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December 15, 1937 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1937-12-15

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New York's P. R. Poll Viewd
By Student Of Election System

It Seems To Me




e nn- r-em -,----~
Li ._._ iwy j 'D 4Th LofS1X n' 4 3 ~ n jgHMUMKjIG..WA .60 4-esa xn~gunuru
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
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rights of republication of all other matter herein also
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan as
second class mail matter.
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$4.00; by mail, $4.50.
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1937-38
REPfEENTi rO FQIR t .- ...-
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Board of Editors
SPORTS EDITOR ......................IRVIN LISAGOR
Business Department


The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers

Tom Mooney In The
Land Of The Free..

O F ALL THE CAUSES celebres that
have served to shock man from his
torpor none can ever merit the brilliant page in
history than the story of Tom Mooney.
A selfish group of people sent this man into
21 years of the torture of existence behind iron
bars while he and those who sent him there know
conclusively that he is an innocent man.
He is as innocent as Captain Dreyfus-cleared
in the eyes of the world, justified only by the
force of public opinion stirred up by Zola and
other true lovers of justice and democracy.
Tom Mooney has never been any more guilty
of that for which he was convicted than Sacco,
and Vanzetti, victims too of a selfish social
order that in its hysteria simply had "to find
someone to pay."
This labor leader who was unimpeachable, in-
corruptible in his loyalty to what he believed in,
after 21 long, dreary years in a California jail,
will finally have an opportunity to stand before
the eyes of his people in~all his innocence when
his case comes up soon before the United States
Supreme Court on a writ of habeas corpus. His
lawyers will claim that he was denied the due
process of law when he was convicted.
A subcommittee of the Senate judiciary com-
mittee is scheduled to begin public investigation
today of the resolution asking the governor of
California to pardon Mooney, whose two de-
cades, a whole generation, in jail, was spent
because he was convicted on evidence universally
accepted as false. What a devastating commen-
tary on "the land of liberty and justice for all."
That Mooney was convicted on perjured evi-
dence has been affirmed by Judge Griffin, who
presided at the trial, by the nine out of the ten
living jurors who convicted Mooney, by the cap-
tain of detectives and the captain of police who
prepared the evidence against him.
Read what government officials said of the
trials: John B. Densmore, former United States
director of employment, said in a report to Sec-
retary of Labor William B. Wilson,
"The reading of the testimony is apt to
cause one to wonder at many things. These
things are calculated to cause in the minds
of the most blase a decided mental rebellion."
The Wickersham Commission under President
Hoover denounced the laws under which Mooney
and his friend Billings were convicted as "shock-
in: to one's sense of justice."
"Gigantic frameup" is what the trials were
called by Draper Hand, a San Francisco officer
Who tutored witnesses for the prosecutor.
So important has the case become that a gov-
ernor of a great state visited Mooney in his cell
last week. That man was the fearless governor
of Minnesota,. Gov. Elmer Benson.
No more fitting words than his can be uttered
on this great miscarriage of justice.
When certain people in powerful positions
wanted Mooney in prison-wanted to get rid
of him, because he was what they termed a
labor agitator-it was possible to start the
machinery of government working with a
clocklike precision to get him there. Now,
however, that he has been proven innocent,
it has been found impossible to start the
machinery of government moving again with
equal speed and precision to make him a free
The mills of justice indeed grind slowly.
But I want to say quite categorically-and

On Nov. 3, 1936, over 40 million American
voters trooped to polling booths all over the
United States to re-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt as
President, to choose governors, senators, con-
gressmen, and countless other public officials
and to settle local issues ranging from million-
dollar bond issues to Sunday movies. Among
these local issues was one upon which the voters
of New York City were asked to express their
collective will-a new city charter for New York.
This proposed new city charter was the result
of the investigations conducted by Samuel Sea-
bury into the ramifications of Tammany-con-
trolled government in America's largest city, in-
vestigations which led to the resignation and
flight from America of Mayor Jimmy Walker and
to the defeat, in 1933, of the Democratic organ-
ization by a Fusion anti-Tammany coalition
headed by Fiorello H. LaGuardia. Soon after his
election as chief executive of New York, Mayor
LaGuardia named a Charter Commission, head-
ed by Thomas D. Thacher, to draft and submit
to the electorate a new charter for the city,
and it was the work of this Comniission which
was voted upon in the 1936 general election. The
Charter Commission, beside drafting a new in-
strument of government for the urban area, de-
cided to submit to the voters a new system of
election by which the members of the City
Council-known under the old charter as the
Board of Aldermen-would be chosen.
P.R. Measures Political Views
This new system, Proportional Representation,
or simply "P.R.," devised to secure a City Council
representing the voters in proportion to the
strength of their various political views, as
measured by their numbers, was placed before
the electors as a separate issue, apart from the
City Charter as a whole, and provision was made
in the Charter itself for the use of the old system
of election should P.R. fail to be adopted by the
city's voters. This provision was never used, how-
ever, for P.R. was approved by a 375,000 ma-
jority and the City Charter. by a margin only
slightly less.
These two reform measures were approved by
New York's electorate despite the opposition of
the Democratic machines in all five of the bo-
roughs into which the New York area is divided.
Though the Democratic candidates for Presi-
dent, Governor, and various other state and local
offices received huge majorities, P.R. and the new
City Charter were also successful in obtaining
the support of the voters. In part, this was due
to the continuing reaction in New York against
Tammany and all for which it stood as a menace
to decent government, combined with a feeling
that these new ideas represented something new
in reformism which certainly could be no worse
than the old machine-dominated governmental
system. In part, the adoption of the new City
Charter and P.R. was due to the activities of a
rather small group of reform leaders in conduct-
ing a pro-Charter, pro-P.R. campaign. In part,
it was due to the fact that the politicians, though
they had told the faithful party cohorts to op-
pose P.R. and the Charter (and by so doing had
made as many votes for the P.R.-Charter mea-
sures as against them), were unable to conduct
a very vigorous anti-reform campaign because
of their preoccupation with the national, state,
and local campaigns. Their activity, as far as
continuous routine campaigning was concerned,
was largely desultory and last-minute in char-
acter. Despite court attacks both before and
after the decision of the voters was rendered,
P.R. was never effectively challenged on consti-
tutional grounds (as in California and Michigan)
and was used to elect the New York City Council
in the November, 1937, city election.t
N.Y.'s Modified Hare System
Briefly, the system of P.R. established in New
York-a modified Hare system-provides that
the voter, instead of casting a single vote (by
marking a cross or pulling down a lever) for one
of two candidates for the Councilmanic post in
the particular district in which he resides, votes
a series of choices from among a list of candi-
dates seeking election from the borough in which
the voter lives, each of the city's five boroughs
forming a single election district for this pur-
pose. The voter is handed a special Councilmanic
ballot containing the names of all the candidates
in his borough, this list of candidates in the last

election varying from 99 in Brooklyn to seven in
Richmond (Staten Island). From this list he
selects the name of the candidate whom he
would like most to see sit on the City Council
and marks the figure one before the name of
that candidate on the ballot. In front of the
name of his second choice for Councilman he
places the figure two, before his third choice the
figure three, and so on, marking as many choices
as he wishes. After the close of the polls, these
ballots are collected from the various polling
places in each borough and are brought together
at a central counting place-one for each bo-
rough. In these central counting places-usually
armories-the ballots are counted as to the first
choice marked on each. When all the ballots
have been so separated and the total number of
valid votes cast in each borough is known, the
various boroughs are given seats on the City
Council in the ratio of one for each 75,000 valid
closed. You may keep Tom Mooney's body
Moldering in his cell until death overtakes
him, but you cannot keep Tom Mooney's
spirit from taking wings over the nation
and haunting American public life with the
cry for justice. Mooney must be given a full
and unconditional pardon.
Edward Magdol.

votes cast, with an extra seat for a remainder of
at least 50,000. Each borough is guaranteed at
least one member, a proviso inserted in the P.R.
law to provide Richmond, smallest of the New
York boroughs, with representation which it
might not otherwise possess. Under this system
Brooklyn, which cast 695,021 valid ballots, elect-
ed nine Councilmen, its proper proportion of the
total membership of 26, the latter figure being
determined by adding the number of members
to which each borough is entitled under the op-
eration of the one-member-for-every-75,00-
votes rule.
New Apportioning Method Used
This system of a Council of varying size, based
on the number of votes cast ensures that, while
the total number of members may vary, the old
apportionment which gave extra seats to Man-
hattan while under-representing Queens, Brook-
lyn and the Bronx is done away with for a sys-
tem of continuous re-apportionment. With this
continuous re-apportionment the evils of gerry-
mandering and under-representation of newly
populated areas are ended, and each borough is
given a number of City Council members com-
mensurate with the total vote cast in that bor-
If, during the counting of first choice votes,
any candidate manages to secure at least 75,000
of these first choice votes-the quota necessary
for election-he is at once declared elected, and
subsequent ballots marked with his name as first
choice are credited to the second choice marked
thereon. This particular provision did not ef-
fect any of the Council members elected in the
November balloting, for no candidate obtained
the requisite quota of first choice ballots, all
members being elected on the votes transferred
from defeated candidates. Once the count of
first choice votes is finished, candidates with less
than 2,000 first choices are declared defeated.
'Their ballots are transferred to the second choice
marked upon each one of them, it being pre-
sumed that ,the voter's first choice being unable
to secure election, he would wish to see his sec-
ond choice benefit from his particular ballot; if
his second choice were beaten, he would wish
his third choice to benefit from his vote, and so
on down the list of choices which the voter
has marked upon his ballot. If the number of
members to which a borough is entitled is still
not filled, then the lowest remaining candidate
is declared defeated, and his ballots are trans-
ferred as were those of candidates with under
. 2,000 first choice votes. This process continues
until the necessary number of candidates have
obtained a total of 75,000 first and transfer votes
each, or until all but the necessary number of
Council members have been eliminated.
Politicians Try To Block P.R.
During the various court fights brought by
the opponents of P.R. to stop the application of
the proportional principle to New York City, it
became obvious that the politicians were seeking
to eliminate P.R. and return to the old system of
65 Aldermanic districts, the candidates for the
seats in which could be hand-picked by the ma-
chine. though the voter might not wish to see
either of the party hacks seeking his franchise
actually sitting in office. The Board of Elec-
tions, consisting of two Democrats and two Re-
publicans, each nominated by their respective
party machines, delayed until the last minute
making any of the necessary administrative ar-
rangements to make P.R. effective, evidently hop-
ing against hope that the courts would rule it out
on some grounds. In the selection of proper
personnel to count the ballots at the five borough
central counting stations, the Board of Elec-
tions took no steps whatever to obtain trained
persons until finally the Municipal Civil Service
Commission stepped in to insist on some sort of
examination being given to prospective counters,
to determine if they had any qualifications for
the job they were to do. These elections officials,
.nominated again by the Democratic and Re-
publican machines, were found to be woefully
weak in even a rudimentary knowledge of the
P. R. system which they were supposed to ad-
minister, and it was necessary to lower the pass-
ing grade on the examination so that the requisite
number of politically-backed election officials
could be secured.

Borough Halls Scenes Of Fights
During the count itself, the borough counting
halls were frequently the scenes of wild alterca-
tions between various officials, counters, and
candidates. Starting on their counting job very
slowly, evidently seeking to prolong their ten-
dollar-per-day job as long as possible, the can-
vassers set up a tremendous protest when some
of their number were discharged for soldiering
on the job. In some cases it was necessary to
keep continuous check on the counters to see that
they got their work done and to cover the clocks
lest they spend their time in clock-gazing. Pro-
gressing slowly due to the inefficiency of the po-
litically-appointed counters and to apparent ef-
forts at sabotage by the politicians, the ,count
was further disturbed when some thousands of
ballots cast in the Bronx were impounded for
alleged fraud, the count in that borough could be
photostated for examination by experts. In one
borough police were kept on duty to check sus-
pected malpractices; in another a canvasser was
discharged when it was discovered he was a rela-
tive of one of the candidates. What with
stupidity and inefficiency on the one hand and
sabotage and fraud on the other, it is to be
wondered that the count was ever finished. For
the 1939 election it is planned to have P.R. voting
machines available to cut down the time taken in
counting by 75 or 80 per cent, and, if it is pos-

STAMFORD, Conn., Dec. 13. -
Forty-nine years passed and in that1
time I never received a college degree,1
attained an elective political office, or
achieved any community honor what-t
soever. Things looked pretty black.c
Newspaper comrades such ast
Swope, Woollcott and Adams became
doctors of philosophy, literature and
An old radio buddy, Bruce Barton,
who used to be on my General Elec-
tric program, got elected to Congress.
A girl who was in the chorus of
"Shoot the Works" received honor-
able mention in the All-Arizona
Bathing Beauty Contest. A lad at
whom I used to scream "Copy,' was
voted the fifth most successful sce-
nario writer in Hollywood.
My mother was just nosed out for
the vice-presidency of the D.A.R.,
and is still demanding a recount on
the ground that the dirty so and so
ganged up on her. My sister be-
came a leading figure in the Demo-
cratic machine in Larchmont, N.Y.,
and my son is third assistant man-
ager of the football team at Swarth-
more, Pa. Uncle Frank was a dele-
gate to the last district convention of
the Lions, and the Grand Jury in-
dicted Aunt Fifi.
' * *
Outside The Laurels
But I remained in the ranks, un-
honored and unsung with never a
medal or a decoration with which to
bless myself. Visitors sometimes re-
mark the large gold wash vase which
stands upon the high shelf in the stu-
dio, but when they examine the in-
scription they find that it was award-
ed by the New York Daily News for a
chorus girls long driving contest. And
then they sniff, and assume that I
married just to get possession of my
wife's dowry.
Imagine my surprise and pleasure
when the morning's mail informed
that I was invited by the Stamford
Community ChristmashDecoration
Committee to be one "of a limited
number of special guests to inspect
the illuminated areas." And more
than that, my invitation isn't mimeo-
graphed but personally addressed.

On The Level

"A sight-seeing tour will start from
Leighton's Half Way House on the
Poast Road at the Stamford-Darien.
Town line at 6:30 p.m. stopping at
the Stamford Town Hall for shortl
community exercises, and hence to
the Yacht Club."
Rights For Ment
This is the night I'm going to de-
mand a latch key or else. Naturally
I hope that the phrase "limited num-
ber" will be rigorously defined in
regard to us special guests.
The Stamford Community Christ-
mas Decoration Committee itself con-
sists of a mere handful of public
spirited citizens. There are only 58
members, beginning with "Belmont,
Gus," and ending with "Woitke, Miss
I am as democratic as the next fel-
low, I hope, but if they attempt to
put anything more than a couple of
hundred special guests into the bus,
one member of the limited number
will refuse to ride.
Stamford isn't such a big town. Asj
a guest it is not within my privilege
to attempt to run the show, but there
shouldn't be any objections to a few
consructive suggestions. The caval-
cade should be routed in such a way
as to pass the homes of various prom-
inent citizens who failed, for one rea-
son or another, to get invited. Before
each such house we should stop for a
minute to sing a Christmas carol, and
then give the occupants a fish horn
salute as we shout, "You didn't make
Hatbands would be unseasonable,
but the S.C.C.D.C. should provide
those of us whom it delights to honor
with green brassards and the red in-
itials L.N.O.S.G. standing, of course,
for limited Number of Special Guests.
And before we quit the Yacht Club we
should organize.
In the days to come when friends:
assail my ears with the clanking of
Phi Beta Kappa keys, I will smile
serenely, for I will be buoyed up withI
the snooty feeling that not one of
these educational royalists belongs to
Stamford's exclusive Two Hundred.

Sam Krugliak and Waldo Abbot Jr.
win the most embarrassing predica-
ment of the week for their sojourn to
Detroit to buy dice for the new
"Michigarg" game. They parked their
car in the wrong spot and it was
hauled to the pound by cops. After
they had located their car, the boys
approached the cop in charge and
told him that they were "two boys
who are working our way through
college, and we came all the way
from Ann Arbor to buy 2,000 pairs of
They had to do more explaining
than Einstein, but the cops finally let
them go.
The two worst puns of the year
are attributed to a couple of
Duke students who were over-
heard while leaving the stadium
after Pittsburgh had beaten Duke
10 to 0. The first said, "Pitt is
a horrid word."
And the secondustudenthadded,
"Yeah, and to quote another old
adage, 'Silence is Goldberg'."
* * *
The biggest laugh of the week
comes from Ohio Wesleyan where a
group of students were on a crimin-
ology tour through the U.S. Indus-
trial Reformatory at Chillicothe, and
one of the prisoners yelled out
through the bars, "Is there a Phi
Gam in the crowd? That's my frac!"
The most glorious sacrifice of
Scare Headlines
To the Editor:
It is a well known fact that when
reading a newspaper one should at-
tempt to use his intelligence in in-
terpretation of the news. The Unit-
ed States has beenforced into more
~than one war by newspaper propa-
ganda concerning the sinking of a
vessel. Although conditions may not
4 be so crucial at this point, later de-
velopments may prove to be.
The scare headlines as used by De-
troit papers in publication of the in-
cident of the sinking of an American
ship in Japanese waters have a
marked influence on public" opinion.
In fact, a certain professor on cam-
pus told his classes today that the
U.S. has been disgraced by acting as
it has over this affair; and that we
should take action through arms, if
necessary, to prevent recurrences of
this kind in the future. Such an at-
titude is typical of the reader who
does not think intelligently while
reading news stories, but whose emo- l

the week was made by a Detroit
minister who refused an offer to
'have his sermons sponsored over
the radio. The offer was refused,
according to the minister, because
the sponsoring company wanted
to substitute the name of their
product in place of "Amen."

WEDNESDAY, DEC. 15, 1937
VOL. XLVIII. No. 68.
To Members of the University
Staff: Those who have not yet filled
out and returnedrthe confidential
personnel blanks are urged to do so
before the holiday vacation. The
contemplated study cannot be start-
ed until the blanks are all returned
and it is therefore hoped that those
blanks not yet in our hands will be
sent in at once. A. G. Ruthven.
The Automobile Regulation will be
lifted for the Christmas vacation
period from 12 noon on Friday, Dec.
17, 1937 until 8 a.m. on Monday, Jan.
3, 1938.
Office of the Dean of Students.
Closing hour for women, including
freshmen, is 10:30 p.m. on Thursday,
Dec. 16. Dean Alice C. Lloyd.
Presidents of Fraternities and Sor-
orities are reminded that member-
ship lists for the month of November
are due on Dec. 15 in the Office of the
Dean of Students.
To Mmbers of the Faculty, Staff,
and Student Body: Attention of
everyone is called to the Lost and
Foundepartment in the Business Of-
fice, Room 1, University' Hall. In-
quiry concerning lost articles should
be made promptly at the above men-
tioned office. Articles found on the
campus and in University buildings
should be turned over immediately.
Those articles not called for within
60 days will be surrendered to the
finder. Shirley W. Smith.
Women Students desiring work in
private homes during the Christmas
vacation please communicate with
Mrs. Bacher, Office of the Dean of
SWomen as soon as possible.
Pre-Forestry and 'Forestry Stu-
dents: Announcement is made of the
annual contest for the Charles Lath-
rop Pack Foundation Prize in For-
estry, the conditions for which may
be secured from the Recorder of the
'School of Forestry and Conservation,
2048 Natural Science Building, Top-
ics, which may be decided upon in
consultation with members of the
faculty of the School, must be filed in
the office of the Recorder not later
than Dec. 18, 1937.
The Bureau has received notice of
the following Civil Service Examina-
Naval Architect, $3,800 a-year; U.S.
Maritime Commission.
Assistant Marketing Specialist
1Meat Grader), $2,600 a year; Bu-
reau of Agricultural Economics, De-
partment of Agriculture. .
Senior Physiologist (Poultry), $4,-
600 a year; Physiologist (Poultry),
$3,800 a year; Associate Physiologist
(Poultry), $3,200 a year; Assistant
I Physiologist (Poultry), $2,600 a year;
Bureau of Animal Industry, Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
Principal Consultant in Child Wel-
fare Services, $5,600 a year; Prin-
cipal Consultant in Medical ;Social
Work for Children, $5,600 a year;
Children's Bureau, Department of
Assistant Fisheries Statistical and
Marketing Agent, $1,800 a year; Jun-
ior Fisheries Statistical and Market-
ing Agent, $1,620 a year; Bureau of
Fisheries, Department of Commerce.
For further information, please call
at the Office, 201 Mason Hall.
Bureau of Appointments and
Occupational Information.
Comprehensive Examination in Ed-
ucation: All candidates for the
Teacher's Certificate are required to
pass a Comprehensive Examination
in Education, covering the fields of

work definitely prescribed therefor.
Such an examination will be held
Saturday, Jan. 8, 1938, from 9 to 1
o'clock (and again from 2 to 5
o'clock) in the Auditorium of the
University High School. Students
having Saturday morning classes
will. come to the afternoon meeting.
The examination will consist of
three parts. Part 1 will be a ques-
tionnaire inquiry which will give the
School of Education important in-
formation for guidance purposes but
which in no way will affect scholastic
marks. Part II will consist of an
objective test covering matters treat-
ed in courses A10, Cl and D100. Part
III will consist of two essay type
questions dealing with applications.
The first of these questions will be
"State the philosophy of Education
which you hold, i.e., your convictions
or fundamental beliefs regarding ed-
ucation." The second of these ques-
tions will ask that you apply this
philosophy to some one or two speci-
fically stated problems of the schools.
-(These problems will be given out in
particularized form at the time of the
Student Cooperative house: All men
interested in living at the Rochdale
Student Cooperative House, 640 Ox-
ford Road, this coming semester, are
requested to fill out applications for
admission not later than Dec. 17.
Applications for admission may be
had by calling for them at the House.
,W .f . ;'i. V nf t,


There have been a couple of rumors
-wild ones at that-in the past two
days that have upset us to a miser-
able degree. The first one dealt with
Hal Kemp and Duke Ellingtonuplay-
ing for the coming J-Hop, but the
second one iscstill more of a utopian
nature, and that is, believe it or not,
that the Interfraternity Council has
signed Jimmy Lunceford and Hud-
son-DeLange for its party, in the
early part of January.
Well, they say'it's the silly season,
but when someone says that the bril-!
liant Lunceford ensemble and the
sweet swing of Hudson-DeLange are
going to furnish the music for a
dance right here in Ann Arbor, it's
almost too good to be true.
Jimmy Lunceford, of course, will be
remembered for the great entertain-)
ment he provided for the Hop of twol
years ago. This was his-first western'
appearance, and since then he has
played before the nobility of Europe
and thousands of others in America.
The Hudson-DeLange orchestra is
the newest sensation in the East.
When you describe its music as sweet
swing the conotation is not that of
the schools of Lombardo-Garber or
Kyser-Kaye; it's the swing of real
musicians, done in a milder tone.
To the Editor:
Board in Control of Physical
Attention: Ralph Aigler, Chairman,
Ann Arbor, Mich.
Since you do not want a football
coach, may I suggest Anthony Eden,
a diplomat, for the position formerly
held by Kipke.
May I also suggest that should a
few specks of sportsmanship be left'
in the rug under your table or in the
corners of your room, that they be
placed on a culture plate. You need1
anything they will produce.
G.O.P. Picking Comnmittee
To Draft Party Program
ST. LOUIS, Dec. 14.-(M-The Re-

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