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February 17, 1938 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1938-02-17

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THURS AY, FEB, 17, 1918

TfTE MTCRIGfAN fDAILY ..UN.. L..... s a.4 .4

" '""' 1 11 L' 111 1. \..o ll: 1 R!..lA. . .L+ +'s. a
.

REPRESENTED POR NATIONAL ADVERTISING DY
NationalAdvertisingService, Inc.
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- Board of Editors
ANAGING EDITOR................JOSEPH S. MATTES
ITORIAL DIRECTOR ............TUURE TENANDER
TV EDITOR...................WILLIAM C. SPALLER
:W'S EDITOR..................ROBERT P~ WEEKS
)MEN'S EDITOR..................HELEN IDOUGLAS
ORTS EDITOR ......................IRVIN LISAGOR
Business Department
JINESS MANAGER ..............ERNEST A. JONES
DIT MANAGER ....................DON WILSHER
)VERTISING MANAGER ....NORMAN B. STEINBERG
OMEN'S BUSINESS MANAGER ........BETTY DAVY
OMEN'S SERVICE MANAGER ..MARGARET FERRIES
NIGHT EDITOR: ROBERT I. FITZHENRY
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
only.
he Crisis In
Lmeriean Agrieltre . .
O0 PINIONS MAY CONFLICT on the ex-
tent and seriousness of the latest
ase of the crisis confronting American industry,
tt it must be manifest to all observers that the
besetting American agriculture have taken on
the aspects of a deep-seated and apparently
rmanent malady." The agrarian element of the
pulation has, in fact, been feeling the effects of
pression since 1922 when, with the termination
the war trade, it was confronted by a con-
icting world market, over-expansion of agri-
iture to submarginal land and greater foreign
mpetition.
The condition of agriculture today is in every
ty more unsettled than it has been in the last
tiy years. Stripped of ambiguity and Qgbfus-
tion, the basic reason for the ever-increasing
basement of the agricultural order is this: the
owing of staples in America has become un-
oftable It has become unprofitable, says the
mnalist, becaue of heavy capital charges and
otective tariff system which raised the prices
bur own industrial products and at the same
ne closed our markets to the wares of other
tions
By the time President Roosevelt entered office
1933 even the most persistent of the laissez-
Vre economists and statesmen realized that
nerican agriculture had reached so serious a
lemma that unless the government actively and
.erally subsidized the farmers, the growing of
ricultural staples would have to be abandoned
an important factor of our economy. At this
Aint the horns of the dilemma become embar-
a singly discernible. Now that the surpluses of
0culture are no longer needed to pay the
,bts we accumulated while the country was a
btor nation, the manufacturers and investors
>uld welcome the economic abandonment of
,erican agriculture. To sustain agriculture to-
ysubsidization would be necessary, and sub-
ization means higher priced food stuffs and
.I materials, resulting in higher manufacturing
sts; in addition, sustained agriculture would
ake it difficult for debtor nations, whose chief
'oducts are agricultural commodities, to repay
eir loans or to make new borrowings from us.
These interests, however, are not ready to
>mpetely abandon agriculture. They are well
rare that to maintain a nationalist economy
aples of food, cotton and wool are necessary,
articularly to insure against the day when na-
'al security might be threatened. Thus the
radoxical clamoings of the "Cotton Ed"
miths for Federal subsidy of cotton but state
mtrol of industry and labor. Not prepared to
rop the policy of nationalism because of certain
ractical difficulties, and unable to eliminate
xriculture because of this adherence to national-
m and of humanitarian considerations, legisla-
rs have been forced to compromise.
To the New Dealers, valiantly if ineffectually
eking the elusive "balance," the answer was the
pplication of, that perennial economic sinecure,
he "just price." Restoration of the purchasing
ower of the agricultural population has not only
een the guiding principle of all the Roosevelt
ar'n relief measures, but has also been the moor-

ng from which the entire country was to be
anched into another wave of prosperity.
In general outline the measure currently passed
y Congress follows the same pattern of all the
Jew Deal farm bills and, unfortunately, con-
ains the same inevitable inconsistencies and va-
illations. The measure provides that the Sec-
etary of Agriculture, in cooperation with farmer
ommittees, may prescribe limitations upon the
luantity of wheat, corn, rice and tobacco grown

economic platitude that acreage reduction is not
synonymous with yield production. Secondly,
higher farm prices in no wise implies an increased
rise in the real income of farmers if non-agri-
cultural products also -continue to rise in price.
The conviction of many citizens that these sub-
sidization and regulatory measures are definite
steps in the direction of complete governmental
control, is to a large extent well-grounded. Al-
though we may still regard these bills as tem-
porary expedients rather than the entering
wedges of general economic regimentation, the
trend toward such regulation is apparent, and
raises the fundamental problem, unanswered by
the New Deal, of reconciling that process with
political democracy and individual freedom.
Of ever-increasing importance is the growing
conviction among farmers and economists that
the New Deal program for recovery and reform
in agriculture is unsatisfactory and misdirected.
It is aimed at the destruction of agricultural effi-
ciency. It tends toward an economy of scarcity
when what is desperately needed is an economy of
abundance. Furthermore, although "subsistence
homesteads" on a smale scale may have some
temporary alleviating influence, the Administra-
tion has made no satisfactory provision for the
3,000,000 small dependent farmers, who, if present
tendencies continue, will be driven off their hold-
ings and onto the already tremendous army of
the industrial unempoyed.
Elliott Maraniss.
As Others See It
A Fortunate Decision
The decision of the National Child Labor Com-
mittee to work for the enactment of new child-
labor legislation by the present Congress is a
fortunate and significant development in the
long fight to rid the United States of the exploi-
tation of children in industry. The national
committee, from its headquarters in New York,
has directed the campaign for ratification of the
14-year-old amendment proposal.
The committee reaffirms its belief in the
amendment method as a means of removing any
question as to the authority of Congress to legis-
late in the child-labor field, but this conviction
is not to stand longer in the way of possible solu-
tion of the child-labor problem through more
immediate attack by Congress. The committee,
in a statement issued by its general secretary,
Courtenay Dinwiddie, expresses the belief that
the Supreme Court today would uphold a Federal
child-labor law based on the right of Congress to
regulate interstate commerce. This same con-
tention has appeared many times in the Post-
Dispatch. The first child-labor law was declared
unconstitutional in 1918-20 years ago-and by
the close margin of 5 to 4. There is every reason
to believe that the views expressed in the mem-
orable dissent of Justice Holmes in that case
would now prevail.
The National Child Labor Committee has taken
a wise step. With its support behind immediate
legislation, the joint bill of Senators Wheeler and
Johnson (Colo.) should be one of the first enact-
ments of the present session.
-St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
Foreign Students
There are 10,093 students from foreign coun-
tries studying in the United States this year, ac-
cording to a survey by the Committee on Friendly
Relations among Foreign Students.
Of these, approximately one-fourth, 2531, are
Japanese. Then there are 2003 Chinese, 1615
Canadians, and groups of more than 300 from
each of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Cuba and
Germany. The other countries have fewer than
300 youths studying here.
It would be interesting to learn just what
kind of ideas these students really take home
with them after an education or partial education
in the United States. Even more interesting
would be to learn with some degree of accuracy
the effect these ideas have on their countrymen,
especially in such a war-making country as Japan.
-Ohio State Latern.

1/feeinrtoMe
Heywood Broun
MIAMI, Fla., Feb. 16.-Hague is here, but he
doesn't seem to be boasting about it. The Mayor
of Jersey City has made no public appearances.
He has been passing his vacation even more quiet-
ly than could be expected. It is true that he has
visited the race track. After all, it has been writ-
ten that our Hitler neither
smokes nor drinks nor tells
dirty stories. So austere a
dictator must have some re-
laxation, and it is rumored
that Frank Hague will make
a bet if the price is right. Un-
fortunately, I am not in a
position to affirm or deny the
rumor, because the Mayor
has watched the horses only
from the most restricted section of Hialeah.
There is a saying among racing fans that all
men are equal on the turf or under it. But only
the last part of the statement is true. At all
American tracks which I know it is customary to
divide the patrons into grandstand goats and
clubhouse sheep. Hialeah is even more intricate
in its caste system. There are wheels within
wheels.
Quickly Moved From Hague Spot
In spite of Mr. Green's dictum to the contrary,
Frank Ortell got me a badge as a member of "The
Working Press." Indeed, a waiter said to me the
other day. "You may be interested to know that
you are sitting at the very table where William
Green sat and made his bet on Mine Boy." Na-
turally, I appealed to the headwaiter, and got
another location. I didn't think it would be lucky
to be sitting in Green's spot.
To be sure, my range of choice was limited.
Though a press badge gets the holder into the
clubhouse itself, he soon discovers that he has
not yet passed the portals of Paradise. All pa-
trons who get by the first hurdle are further sub-
divided into the lower-upper classes, the middle-
upper classes and the topmost upper class.
. Members of Group A can range around on the
lawn and the ground floor. Group B folks are
permitted to go upstairs to a gallery where it is
possible -to buy a drink. Hialeah provides only a
soft drink and light wine bar for the masses, since
they might otherwise forget themselves and make
a noise. The gallery of demi-gods is further split
by the presence of a small pen into which only
members of the Turf and Field Club are permitted
to enter. But above all this is a promenade deck
or sun porch. This I have never seen, but a jour-
nalist who was allowed to inspect it before the
season opened assures me that it is magnificent
in an extremely refined way.
Hague Sits In Glory
Hague sat at the pinnacle of Olympus, and re-
porters who wished to go upstairs, if only to peek
at the great man, were refused and told to remain
i their place with the proletariat. Accordingly,
I cannot tell you what horses Mr. Hague followed
or how he fared. All I had was a gray ticket and
a blue ticket, but not the purpose by which the
climber may crash the last barrier and attain Mr.
Widener's private porch.
Frank Hague sat there and looked down upon
the milling mob much as he has looked upon his
constituents for the last twenty years. But al-
though the crowd was not permitted to gaze
upon him, even from a distance, his presence was
felt. His aura was palpable in the gallery in-
habited by the lower-upper class. Indeed, I ob-
served a Grade B dowager remark, "You know, my
dear, Mayor Hague is here. Don't you think he
is a marvelous character?" Her voice was low, and
there was a note of reverence in it. Hague, the
mighty crusader against the Red menace, was
present. Hague was in his heaven, and so all was
right with the Hialeah Race Track.

MUSC 3
By WILLIAM J. LICHTENWANGER
Roth String Quartette
Beethoven, Quartet in F minor,
Op. 95.
Schumann, Quartet in A minor,
Op. 41, No. 1.
Dohnanyi, Quartet No. 2 in D-flat. C
Were it necessary, for some ridicu- i
lous reason, to select one out of the in
many types of instrumental and vo-
cal combinations as the supreme me-
dium of musical expression, choice
would undoubtedly fall upon the
symphony orchestra because of the
n
unrivalled variety and potentiality m
of its tonal resources. Yet there are 2
many musicians who hold that the A
string quartet, rather than the or-
chestra, is the purest and nearest to 3
perfect means of expression.
The reasons for this belief are d
founded upon the attitude, the only fr
tenable one in art, that music)should a
make its appeal frankly and sncerely b
to the aesthetic sense through the P
simple beauty and logic of its essen- J
tial properties, never prostituting its L
powers in mere amusement or in the c
imitation of reality or the other arts. t
In the quartet, with only four parts
and but one player to a part, there is b
little opportunity for the sensational
effects of overpowering volume, of P
violent color or dynamic contrasts, ofH
H
intricate "paper music" or baldly de- b
scriptive passages or massed tonal t
combinations, which in orchestralo
music oftentimes serve to disguise a
paucity of musical originality and in-
spiration. Berlioz once observed that
a mediocre melody sung by one voicec
alone remained mediocre in effect; e
but that that same melodyswhenG
sung by a full chorus in unison at d
once took on a thrilling aspect due to
the sheer power of the combined
voices. In the quartet each part must i
succeed in its effect by its own innate
beauty and appropriateness; there is f
little chance for musical sham rest- t
ing on massed effects or cerebralP
cleverness. Perhaps that is why the f
string quartet has been relatively un- 0
popular with modern composers, who
prefer the almost fool-proof poten-U
tialities of the grand orchestra.
ORGANIZATION IS
TECHNICALLY PROFICIENT
Another reason for the high esteem E
in which the quartet is held by se-
rious musicians is that it is tech- t
nically the most satisfactory of all
combinations. Its instruments-two c
violins, viola, and violoncello - are
those which are distinguished above
all others for their beauty, flexibility,
and extreme sensitiveness of expres-
sion. They are possessed of a com-
mon tonal timbre and similar tech- a
niques of playing, yet each instru- e
ment, because of its exact size and t
ty pe of construction, has an individ- a
uality of its own that can be exerted
or repressed at will, as the ensemblem
effect demands. From the lowestv
string of the cello to the upper range c
of the violin extends a practical com-m
pass of five octaves, which today is
often lengthened upwards to six, and
yet the registers of the instruments
overlap enough so that the closests
part writing is possible. In additionh
to the ordinary method of producing l
the tone, there are a number of va-C
riations, such as plucking, and the
use of mutes, which may be utilized C
C
for variety in either one or all of theE
parts. By the use of double andC
triple stops (playing on two or three
strings at the same time) the tonal i
power and variety of parts may be 1
increased many times.s
EACH PLAYERC
IS A SOLOISTd
Finally, to this unity of effectt
which is lost in a larger and lessh
compact group and yet which is cap-b
able within itself of a variety im-c
possible to achieve with a group any

f smaller or otherwise composed, there
contributes the fact that in the quar
tet each player is a soloist. Not only 1
is his part an integral and alwaysf
identifiable part of the music's trans-
parent texture, but he is unguided by
any conductor. He must be a ma-
ture and penetrating artist in him-
self, recreating the composer's music
in terms of his own personality, yetC
careful to maintain his proper place2
in relation 'to the other players and
to their common conception of thek
work.E
* * *t
FOLLOWS THE PLANZ
OF SYMPHONY AND SONATA
String quartet literature, beingt
founded on the same cyclic plan ast
the symphony and the sonata, has
for the most part paralleled in its de-
velopment the history of those forms.
When quartets were first written, al-
most two centuries ago, they were lit-
tel more than solos for the first violin9
with trio accompaniment. Gradually,
however, the cello, the second violin,1
and finally the viola, were raised in
importance until now each instru-
ment functions as an integral part
of the ensemble. During the classic
period quartet writing was almost en-
tirely on a polyphonic basis, but with
Beethoven's later examples the quar-
tet began to be more orchestral in
scope and freer in form.
Although the Op. 95 Quartet of
Beethoven is not one of the master's
epoch-making "last quartets" it is
still far from being a demure piece of
classical writing. The title "Quar-

THURSDAY, FEB. 17, 1938 8,
VOL. XLVIII. No. 97 H
To Department Heads and Others
,ncerned: All time slips must be El
n the Business Office Feb. 19 to be in
-cluded in the Feb. 28 payroll.
Edna G. Miller,
Payroll Clerk. 1
Saturday Class Committee: Until H
Aarch, 7 the members of this com-
uittee may be consulted as follows:
rofessor N. R.' F., Maier, Tu. Fri. 1
:30-3:30 in 2123 N.S. Professor W in
. Reichart, M. 10-11; W. 10-11:30 inMi
00 U.H.
Textbook Lending Library: Stu- S
ents who would like to borrow books a:
rom the Textbook Lending Library 4
t the Angell Hall Study Hall must
e recommended for the privilege by
rofessor Arthur D. Moore, Dean a:
oseph A. Bursley, Dean Alice C. T
,loyd, or by any one of the academic je
ounselors of the College of Litera-
ure, Science, and the Arts.
Students may leave requests for s
ooks not now in the Textbook Lend- F
ng Library with Mr. Van Kersen,
kssistant in Charge of the Angell
Sall Study Hall. Such requests will
e printed in The Michigan Daily so T
hat donors of books may have the 2
pportunity of satisfying specific
eeds.
c
J-Hop: Articles lost, found or ex- fi
hanged at the J-Hop of last Friday ti
vening should be reported to Mrs. R
Iriffin, Office of the Dean of Stu-
ents, Room 2, University Hall-
D
University of Michigan Press Pub- 4
ications. Members of the University H
aculties are entitled to buy publica-
ions of the University of Michigan
ress at a discount of 10 per cent
rom list price. For the convenience
f members of the faculty and others, S
rrangements have been made for the R
ales of Press publications atuthe H
Jniversity of Michigan Press Build- on
ng, 311 Maynard Street. a
gi
The Bureau has received notice of
he following Michigan Civil Service F
xamination: tc
Probation and Parole Classes, $150
o 180 per month.
,For further information, please
all at the office, 201 Mason Hall.
The University Bureau of Ap- i
pointments and Occupational M
Information. A
of
Extra-Curricular Activities: The e
ttention of all. students interested in lo
xtra-curricular activities is called to 1
he change in procedure recently d
dopted by the Committee on Stu- f
ent Affairs with reference to the
nethod to be followed by the indi-
idual desiring to take part in extra-
urricuar activities and by the chair-i
nan and managers of these activities.l
At the beginning of each semesterw
nd summer session every students
hall be conclusively presumed to be
neligible for any public activity untilP
his eligibility is affirmatively estab-
ished (a) by obtaining from the
Chairman of the Committee on Stu-m3
lent Affairs, in the Office of the Dean V
f Students, a written Certificate of V
Eligibility and (b) by presenting the
.ertificate of Eligibility to the chair-
nan of manager of the student activ-T
sty in which he wishes to participate. d
The Chairman or Manager of any
tudent activity shall file with the
Chairman of the Committeeon Stu-
dent Affairs, before permitting theP
student or students involved to par-
ticipate, the names of all those who s
have presented Certificates of Eligi- t
bility, and a signed agreement to ex- r
elude all others from participation.
The issuing of Certficates of Eli-
gibility for the second semester will °
be greatly facilitated if each applicantU
brings with him or her a record of
first semester grades.
Second semester Certificates ofEl-
igibility will be required after Mar. 11

Choral Union Members. Choral4
Union members in good standing whor
call in person between the hours of 9 f
and 12 and 1 and 4, at the School of
Music Office, Thursday, Feb. 17, will
be given pass tickets for the Roth
String Quartet concert in Hill Audi-
torium that evening. After 4 o'clock
no tickets will be given out.
J-Hop: J-Hop tickets are available
to those students who wish to secure
them by calling at Room 2, Univer-
sity Hall.
Academic Notices
Notice to Seniors: The examination
in foreign languages (French, Span-
ish, German) for the New York State
teacher's license will be held Friday,
Feb. 18, at 1:15 o'clock, in Room 100
R.L.
Students who elect French 202,
Methods and Tools, will meet on
Thursday, Feb. 17, at 4 o'clock in
Room 110 Romance Languages to ar-
range for hours.
English 190: The class will meet at
5 p.m., Thursday, Feb. 17, 2215 A.H.
Any student unable to keep this ap-
pointment will kindly report to the
instructor.

Dr. Elder). Will meet in 202 Mason
all instead of 304 Mason Hall.
Mathematics 37 (MWFS, 11, Dr.
lder). Will meet in 402 Mason Hall
istead of 304 Mason Hall.
Mathematics 3, Section 2 (MWFS,
0, Professor Dwyer). Will meet in
7 Mason Hall instead of 402 Mason
[all.
Mathematics 51, Section 2, (MWF,
0, Professor Nyswander). Will meet
402 Mason Hall instead of 407
ason Hall.
Mathematics 30, Orientation
eminar. Preliminary meeting for
rrangement of hours, Thursday, at
:15 p.m. in Room 3014 A.H.
Mathematis 302, Seminar in An-
lysis. Preliminary meting at 4:30
hursday, in Room 3014 A.H. Sub-
ct to be considered-Integration.
Political Science 122 and 182-I
hall be unable to meet these classes
riday and next Monday, Feb. 21.
J. S. Reeves.
Political Science 250 will meet
hursday, Veb. 17, at 4 p.m. in Room
033 A.H.
Psychology 122: There will be no
hange in rooms as sugested at the
rst meeting of this class since addi-
onal seats have been placed in
oom 3056 N.S.
Sociology 260: Seminar in Juvenile
elinquency. Will meet on Mondays,
-6 at 403 Library and not at 315
aven Hall, as announced.
Concerts
Choral Union Concert: The Roth
tring Quartet of Budapest, Feri
oth, First Violin; Jenor Antal, Sec-
nd Violin; Ferene Molnar, viola;
nd Janos Scholz, violoncellist; will
ive the ninth program in the Choral
nion Concert Series, Thursday,
eb. 17, at 8:30 o'clock in Hill Audi-
)rium.
Exhibitions
An exhibition of paintings, draw-
igs and drypoints by Umberto Ro-
ano is offered by the Ann Arbor
rt Association in the South gallery
f Alumni Memorial Hall, and an
xhibition of etchings by John Tay-
r Arms in the North Gallery, Feb.
4 through March 2. Open 2 to 5 p.m.
aily including Sundays, admission
ree to members and to students.
Events Today
Tle Observatory Journal Club will
eet at 4:15 today in the Observatory
ecture room. Dr. Allan D. Maxwell
ill speak on "A New Series for the
atios of the Triangles in the Orbit
roblem." Tea will be served at 4:00.
Mathematics Journal Club: Will
neet Thursday at 3 o'clock in Room
201 A.H. Professor Dwyer, Dr. Gre-
ille, and Mr. Phillips will speak.
Dean's Freshmen Luncheon Club:
here will be a meeting as usual to-
ay. All members are urged to at-
end.
A.I.E.E. Meeting 7:15 tonight at the
Jnion. Mr. Mark B. Covell from the
?urchasing Dept. of the Detroit Edi-
on Company will give an interesting
alk on buying equipment. Refresh-
nents will be served.
Scimitar: There will be a meeting
f Scimitar tonight at 7:30 in the
Union.
Women's Debate: There will be a
meeting of all women interested in
participating in the Women's Wes-
tern Conference Debate in Room
4003 Angell Hall today, Feb. 17, at 4

p.m. This is a preliminary meeting
for the purpose of announcing the
question and outlining the general
procedure for participation.
Congress: There will be a meeting
of the Activities Committee tonight
at 7:45 p.m. in Room 306 of the
Union.
Congress: There will be a meeting
of the Publicity Committee tonight
at 7:30 p.m. in Room 306 of the
Union.
Outdoor Sports Class: The class
will meet at the bicycle shop on Wil-
liams Street at 3:20 today.
Coming Events
Freshman and Sophomore Engi-
neers All those interested in trying
out for the Michigan Technic are e-
quested to meet in Room 3046 East
Engineering Building at five o'clock
on Friday, Feb. 18.
Graduate History Club: Business
meeting Sunday, Feb. 20, at the
Union. Election of President, amend-
ment of Constitution. Speech by John
Alden on the Washington letter.

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the
University. Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President
until 3:30; 11:00 a.m. on Saturday.

The Llini Commends Hutchins

Although Miss Marcia Winn, the Chicago
Tribune, and others who are accustomed to look
upon this and other educational institutions
as country clubs for high school graduates, Dr.
Robert Maynard Hutchins' current series of sig-
nificant Saturday Evening Post articles on Amer-
ican education is'beng read on this campus with
more than passing interest.
The Chicago Tribune could not explain this.
We can.
There is at this University a group of students
-much larger than is generaly supposed-who
are seriously interested in securing an education.
A typical spokesman of this group is Miss Jean
Fair, whose views were stated in the "Exclama-
tion Point" column on this page last Sunday.
Because Dr. Hutchins so clearly expresses a
great many sound ideas, most of which are shared
-by students who are for something more than a
niere good time, his articles have aroused dis-
cussion and provoked thought.
"Here is a young educator," they say, "who
tells us what is wrong with the system and
what he thinks would improve it." Few con-
temporary educators have shown as much
courage and initiative as he.
First of all, Dr. Hutchins presents today's in-
structional setup as he sees it. He notes its
surprising development since the days of the
little red schoolhouse.
"American education is still growing," he con-
cludes, "and it will continue to grow at such a'rate
that it will continue to be without a program
unless educators stop to develop one."

many persons-of whom Dr. Hutchins is but one
-have been able to gain from the present system
thousands of fact-tools which greatly aid the
clarity of their thinking and the soundness of
their attitudes does not alter the justification
for such a verdict.
Very well, then. Let us, by the nutshell method,
scrutinize a few of Hutchins' remedies and apply
the most accurate criterion we know of their
validity-the degree of success they have met at
the progressive University of Chicago, the now-
famous educational institution of which Dr. Hut-
chins is president.
Because the conventional system "dampens
initiative, puts a premium on mediocrity, tends
to produce uniformity, discourages -leadership and
independence," contends the rebel President Hut-
chins, "we should set up goals for the student ...
develop a system of general examinations cover-
ing more than one course to be taken whenathe
student thinks he is ready.
"They will dispose of painful accumulation of
credits, prevent the illusion of mastery that re-
;ults from mastering the teachers' habits. To en-
courage study of subject rather than teacher,
these examinations should be prepared, given,
and graded by independent boards of examiners.
"In this manner the superior student will pro-
ceed as fast as he is able. The average student
will contnue to take the average length of time.
The slower student will not be hounded."
Such is the essence of the "Chicago plan," still
in the experimental stage after six years of trial.
The results? According to Dr. Hutchins, some

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