergy, and the resentment of the former towards
the latter, is the great wound in Spanish his-
tory .
"But the tragedy was that since for centuries
in Spain religion had been confused with clerical
power, and the external show of spiritual author-
ity had become the chief thing in religious mat-
ters, the clergy, to find support amongst the
privileged classes appeared too often as the pas-
tors of these rather than of the masses." (his
introduction to Mendizabel's 1lfartyrdom of
Speaking of the period before 1931, Dr. Frank
Manuel says:
"The Concordat of 1851 had vaguely limited
the numbers of religious orders in Spain; the
Law of Associations of 1887 had submitted most
of them to the statutes which governed ordinary
organizations. In practice, the economic fruits
of ecclesiastical industry, carefully distributed
in emoluments to civil officials, always preserved
the church outside the pale of the law. The in-
come from plenary indulgences was enough to
keep thousands of inmates in convents and mon-
asteries well-fed and to maintain bishops in awe-
inspiring luxuruy. By contrast, the lot of unin-
fluential curates in hundreds of tiny hamlets was
as wretched as that of their parishioners ...
(The Politics of Modern_ Spain).
The Spanish Church after 1931 was placed in
a most difficult position, as it was deprived more
and more of the prerogatives which it had enjoyed
for so long because it was the official religion of
Spain. It could accept its position as a separate
institution from the State, and go through a
difficult period of readjustment to changed con-
ditions, or it could oppose the measures and the
government which fostered those measures, aimed
at separating the church from the state.
One may justify its opposition to the Republi-
can government, but one can not justify its
preaching of a holy war against the new "infi-
dels," the Loyalists, the great majority of whom
are nominally Catholic. If the hierarchy could
not stand by the Loyalist government, it could at
least have maintained a strict neutrality, preach-
ing the doctrines of Christianity, trying to end
the barbarous conflict.
Such has been the position of many Catholics.
If they have been unwilling to support the Loy-
alists, they have also been unwilling to support
the fascists whose anti-Catholic and anti-relig-
ious philosophies have been established in soli4,
brutal fact in Germany, Italy and Spain.
-Albert Mayio

(Of The English Dep't.)
'Hospital Hill'
By continuing its policy of presenting to the
campus student-written and student-produced
plays, The Hillel Players are making a fine
contribution to the University's intellectual life.
To the student body they afford the opportunity
of seeing some of the best campus dramatic
work, which thus has a special no less than an
intrinsic interest. To the author they pre-
sent the opportunity of more carefully deter-
mining the merits and flaws of such a play as
"Hospital Hill" by Harold Gast and S. H. S. Dann,
which can only be discerned when it is given
flesh and blood on the stage.
And it is pleasing to report that whatever
faults "Hospital Hill" may have, they are not
sufficiently serious to detract from the general
effectiveness of the play as a whole, for they
arise from the same source as the merits, the
desire on the part of the authors to pack into
nine scenes a maximum amount of meaning and
In presenting the intricate action of the char-
acters of a hospital staff in a South American
country, against the background of a revolution,
the authors offer enough ideas, enough intrigue,

-by David Lawrene-


WASHINGTON, March 17.-Just what taxa-
tion is doing to stifle employment has been for
the most part an abstraction, because specific
cases have not been brought before Congress in
any comprehensive way. That these instances
exist in large numbers is no longer doubted, but
companies which are being hurt hesitate to per-
mit their names to be used for fear it will injure
their credit standing.
Here is an example of an actual case, showing
what the payroll taxes are doing to a moderate-
sized business. It is told in the words of the
treasurer of the concern, who writes me as fol-
"We give you a brief statement of facts. We
were founded 35 years ago. We have grown by
returning profits into the business until today
we have the largest and most modern plant of
our type of business in New York.
"We have 200 employees of which 135 are
Union Journeymen (A.F. of L.) with an average
pay of $82 per week for 35 or less hours. Seventy-
five per cent of our total cost of production is in
wages or salaries subject to unemployment and
Social Security taxes, thereby placing an undue
burden on us for maintaining high standards of
wages and a large ratio of wages to material costs.
"On a net sales volume in 1938 of $865,057 this
company showed a deficit of $32,780.
"This condition was largely due to Unemploy-
ment and Social Security taxes which amounted
to $25,510.
Taxes Cause Deficit
"This together with compensation, capital
stock, state franchise and city occupancy taxes
made a total operating tax of $30,977. Is it any
wonder we have ceased thinking of expansion or
the investment of more capital in business? We
operate a large plant in a modern building, pay-
ing top rent under a long term lease entered
into long before the advent of Social Security
taxes. Our rent amounts to $26,590 per year.
"Our Social Security and Unemployment taxes
of $25,510 alone are four times the cost of our
light and power, and twelve times the cost of
our water and gas."
The foregoing example relates to a company
which does not pay any income taxes or cor-
poration profits taxes of any kind because it is
in the red. but nevertheless it must pay Social
Security taxes, not out of annual earnings, but
out of reserve capital or borrowings, as unhealthy
a condition as coulud possibly be discovered.
In the business in question, the labor is highly
paid and there is no problem of treating labor
fairly because three-quarters of the net sales
revenue goes to the workers. Yet a profit is not
being earned.
Just how long can businesses of this kind stand
the gaff? Notwithstandifig the talk here about
revising taxes, this particular concern and all
other companies in America face an increase in
payroll taxes on Jan. 1 next. Few people realize
that the payroll taxes today amount. to 5 per cent
of the payroll, and that another 1 per cent will
be added next January, making a total of 6 per
cent, and that the present law calls for gradual
increases up to 9 per cent by 1948, at which time
unofficial estimates are that the number of Old
Age Pension recipients will be so large as to re-
quire possibly an increase to 12 per cent if the
present plan of accumulating a reserve is carried
Cause Of Recession
These payroll taxes not only have not been
digested by business since they began to be im-
posed in large amount two years ago, but they
deprive workers of purchasing power. This im-
pact of Social Security payroll taxes on the
economic system without a corresponding increase
in net income or business volume is one of the
major causes of present business recession and
the falure of the nation to get started on a sub-
stantial recovery.
Yet Congress is giving virtually no attention
to the problem of the effect of these payroll taxes.
The emphasis has been entirely on Corporation
Income taxes.
Little attention has been given also to the det-
errents and lack of incentives for the movement
of idle capital. It is generally agreed that small
businesses need capital, if not long term credit,
though, when a large business floats a loan in
the bond market, the terms "capital" and long
term "credit" seem to be synonymous. The banks

usually say that what the small business man
should do is to go find someone to invest with
him on a capital basis. But the "someone" of
yesteryears has vanished, because most men of
wealth prefer not to take risks when there is so
little in it for them.
justification of the unwieldy, episodic technique
and which, being totally unnecessary, strikes a
false note. The human drama potentially has
sufficient power to grip the audience.
The reviewer regrets that space does not allow
the enumeration of the many qualities of the
play which indicate the considerable talent and
technical resources of the authors; their merits
they themselves know, criticism can be help-
ful. But the greatest tribute to their achieve-
ment is that despite all the deficiencies, the play
holds interest from beginning to end because of
the briskness and professional smoothness of
the dialogue, and because of the skillful transi-
tions from drama to comedy to serious drama
again. They show sureness in the handling of
the crises, certainly the test of a good dramatist.
For the production we can find only words
of praise; a bit slow getting started, the pace
soon became adjusted to the emotional ebb and

The Editor
Gets Told .. .
Something Spivak Forgot
To the Editor:
We personally admire Mr. Spivak
for his investigations on foreign
armies in America, but we feel that
he has not explained any method we
may use to counteract these secret
forces that are attempting to destroy
our democracy. Also we feel that he
omitted several important facts that
we have known to be existent for
some time and that were printed some
time ago in several publications.
Mr.hSpivak emphasized the point
that the Bund leaders and spies were
paid by foreign governments, but he
did not emphasize the fact that the
Bunds themselves receive subsidies
from the foreign governments. Ac-
cording to one publication these so-
called German American Bunds re-
ceive information through the Ger-
man Steamship agencies-the Hapag
Lloyd Company and the North Ger-
man Lloyd. Also the foreign tourist
bureaus are very valuble sources of
propaganda, the Italian ENIT and
German Tourist Agency.
Every Italian in American has a
dual citizenship. Although he swears
allegiance to the American flag in
the eyes of Italy he is always an
Italian. This can be proven by the
fact that if an Italian returns to
Italy he can be seized for military
service, and Il Duce once decreed that
all Italians are to remain Italian
citizens. It is true that no Italian will
openly admit allegiance to Il Duce or
his government, but in the eyes of
the Italian government they are sup-
posed to obey the laws of Il Duce and
Mr. Spivak also failed to emphasize
the strength of the Italian Fascist
machine in South America and
Canada. He completely ignored the
British Empire. We wonder if this is
because the Fascists have not gained
a grip or if they are not important
enough to bother with?
Being a Canadian I am fairly well
informed with the Fascist reactions
in Canada. It is true as Time stated
that the French-Canadians of Quebec
are strong Fascists. They are aided by
their Latin companions, the Italians,
in several cities and sections of
Canada. The Italians aid their cause
by the organizations of Fasciohouses
and schools. In these schools only
Italian is spoken and although they
are only supposed to be culutural
there is always some propaganda in-
Also, having been affiliated with
several Italian functions and being
closely related to the Italians in an
American city we believe we have
sufficient evidence to state that the
Italians are very strong in South
America. According to Mr. Spivak,
only the Germans work in South
America, but we are certain there are
several Italian colonies in South
America. These colonies-so-called
by the Italian Government-are cities
of Italians only. They are small sec-
tions of Italy transplanted in South
America. Brazil and Argentina have
several of these colonies. They have
their own school systems, city govern-
ments, police and fire departments,
etc., all modeled after their Italy.
In these sections the Italian Youth1
Movement is very popular and strong.
The Italian Youth Movement in
Canada and South America is simi-
lar in many ways. They have their
black shirt organizations in both
countries. They have teams, football,
basketball, and bocci, very well organ-
ized and have inter-city competitions.
They have their own school systemsl
where they learn only Italian. They
have hiking and bicycling clubs.
We recently read that Argentina

granted the Italian Government per-
mission to build an air base in Argen-
tina for the purpose of establishing an
air line to South America. Perhaps
this line shall be purely commercial,
but the least we can do is hope that
they won't send over their air squad-
rons a rotectors for the mail planes.
A Canadian and a
South American
Save The WPA
To the Editor:
How to keep Fascism out of the
United States:
The less we spend on the poor, the
unemployed and the WPA, the more
discontent will there be in this coun-,
try-hence the more danger of Fas-
cism. It is well known that one of the
prime factors for the rise of Hitler-
ism was the poverty and suffering of
the German people. The only way to
save American Democracy is to con-
quer poverty.
-M. Levi
To the Editor:
Congratulations on two recent Daily'
editorials-that by Joe Gies on Fasc-
ism and Hervie Haufler on the New'
Peace ]ill.
-G. Volkman
Wolverine To Sponsor
Social Hour Tomorrow

(Continued from Page 2)
Charles Baird Tower, Sunday, March
19 at 4:15 p.m.
Exhibition of Modern Book Art:,
Printing and Illustration, held under
the sponsorship of the Ann Arbor
Art Association. Rackham Building,
third floor Exhibition Room; daily
except Sunday, 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.;
through March 25.
Exhibition of Prints from the Col-
lection of Mrs. William A. Comstock
and Water Colors by Eliot O'Hara,
presented by the Ann Arbor Art As-
sociation. Rackham Building, third!
floor Exhibition Rooms, daily except
Sunday from 2 to 5 p.m., March 7
through March 21.1
Botanical Photographic Exhibit:
An exhibit of photographs of botani-
cal subjects will be on display in the
West Exhibit Room of the Rackham
Because of interest in the photo-
graphs of botanical subjects the ex-
hibit will continue to .be on display
daily except Sunday from 9 a.m. to,
10 p.m.
Museum of Classical Archaeology:7
Special exhibit of terracotta figurines,
baskets, harness and rope from the
University of Michigan Excavations
in Egypt.

Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President until 3:30 P.M.;
11:00 A.M. on Saturday.

p.m. Sunday for social hour and sup-
per. Rev. Frederick Schiotz, Stu-
dent Secretary of the American Lu-
theran Conference will speak at 6:45.
All girls who have petitioned for
frosh project will be automatically
accepted for positions on commit-
tees, however all eligible freshmen
women may apply.
Those girls interested in such po-
sitions should check their names on
the lists in the Undergraduate Office.
They should check the exact com-
mittee they wish to be on, before
Monday, March 20 at 5 p.m.
Girls wishing to apply should leave
their phone numbers in the Under-
graduate Office also.
The principles of social ethics as
they have been developed and ap-
plied by religious organizations will
be discussed in three open forums
at Lane Hall beginning Tuesday,
March 21. The speakers on three
successive Tuesdays will be Dr. Ra-
binowitz of Hillel Foundation, Father
Kennedy of the Sacred Heart Sem-
inary, Detroit, and Dr. Van Tuinen
of the Department of Philosophy.
Monday Evening Dramatic Club:
Faculty Women's Club, Monday night
at 7:30 at the 'Union. This is "Hus-
'band's Night." Everyone come.
Swimming, Women Students: Re-
creational swimming for all women
on campus is offered by the Michi-
gan Women's Swimming Club at 4
o'clock every Monday afternoon at
the Union Pool. This includes in-
struction in swimming, and diving,
and water games.
First Congregational Church:
Rev. Leonard A. Parr.
10:45 a.m. Morning Worship, Dr.
Parr will preach on: "The Mirror of
Christ's Mind." IV "His Idea of Sin."
5:30 p.m. Ariston League will meet
at 5:30 for supper after which there
will be a period of devotions followed
by a talk on "Adventures in Sumatra"
by Prof. H. H. Bartlett.
6 p.m. Student Fellowship' will
meet at six o'clock. Following the
supper hour the Pastor will give a
brief Lenten study in "Christian Es-
sentials," and then Prof. Parker of
the Dept. of Philosophy will give the
address of the evening on "Human


PHenry Russel Lecture for 1938-39:
Professor Campbell Bonner, Chair-
man of the Department of Greek, will
deliver the Henry Russel Lecture for
1938-39, on the subject, "Sophocles,
Aristotle, and the 'Tired Business
Man," at 4:15 p.m., Wednesday,
March 22, in the Rackham Amphithe-
atre. The announcement of the Henry
Russel Award for 1938-39 will be made
at this time. The public is cordially
G-Man Lecture. The Graduate Stu-
dent Council presents a free lecture
by Drane Lester, First Assistant to J.
Edgar Hoover, Monday night at 7:30,
March 20, in the Rackham Building.
All who are interested are cordially
invited to attend.
Electrical Engineering, Phyics: Dr.
J. o. Perrine of the American Tele-
phone and Telegraph Company will
give a demonstration lecture on
"Waves, Words and Wires," Monday,
March 20, 1939, in the West Physics
Lecture Room, 7:30 p.m. A cordial
invitation is extended to the public.
Events Today
Varsity Glee Club: Final rehearsal
for the broadcast will be held at 10
a.m. today. If it is impossible to be
at the rehearsal because of classes,
try to come at 11. This rehearsal is
especially important because final
adjustments are to be made by the
CBS engineer.
We have been asked to be in the
ballroom of the Union at 2:45 p.m.
for the broadcast. Go directly to the
Open House at Lane Hall tonight.
There will be informal conversations
in the Fireplace Room, a concert of
recorded music, and games.
The Graduate Outing Club will
meet at the Rackham Building to-
night at 7:30 p.m. and will go in a
group to The Coliseum for indoor
skating. There willsbe Open House
at the club room for those who do not
desire to skate. Refreshments will
be served when the group returns.
Coming Events
German Table for Faculty Mem-
bers: The regular luncheon meeting
will be held Monday at 12:10 p.m. in
the Founders' Room of the Michigan
Union. All faculty members interest-
ed in speaking German are cordial-
ly invited. There will be a brief in-
formal talk by Professor Norman L.
Willey on, "Ein daenischer Hamlet."
Physics Colloquium: Mr. A. Alfred
Erickson will speak on "The Spec-
trographic Determination of Lead in
Biological Materials" at the Physics
Colloquium on Monday, March 20 at
4:15 in Room 1041 E. Physics Bldg.
Tau Beta Pi. The pledge meeting
will be held at the Union Sunday,
March 19, at 4:15 p.m. Please bring
your copy of the Constitution.
The problem of the German refu-
gees will be discussed by Dr. Albert
Martin at the Michigan Union Ball-
room, Monday, 4:15 p.m. Dr. Mar-
tin has been in charge of the Quaker
Center in Berlin during the past two
years and in intimate touch with the
refugee problem.
Anti-War Strike. This year the
national students' strike against war
will be held on April 20. Plans for
the demonstration on the University
of Michigan campus are under way

First Church of Christ, Scientist,
409 So. Division St.
Sunday service at 10:30.
Subject: "Matter."
Golden Text: Exodus 20:7.
Sunday School at 11:45.
First lMethodist Church. 19orning
worship service at 10:40 o'clock. Dr.
C. W. Brashares will preach on "The
Meet Today."
Stalker Hall. 9:45 a.m. Class at
Stalker Hall.
6 p.m. Wesleyan Guild meeting at
the Church. This will be the sum-
mary meeting following the discus-
sion groups on "Peace," "Labor,"
"Cooperatives," and "The Church
and the Student." Fellowship hour
and supper following meeting.
First Presbyterian Church, 1432
Washtenaw Ave.
10:45 a.m., Morning Worship Serv-
ice. The Rev. Willis L. Gelston, D.D.,
of the Highland Park Presbyterian
Church will preach on the topic
"Turning, Defeat Into Victory." Pal-
mer Christian at the organ and di-
recting the choir.
The Westminster Guild: 6 p.m.,
Westminster Guild, student group,
will meet for supper and a fellow-
ship hour. Four groups dealing with
the following subjects: "The Church
in Germany," "Comparative Reli-
gions: .Confucianism," "Personality
Development" and "Approaches in
Public Worship" will meet simultan-
eously at seven o'clock.
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church, Sun-
day: 8 a.m. Holy Communion; 9 a.m.
.Breakfastand Study Group for Stu-
dents, Harris Hall; 9:30 a.m. Junior
Church; 11 a.m. Kindergarten; 11
a.m. Order of Confirmation with Ser-
mon by the Rt. Rev. Frank W. Creigh-
ton, Bishop Coajutor of the Diocese
of Michigan; 4 p.m. Confirmation
Tea, Harris Hall; 7 p.m. Confirmation
meeting, Harris Hall. Speaker: The
Rev. Robt. Woodroofe of Christ
Church, Cranbrook. Topic: Chris-
tian Living, Low Church Technique.
Unitarian Church, State and Hu-
ron Sts. 11 a.m. Service: Rev. H. P.
Marley will speak on "Ossietzky-A
German Martyr."
8 p.m. Liberal Students' Union-
Disciples Guild (Church of Christ).
10:45 a.m. Morning Worship, Rev.
Frederick Cowin, Minister.




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