Partly cloudy today and to-
morrow; snow flurries in north
portion today; warmer.
A PropoUi For
Chinese Unity ..
VOL XLVI No. 103 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, FEB. 26, 1937
PRICE FIVE CENTS
A Men Leave
G.M. And Union Disagree
On 30-Hour Week; Most
Talks With Chrysler
To Start Wednesday
(By The Associated Press)
Sit-down strikes--labor's newest
weapon-suffered another setback
yesterday before the forces of the
law while additional disputes tied up
factories in widely scattered districts
of the nation.
Four hundred sit-downers marched
peacefully from the Douglas Aircraft
plant in Santa Monica, Calif., when
300 officers, bringing warrants for
the workers' arrest, arrived at the
plant to augment a huge armed force
The strikers, earlier described as
ready "to die rather than foresake
our cause," offe'ed no resistance and
were loaded into police cars and pri-
vate automobiles for transportation
The deputies and policemen were
mobilized after the Los Angeles
County grand jury indicted the strik-
ers on charges of illegal seizure of
the buildings. Among those named
were two organizers for the Commit-
tee for Industrial Organization-sup-
porters of a number of strikes across.
A half dozen new disputes cropped
up to increase the troubles besetting
rMiore than 50 firms and keeping more
than 27,000 persons idle.
Fifteen per cent wage increases
brought resumption of operations in
all but 10 shoe factories in three New
England cities. The United Shoe
and Leather Workers Union predict-
ed the others would agree to the wage
Makes Rapid Progress
DETROIT, Feb. 25.-(P)-General
Motors Corporation officials informed
union representatives today that the
automobile industry is "not ready for"
the 30-hour work week.
The shorter schedule of work, five
days of six hours each, was one of the
objectives of the United Automobile
Workers of America in the recent'
paralyzing strikes in General Motors
automotive plants. Conferees of the
corporation and union are seeking
to compose issues left unsettled in
the peace agreement that ended the
strikes Feb. 11.
C. E. Wilson, vice-president head-
ing the General Motors negotiators,
said they discussed "the theory of
the 30-hour week" today.
'Country Not Ready For It'
He added, "I don't think the coun-
try is ready for it yet, nor is the
industry ready for it, and I don't
think any one who really thinks about
it is in favor of it right now."
Earlier today Mortimer had shrug-
ged his shoulders when asked if the
union expected to attain the shorter
working week in the present confer-
nAlmost at the start of the strikes,
Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., General Motors
president, told the corporation em-
ployes that the "standard work week
will continue to be 40 hours."
two Questios Remain
Only two other questions-alleged
cases of discrimination against union
workers, and the union demands for
minimum wage rates "commensurate
with an American standard of living"
-remain on the conference program.
Tentative agreements have been
reached on machinery' for handling
grievances, seniority rights, methods
of pay and speed of production, dur-
ing the eight days of negotiations.
The union hopes to conclude the
General Motors conferences before
next Wednesday, when its represen-
tatives will meet with executives of
Chrysler Corporation, another of the
"big three" automobile producers, to.
discuss a collective bargaining agree-
U.A.W.A. officials anticipated no
great difficulty in the Chrysler con-
ference. That corporation has ne-
gotiated with the union over a period
of nearly three years, and Martin
has described the relations as "satis-
Prof. Haber To Urge
Welfare Bill Tonight
Prof. William Haber of the econom-
ics department and Edward D. Foster,
relief supervisor for Ypsilanti town-
ship, will debate the merits of the
nnblal'cn bl 1 ,.,notrnnrinr hoI'.Afann tho
Rough Flying Weather Blamed
For Recent Airliner Crashes,
Above Ground Needed
Badly, Springer Says
- Unusual weather conditions, rather
than defective equipment, were
blamed yesterday for the extraordi-
nary number of recent commercial
airline crashes by Burdell L. Springer
of the aeronautical engineering de-
Mr. Springer, who has been en-
gaged in research on airline safety,
attributed most transport accidents
to one of 'three causes: inefficiency of
pilots, radio failure, or weather con-
ditions causing accumulation of ice
on the planes.
Radio Often Useless
"Bad weather," Mr. Springer said,
quoting Department of Commerce
figures, "causes 40 per cent of all
commercial air line accidents. The
present means of radio communica-
tion are often completely useless be-
cause of snow static, or other condi-
tions causing interference," Mr.
Springer said. The recent accident
in which Martin Johnson, explorer,
was killed was said by Mr. Springer
to have resulted from the inability of
the pilot to determine his location as
a result of too much radio interfer-
ence from snow static.
Department of Commerce. regula-
tions are usually put into effect by
the transport companies before they
ever become law, he said. "United
States airlines," he pointed out, "are
Arrangement Of Protons
Is Likened To Billiard
Balls Packed In Bowl
Prof. Niels Bohr, world-renowned
University of Copenhagen physicist
who has received the Nobel prize for
his research into the structure of
the atom, yesterday gave a Univer-
sity lecture on "Problems of Atomic
Nuclei" in the West Physics lecture
Likening the interior arrangement
of protons in the nucleus to a col-
lection of billiard balls in a bowl, Pro-
fessor Bohr pointed out that the
probable effect of running another
ball into the bowl would be to force
the other balls into motion without
any immediate emission of a ball.
Eventually, however, the motions
might so occur that a ball would be
In a nucleus, he explained, a cor-
responding state of affairs appears to
be set up when the nucleus is bom-
barded with neutrons. Elastic ex-
pansion and contraction of the sur-
face of the nucleus occurs because of
motion which is set up in the protons,
which have been energized by the
entrance of neutrons. At times pro-
tons obtain sufficient energy to leave
the nucleus, and an atomic transmu-
tation has then occurred.
Simultaneously with the neutron's
entrance into the nucleus, Professor
Bohr pointed out, the temperature of
the nucleus rises to more than two
million degrees Centigrade. After
this new-found energy has been dis-
tributed by emission of gamma rays
and protons, the temperature returns
to its usual value.
Police Seek Busy
Young Auto Thieves
Five automobiles have been taken
from their parking places in the past
two weeks, two of these in the past
two days, by youthful joyriders, po-
lice said yesterday.
Two of the automobiles stolen re-
cently were driven more than 200
miles before they were abandoned.
Most of them were driven only a few
miles before abandonment.
City Doctor Warns
Of Scarlet Fever
Ann Arbor parents were urged yes-
terday by Dr. John Wessinger, city
health officer, to keep children under
12 years old from visiting Detroit
where an unusual amount of scarlet
fever exists at present.
Dr. Wessinger pointed out that
there was only one case in Ann Ar-
bor now, and that the case originat-
ed in Saginaw where the child was
taken for a visit.
Last week 449 cases were reported
in Detroit, and 1,210 persons have
doing all that anyone can to pre-
Passenger Lists Grow
"The outstanding need of air trans-
portation is an instrument which will
tell at what height above the ground
the plane is at a given time," Mr.
Springer said. "The altimeter," he ex-
'plained, "tells the altitude above sea
level only and it is necessary to know
the plane's location and topography
of the area to determine the eleva-
tion of the plane above land."
"An interesting trend in air trans-
portation," Mr. Springer said, "is the
increase rather than decrease in pas-
sengers on airlines after disastrous
accidents. Another significant point,
is the fact thatpractically all insur-
ance companies now issue policies
which are valid on air lines with
3 Years' Life
Rebellion Of Democratic
Senators Quelled In Big
WASHINGTON. Feb. 25.-/P)-Ad-
ministration leaders in the Senate,'
winning their first major tilt of the
session, sent to the White House to-
night a measure to extend the recip-
rocal tariff law for three years.
The bill passed easily, 58 to 24,
but only after a sudden revolt had
thrown a scare into the Democratic
leadership. Southern and Western
senators, showing unexpected
strength, added a modifying amend-
ment to the bill, by a vote of 41-36.
But the leaders quickly rallied their
forces and adopted a motion by Sen-
ator Harrison (Dem., Miss.) to re-
consider the amendment. On the
second ballot the proposed change
was rejected, 42 to 39.
The amendment was introduced by
Senator Pepper of Florida for himself
and Senators Andrews of Florida and
Senators Ellender and Overton of
Louisiana. It would have forced the
Administration to keep tariffs up to
a level which would offset any advan-
tage which foreign producers of farm
products gain through lower costs
The Reciprocal Trade Act empow-
ers the President to reduce trade
barriers through reciprocal trade
agreements with foreign nations.
Such pacts are not subject to the
approval of Congress.
Earlier the Senate turned down Re-
publican proposals to require Senate
ratification of trade agreements, to
prohibit any restriction of the con-
trol of Congress over internal taxes,
to require notice and public hearings
on specific commodities to be covered
by agreements and to guarantee cost
of production on all commodities.
Here For Talk,
3rd Inter-Faith Symposium
To Hear Kah On 'Is Life
The Chinese consul-general at Chi-
cago, Tschou-Kwong, R. Kah, will be
the guest of the Chinese Student Club
on Saturday and will address the
third Inter-Faith Symposium in the
Union Sunday, Prof. J. Raleigh Nel-
son, counselor to foreign students, an-
Dr. Kah will address the Inter-
Faith Symposium at 3 p.m. Sunday
on the topic "Is Life Worth Living?"
"The visit of the Chinese consul-
general to the University is a very
significant event," Professor Nelson
remarked, "for official relations be-
tw"en the University and the Chinese
government are very old, going back
to the mission of President James B.
Angell in 1878 as Minister to China.
"The Chinese group at the Univer-
sity at the present time is the largest
at any American university. We are
all very happy to honor this repre-
sentative of the Chinese govern-
ment," he added.
Dr. Kah will be the guest at the
reception, an invitational affair, of
;he Chinese Student Club at 8:30
p.m. Saturday in the League.
Professor Nelson sketched some of
the highlights of Dr. Kah's life. He
wn.. , hrn in ivTnrnn h7' m.ight 4. tn .
In 2 Sectors
Dynamiters At Oviedo's
Suburbs As Defenders
Of Madrid Push Offens?
In Commons Debate
MADRID, Feb. 25.-(P)-Dynamite
touched off by Madrid's defenders
shook two sections of the front today
while government troops, hurling ex-
plosives, blasted their way farther
into the outskirts of the northern
city of Oviedo.
Government sappers mined a mov-
ing picture theatre in the town of
Carabanchel, south of Madrid. In-
surgents who had barricaded them-
selves within the building were killed
when the mine was set off.
In the University City sector of
northwestern Madrid, Insurgent and
Government tunnelers almost crossed
each others' paths as they burrowed
toward the Dental Clinic, where Gov-
ernment troops were entrenched.
Dental Clinic Destroyed
The city's defenders saved the
stronghold by exploding their mine
first, destroying several buildings
near the Clinic but also wrecking
the Insurgents' tunnel.
The explosion was followed by a
renewal of intensive artillery and
rifle fire in that district but there
was no appreciable change in posi-
tions, virtually the same for several'
Madrid's soldiers continued their
struggle for possession of Pinzarron
Hill, on the Jarama front southwest
of Madrid, hoping to drive the In-
surgents from the positions from
which they have shelled the impor-
tant Madrid-Valencia highway.
An estimate that 2,500 insurgents
had been killed in one phase of the
battle around the hill came from the
government military command.
ARMS BILL ARGUED
LONDON, Feb. 25. - () - The
threat of two European dictators who
"preach force as a necessity" was
urged on Commorns today as the rea-
son for quick completion of Great
Britain's $7,500,000,000 rearmament
"How can you talk of peace?" de-
manded Sir Robert Horne, former
Chancellor of the Exchequer, during
debate on the five-year defense pro-
gram, "with a dictator who talks of
peace with a forest of bayonets and
boasts of 8,000,000 soldiers-who
preaches force as a necessity?"
The Conservative member's speech
was interpreted as a reference to
Premier Benito Mussolini of Italy,
who proclaimed Aug. 30 that he could
mobilize 8,000,000 soldiers "in the
course of a few hours."
YELLOW AND BLUE
LONDON, Feb. 25.-(iP)-Interna-
tional negotiators wrangling over de-
tails of the scheduled neutrality
blockade of Spanish ports agreed on
only one point today-the color of
the flag which blockade ships will fly.
Members of the six-power subcom-
mittee decided on a blue pennant
with a yellow cross, to float beside
their respective national emblems,to
mark the international naval patrol
when it goes into effect March 6.
The questions of the Russian pa-
trol zone and the number of observ-
ers for the Spanish frontier, chief
stumbling blocks to final arrange-
ment for the Spanish war quarran-
tine, remained no nearer solution and
the sub-committee postponed furth-
er consideration until tomorrow.
350 Awaiting Trip
To Cadillac Sunday
More than 350 persons from Ann
Arbor are expected to take the seven-
car snow train Sunday to Cadillac.
The program announced for this
week-end at Cadillac will include
snow shoe hikes, ski trails, toboggan-
ing, skating on the several rinks of
the city, and a fox hunt.
The special train, made up of five
first class coaches, a smoking car, and
a cafe car, will leave at 7:30 a.m. from
the local station, and arrive about
1 p.m. in Cadillac. It will leave at
6 p.m. for Ann Arbor. Meals will
be served on the train.
Hearing Is Sought
On Fire-House Site
A public hearing on the proposed
Relax 'Due Process' Clause
As It Applies To States,
Idaho Senator Asks
White House Friends
Call Plan Inadequate
(By The Associated Press)
WASHINGTON, Feb. 25.-A states'
rights constitutional amendment
tossed by Senator Borah (Rep., Ida.)
into the argumentative free-for-all
aroused by the Roosevelt court reor-
ganization proposals attracted broad
support tonight among opponents of
the White House program.
Administration spokesmen were
quick, however, to dismiss the pro-
posal-intended to give the states un-
questioned power to deal with ec-
onomic and social questions-as an
unacceptable alternative,'however de-
Borah's amendment would make
certain legal changes in the "due
process" clause of the Constitution,
the rock on which the New York
women's minimum wage law was
wrecked a year ago. The Borah aim
is to prevent such state laws from be-
ing invalidated because of this clause,
which says no state "shall deprive
any person of life, liberty or prop-
erty without due process of law."
Federal Power Not Affected
While giving the states reer scope
to pass social and economic legisla-
tion, the Idahoan's amendment would
relax none of the present restraints
on Federal action.
"These problems of today could be
met," Borah said in a statement af-
ter introducing his amendment. "The
State of New York, for instance ought
to be permitted to work out its own
problems without being censored by
a foreign government, which the Fed-
eral government is so far as local
problems are concerned.
"My amendment would give the
states full power to handle social and
economic problems within the states.
Their laws could not be set aside
provided the procedure was regular.
The due process clause would be lim-
ited to procedure. The Supreme Court
has held it covers the substance of
Democrats, Republicans Agree
Both Republican and Democratic
opponents of the White House pro-
posal to name six new justices to the
Supreme Court quickly expressed
themselves in favor of the Borah idea.
Members of the liberal bloc opposing
the President agreed, but thought the
Borah suggestion insufficient to meet
the problems underlying the present
Supporters of the Administration,
some favoring the Borah move as a
partial solution for the problems in-
volved, nevertheless seemed unani-
mous in asserting that it would not
be considered a substitute for the
White House program.
Cuts A Clause
Negro Senator, Fearful
Of Race Discrimination,
Forces Change In Bill
LANSING, Feb. 25.-(/P)-The Ad-
ministration Civil Service Bill wea-
thered another laborious session in
the Senate today.
Progress was marred by bickering
over details. One important amend-
ment was attached in committee of
the whole. It removed adclause pro-
viding that heads of departments
could choose from the three highest
applicants, on the basis of competi-
tive examinations, in selecting em-
ployes, and substituted a requirement
that the highest must be employed.
The amendment was written into
the bill upon the insistence of Sen-
ator Charles C. Diggs, Detroit Negro.
He contended department heads
might discriminate against those of
his race if given the choice of three
"Heads of departments might dis-
criminate because of color, or reli-
gion, or nationality," Senator Diggs
declared. "Some might prefer a
blond to a brunet. This bill will not
entirely eliminate the spoils system,
nor politics, but if employment of the
best applicant is made mandatory it
will come close to that objective."
Attempts to make the maximum
salary of the proposed personnel di-
Ruthven Hits State
Control Of Schools;
New Alarm Clock:
Strike Hours Now
Chimes synchronized withthe new-
ly completed clock in the Burton
Memorial Tower boomed out the hour
of the day for the first time yesterday
to hurrying students and towns-
The chimes strike the hour and the
quarter hour and at present are op-
erated between 7 a.m. and midnight.
They are regulated through an intri-
cate system of automatic and hand
regulated controls which may be set ;
so that the clock will strike only the
During carillon concerts a cut-out
may be used to silence the chimes. If
that is done the chimes will not re-
sume until an hour has elapsed so
that the sequence of chimes is re-
tained. According to E. F. Geiger ofi
New York, who supervised installation
of the clock, this is necessary becauseI
of its construction, and prevents the
chimes from striking in the wrong
sequence or at the wrong time.
Important Near Eastern
Discoveries Described By I
Dr. Clark Hopkins
Prof. Clark Hopkins of the Latin
and Greek departments and general
director of the Archaeological Insti-
tute's excavations at Seleucia said
yesterday that "the work now going
on there will shed light on the whole
history of the Hellenistic period."
Professor Hopkins, who has just re-
turned from Seleucia, explained that
the site of the digging, which is be-
ing financed by the Rackham Fund,
is a plain 20 miles south of Bagdad
on the Tigris River. "Seleucia, which
is now called Tel Umar by the Arabs,"
Professor Hopkins said, "was the cap-
ital of Mesopotamia from 300 to 146
B.C., when the Parthians, a branch
of the Persians, overthrew the exist-
ing rulers and set up an independent
Trajan Burned City
In 117 A.D. Trajan, Roman emper-
or, burned the city and in 200 A.D.
the inhabitantsigradually deserted
Seleucia for Ctesiphon, the new Par-
thian capital across the Tigris. Both
cities were at the confluence of the
Tigris and an important canal com-
ing from the Euphrates. This loca-
tion was in the path of trade routes
leading to the East.
The inhabitants of each civiliza-
tion built their city on top of the
previous one, Professor Hopkins ex-
plained. "At present the excavators
are working on the residential sec-
tion and two temple sites of the Par-
thian 'layer' which lie 45 feet be-
low the surface," Professor Hopkins
continued, "These buildings were
made mostly of oven-baked brick, but
partly of sun baked brick covered
with plaster." The Parthian temples
are now being excavated and it is
hoped that "the Greek temple under-
neath one of the Parthian buildings
will provide more complete remains."
"The chief aim of this year's work,"
Professor Hopkins said, "is to map
out the plan of the ancient city. We
(Continued on Page 2)
Canada And Britain
Only Michigan And Maine
Are Safe From Attempt
To Regiment, He Warns
Private Schools Must Lead
Fight, He Says, And Stop
'Drifting Witk Tide'
The University of Michigan and the
University of Maine are the only
state-supported universities Which
have remained free of 'attempts at
regimentation and remote control,"
President Ruthven stated in an in-
He simultaneously warned that
state supervision over universities and
university acceptance of federal sub-
sidies are threats to "academic free-
dom and institutional independence."
"Our universities are facing a
crisis," President Ruthven said. "Only
two of the state-supported institu-
tions are free of supervision by state
agencies, including the state legisla-
'Bureaucrats Gain Control'
"This situation has had an aston-
ishingly rapid rise in the last 10
years," President Ruthven stated. "I
mention it simply to develop the fur-
ther thought that day by day we see
the federal government taking over
more supervision of state-supported
Federal subsidies are having the
"insidious effect" of placing state-
supported institutions under more
supervision of Washington bureau-
crats, he said.
"It is not only' good sense, but ab-
solutely necessary to the preservation
of our system "of educ t i for pri-
vately endowed schools to adopt a
coordinated plan of higher education
and exert some leadership rather than
drift with the tide," President Ruth-
ven stated after warning that the
trend of government encroachment
would reach endowed colleges and
universities if it were continued.
"If the privately endowed schools
were to be free to develop their own
programs they must have the coop-
eration of the foundations," he said.
He urged some sort of general co-
operation between the foundations
for giving aid and suggested that the
foundations work with the various
councils in forming education leader-
President Ruthven had previously
advanced some of these ideas at a
joint meeting of the American Phil-
osophical Association and represen-
tatives of organizations administering
research funds Saturday in Philadel-
In Philadelphia he was reported by
the New York Times as having sai
grants-in-aid to colleges are the
"least valuable sssistance that canbe
Arguing for scholarships and fel-
lowships, he warned the association
that after a man receiving a grant
had worked a year or two on a project
it loomed so large in his mind that
he was "bitter" if the grant was cut
The man,, rather than the project,
should be emphasized, he contended.
Here To Speak
On Reich Today
Prince Hubertus Loewenstein, op-
ponent of Hitler and leader in the
German Catholic Center Party, will
speak on "Germany, Today and To-
morrow" at 4 p.m. today in the
The Prince, a direct descendant of
12 German emperors and an exile
from Nazi Germany. will be intro-
duced by Prof. William A. McLaugh-
lin of the Romance Languages de-
partment. Prince Loewenstein is be-
ing brought to Ann Arbor by a faculty
committee headed by Prof. John F.
Shepard, the League for Human
Rights, Hillel Foundation, the Liberal
LONDON, Feb. 25.-A)-Terms of
a new Anglo-Canadian trade treaty,
to remain in force until Aug. 20,
1940, were made public tonight.
Canada lowered British preferen-
tial' duties on some 150 articles in
the Canadian customs tariff. The
reductions affect about 40 per centl
by value of the total United King-
dom imports into Canada now sub-
ject to duty.
Court Order Will Stop