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November 14, 1936 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1936-11-14

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

sATUR.IAY, NOV. 14, 1936

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

II

,.
CFjl

1q36 Member 1937
IAssocdied Colle6iale Press
Distributors of
CGNe6ioe Di6esI
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.
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republication of all other matter herein also reserved.
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second class mail matter.
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Board of Editors
MANAGING EDITOR .................ELSIE A, PIERCE
ASSOCIATE EDITOR ........... FRED WARNER NEAL
ASSOCIATE EDITOR........MARSHALL D. SHULMAN
George Andros Jewel Wuerfel Richard Hershey
Ralph W. Hurd Robert Cummins
. Departmental Boards
O~ublication Department: Elsie A. Pierce, Chairman;
James Boozer, Arnold S. Daniels, Joseph Mattes, Tuure
Tenander, Robert Weeks.
Reportorial Department: Fred Warner Neal, Chairman;
Ralph Hurd, William E. Shackleton, Irving S. Silver-
Man, William Spaller, Richard G. Hershey.
Editorial Department: Marshall D. Shulman, Chairman;
Robert Cummins, Mary Sage .Montague.
Sports Department: George J. Andros, Chairman; Fred
Delano and Fred Buesser, associates, Raymond Good-
man, Carl Gerstacker, Clayton Hepler, Richard La-
Marca.
Women's Department: Jewel Wuerfel, Chairman: Eliza-
beth M. Anderson, Elizabeth Bingham, Helen Douglas,
Margaret Hamilton, Barbara J. Lovell, Katherine
Moore, Betty Strickroot, Theresa Swab.
Business Department
BUSINESS MANAGER. ...........JOHN R. PARK
ASOCIATE BUSINESS MANAGER . WILLIAM BARNDT
WOIMN'S BUSINESS MANAGER .......JEAN KEINATH
Departmental Managers
Jack Staple, Accounts Manager; Richard Croushore. Na-
tional Advertising and Circulation Manager; Don J:
Wilsher, Contracts Manager; Ernest A. Jones, Local
Advertising Manager; Norman Steinberg, Service
Manager; Herbert Falender, Publicationsrand Class-
ified Advertising Manager.
I W
NIGHT EDITOR : WILLIAM SHACKELTON

nomic disorders greater than any of the past.
This threat is constantly increasing and the
question "When will war come?" is asked much
more often today than "Will it come?"
Preferential trade treaties, tri-partite currency
stabilizations, and similar measures cannot cure
these ills. One big hope of capitalism for an ade-
quate remedy is in comprehensive international
cooperation in both economic and political mat-
ters, coupled with the destruction of monopoly,
to stimulate the free flow of trade to the ultimate
degree. This would tend to extend periods of
prosperity as much as is possible and correspond-
ingly curtail periods of depression. With the
greatest possible degree of prosperity, unemploy-
ment might be reduced to a tolerable point. The
certainty of peace would be both a stimulus and
a stabilizer.
Unfortunately, however, this sort of interna-
tional cooperation and anti-trust action does not
seem possible at the present time.
The Issue In Spain
-A Catholic Journalist's View-
(From Foreign Affairs)
By LAWRENCE A. FERNSWORTH
(Former London Times Correspondent
in Barcelona)
IN BARCELONA and other loyal cities, an
armed and anti-Fascist militia of citizens are
patrolling the streets afoot and in requisitioned
motor cars, rifles across shoulders, pistols in
hand. Churches, monasteries and convents have
been invaded and burned in hundreds upon
hundreds. Priests and nuns have-been scattered
to the four winds and a sickening number have
been killed, as have other Fascist sympathizers.
The rebels, also, are taking without pity innu-
merable victims-peasants and workers and Re-
publicans. The land is drenched in blood and
the end is far from sight.
Red revolutionsists - Anarcho-Syndicalists,
and various brands of Marxists-have made
common cause with the government to save
Spain from Fascism. It is recognized both with-
in and without the country, that Fascism versus
popular rule has become the sharply defined
issue. The constitutional government is bravely
fighting with its back to the wall, hoping to save
the Republic as against both Fascism and Com-
munistic proletarian rule. The odds against it
are heavy.
* * * *
Left, Right, Left.,..
THE PRESENT UPRISING is the climax of a
revolutionary process which has been under
way ever since the proclamation of the Re-
public of April 14, 1931. Three distinct periods
may be noted:
1. The "first biennium"-the period of pure
republicanism; of the adoption of the Consti-
tution; of the curbing of the excessive powers
and pretensions of the army; of the separation of
church and state; of a series of revolutionary at-
tempts against the Government by Anarcho- a
Syndicalists; of trials and errors and tardy rec-
tifications. The first biennium ended in the
election of November, 1933, which gave power to
the Right.
2. The "black biennium"-the reactionary
period which followed and which lasted until
the elections of February, 1936. This was the pe-
riod of waste, of marking time, of corruption,
of the undermining of the Constitution, of the
glorification of the army, of the suspension or
disregard of the religious laws and the replacing
of the clergy on the pay-roll.
3. The brief period after the recent elections,
which brought back to power the "pure" Re-
publicans, led by Don Manuel Azana, in agree-
ment with the socialists and Communists, though
not with their participation in the Cabinet. These
groups together constituted the Popular Front,
with a minimum social program accepted by all.
This period saw the rehabilitation of the Consti-w
tution; the abrogation of illegal laws and de-
crees; the liberation of political and social pris-
oners; the enactment of laws and decrees giving
employment to workers and increasing their pay;
the settling of peasants upon the land in large
numbers.
Privilege And Property...-

THE REBELLION against the Republic is the
work of three main forces united in a well-
understood pact, sealed by the fact of mutual
and interrelated interests. The forces in ques-
tion are the privileged and propertied classes, the
army and the church.
The privileged and propertied classes have kept
the people in misery. That is a fact. The tale
of its how and why has been told so frequently
that to tell it again now would be mere weari-
some repetition.
The Spanish army is a vestige of feudal
times, a strangely incongruous institution in this
twentieth century. Under the monarchy, crit-
icism of the army or unfavorable comment upon
it constituted an offense which subjected any
citizen, even in peace-time, to long terms of im-
prisonment at the hands of a military court.
With the advent of the Republic, the power
of the army was considerably curbed. The law
was laid down that the army must be amenable
to civil authority. Officers out of harmony with
the new regime were given the opportunity of
withdrawing on retirement pay. Many accepted.
but the most intransigent monarchists remained
to continue their plotting, though, of course, pro-
fessing to be loyal to the established regime.
The plain fact is that the attempts of the Re-
public to curb the power of the army, to make
it strictly amenable to civil authority, constituted
a blow to its pride which it could never forgive.
And when the Republic's enemies flattered the
army with fair words, it seized the opportunity of
salvaging its private interests.
* .
"Of All Sad Wods...'

BENEATH ****
IIT ALL
fta---- ayB onth W jiia a
JOURNEYED OVER TO DEARBORN yesterday
forenoon with Fred DeLano to see Lynn Wal-
dorf and his squad which today is ranked the top
football team in the country.
Was introduced to 217 pounds of muscle man
with a scar on his nose who bore the name of
Fred Vanzo. The team retired upstairs to eat
and Waldorf led Freddy and me over to a quiet
corner of the lobby where he settled down and
proceeded to tell us all about Northwestern.
When Lynn started off the year, he said he
didn't think he was going to win a whole lot of
ball games, but as the season progressed and the
team got better, the Big Purple kept right on
mowing down the nation's best.
"We've had a lot of luck," Waldorf ad-
mitted. "We've won every Conference game,
yet never by more than eleven points, and
the Ohio State game by just one."
"Take that Ohio game for example. We
had to come from behind twice to beat
Schmidt's bunch 14-13, and then it was just
luck that we got that extra point. Heap
had a sprained thumb and fumbled the pass
from center. He just managed to hold it up
lopsided long enough for Geyer to boot it
over. After all that's luck."
Wolverines Scare Him?
ASKED ABOUT TOMORROW'S CLASH with
the Wolverines, Waldorf became really seri-
ous and said that frankly he was scared of what
Kip 'and the boys had up their sleeves.
"They're in a great psychological spot to knock
us off," Lynn said, "and we're taking them s
seriously that I haven't even looked at our scout
reports for our Notre Dame game next week."
Waldorf never points for a game. He be-
lieves in having his teams play on their ability,
not on their emotions, thus going a long ways
toward avoiding serious let-downs.
Lynn admitted that the Cats had not played
the ball they were capable of against Wisconsin
last week when the Badgers scored 18 points, but
went on to point out that he had used 29 substi-
tutes and that at all times Northwestern com-
manded an eight-point lead.
"It's just what I'm afraid of against Mich-
igan tomorrow," the Purple mentor con-
fided, as he demonstrated how the Wiscon-
sin attack had suddenly found itself and
scored three touchdowns.
"Michigan has a potentially great team
that hasn't clicked well yet. If it starts to-
morrow, our winning streak will pop like a
balloon and we may well end up with two
games lost."
"And speaking of winning strea'ks, do you
know how ours started? It began when we
changed our jerseys last year. We had
dropped the first three Confere'nce games of
the season, and then ran into Illinois. We
had been wearing Purple sweaters up to
then, but Illinois had dark blue so we
changed to white for that game. We gave
Illinois a licking and decided to stick with
the white shirts. We haven't lost a ball game
since."
Every Cause For Fear?
THE NORTHWESTERN COACH went on to
say that he had a team which had two great
lines. Two lines that had fought and scrapped
to make up for a set of green backs who now
were developing into the best in the country.
Fred Vanzo, great blocking quarter who leads
all the line smashes, is a made-over fullback.
Both Don Geyer and Steve Toth, ace fullbacks,
are comparatively small for line buckers, weigh-
ing 180 and 161 respectively, but with Vanzo
'going on before' they are a couple of real ground
gainers, Lynn commented.
"Our scout reports on Michigan give us every
cause for fear tomorrow. I wouldn't say we were
the best team in the country, no. Minnesota
might very probably beat us again if we played
them, but then that's the way the game goes.
There's a lot of difference between the same team

on two successive Saturdays. I don't know of a
team I'd rate above Northwestern, though."
The Wildcats have spent much of the week
polishing up their pass defense and working on
new plays. They are the first team to play here
this fall that has not worked out in the Stadium
the day before the game. Waldorf confined his
final drill to a kicking and passing workout on
the lawn in front of Dearborn Inn.
Rose Bowl Is Out
ASKED ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY of
Northwestern's going to the Rose Bowl,
Lynn replied that it was out of the question.
He said he doubted if the team would finish
the season undefeated in the first place,
that secondly the Big Ten forbade it, and
last of all that the university officials would
not permit the squad to lose so much school
work.
Always famed as a November coach when he
was at Oklahoma A. & M. and later at Kansas
State, Coach Waldorf explained that this was
mostly due to the type of material he had to
work with-strong, husky kids who started slowly
but had a lot of endurance.
ly make mattels worse for the church. The
caution has proved well-founded.
In such countries as England and the United
States, where the high caliber of the men of the
church wins them general respect, the question
is incessantly asked: "How is it that, in an al-
most purely Catholic country, the people can
turn against the church in such fashion?" Cath-

UNIVERSITY. SYMPHONY. OR-1
CHESTRA CONCERT. EARL V.
MOORE Conductor; HANNS PICKI(Continued from Page 2)
Soloist. Sunday, November 15,1 .
4:15 p.m. cial emphasis on Japanese Wood
4:15 pWANGE Sculpture, under the auspices of the
By WILLIAM J. LICHTENWANGER Institute of Fine Arts. South Gallery,

A Sick
World . 0 0,

1|HE UNIVERSITY Symphony Or-
j chestra, conducted by Dr. Earl V.
Moore, will make its first appear-
ance of the year Sunday afternoon,
with Prof. Hanns Pick as cello solo-
ist. The membership of the Orches-
tra, which consists of about 70 play-
ers, is open to all students on the
campus, although a majority of te
members are enrolled in the music
school. In view of the fact that the
personnel of the Orchestra varies
considerably from year to year; that
a preponderance of wind players
causes the instrumentation to be
somewhat unbalanced; and that the
purpose of the organization is pri-
I marily that of a laboratory, to pro-
vide students with a broad knowledge
of symphonic music rather than
simply to prepare programs for public
performance-considering these facts,
the work of the Orchestra in recent
years has been exceptionally fine.
For the Orchestra's opening con-
cert of the year, Dr. Moore has chos-
en a program of three works by Peter
Ilyitch Tchaikowsky-works which
show the composer in three very op-
posite moods. The first composition
to be played is Tchaikowsky's last:
the Symphonic Pathetique, No. 6 in
B minor, Op. 74.
A Cold Reception At First
Much has been written about the
Symphony's enigmatic title, "Pathe-
tique," about the program which
seems to lie hidden beneath it, and
about its relationship to the life of
the composer in the final days of his
mortal existence. Tchaikowsky ordi-
narily was averse to "programs"-
that is, programs of a concrete, liter-
ary nature( most of his music is pro-
grammatic in that it is based on some
poetic or dramatic idea). When this,
his sixth and last symphony, began
to take shape in his mind, he planned.
to call it merely "A Program Sym-
phony (No. 6)," and under such a
title it had its first performance, at,
St. Petersburg, October 28, 1893, the
composer conducting. The day fol-
lowing this performance, which was
but coldly received, Tchaikowsky pre-
pared to send the score to his pub-
lisher, and searched despairingly for a
title which would be suitable and yet'
more communicative than merely "A
Program Symphony." His brother,
Modeste, had a happy inspiration and'
supplied the title by which the sym-
phony has since been known.1
Thatnthe composer based the work1
on some definite program is known
from a statement of his, but he add-
ed that the program was of a kindI
which would remain "an enigma to1
all-let them guess it who can." Hea
did remark that the program is "pen-
etrated by subjective sentiment," and7
further declared that the Symphony1
is the best, and most sincere of any
work he had written, and that he
loved it as he had never loved any
one of his musical offsprings before.f
A Self!Written Requiem?
The idea that the Symphony is
the embodiment of Tchaikowsky's pe-
culiar spirit of pessimism and melan-
cholia, and that it expresses a defi-
nite presentiment of death which the
composer is supposed to have felt at
the time of its writing, has been nur-
tured by the facts relating to the
death of the composer. Four days
after the initial performance of the
work, Tchaikowsky contracted chol-
era from drinking water which had
not been boiled, and in another four
days he was dead. Those seeking ap-
probation for the theory that the{
Symphony is a valedictory, a self-
written requiem, have claimed that
Sthe composer's exposure to the chol-
Sera germs was intentional, that he
was weary of life and wished to aban-
don it. The evidence of his brother,;
Modeste, and of Rimski-Korsakov,
two of Tchaikowsky's closest observ-
ers, is to the contrary, however. They
testify that his final days found him
in exceptionally good spirits, because
of his satisfaction with his new sym-
phony, and contend that whatever
pessimism and mortal resignation
is to be found in the symphony is to
be considered more universal in its

application than personal,
In some ways the Symphony be-
lies the implication of its title, for
only the first and last of the four
movements are openly "pathetic."'
The second movement is a graceful,
minuet-like piece in the unusual
metre of 5-4, and is permeated with
an exquisite lyricism, tinged with sad-
ness in the trio. The third movement'
has the attributes of a scherzo as wells
as of a march. and fills the place
usually taken by the final Allegro.
Tchaikowsky made an innovation
fwhen he placed his slow movement,
a broad, poignant Adagio, atathe
end of the symphony instead of after
A Change Of Mood
From the Pathetique we go to a
mood of simplicity, dainty and,
harming. The Variations on a Ro-
eoco Theme, for Violoncello and Or-]
chestra, Op. 33, has something of the
same atmosphere of delicacy and
grace which characterized the Nut-
ciacker Suite. The composer uses the
term "rococo" to denote the "old-

Alumni Memorial Hall, Nov. 2-14, 9
a.m. to 5 p.m.
Exhibit of Color Reproductions of
American Paintings comprising the
First Series of the American Art
Portfolios, recently acquired for the
Institute of Fine Arts Study Room.
On view daily from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
in Alumni Memorial Hall, North Gal-
lery.
Exhibition of Oil and Water Color
Paintings Made in Spain During the
Past 10 years by Wells M. Sawyer,
shown under the auspices of the In-
stitute of Fine Arts. Alumni Mem-
orial Hall, West Gallery. Opens Sun-
day, Nov. 1, 8 to 10 p.m.; thereafter
daily 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sundays, Nov.
8 and 15 from 3 to 5 p.m.
Exhibition, Architecture Building:
An exhibition of the Ryerson Compe-
tition drawings including those of
teams working here under the direc-
tion of Professors Hebrard and
Bailey is being shown in the third
floor exhibition room, Architecture
Building, Nov. 11 through 14. Open
from 9 to 5 p.m. The public is cor-
dially invited.
Events Of Today
Sigma Delta Chi: There will be a
luncheon meeting of Sigma Delta
Chi at 11:30 a.m. today. Paul Scott
Mowrer, managing editor of the Chi-
cago Daily News, will lead an inform-
al discussion. The meeting will be
concluded in time for the football
game.
Coming Events
The Eastern Religions Group will
meet for a cafeteria breakfast Sun-
day, Nov. 15, 9 a.m. in the Russian
Tea Room of the Michigan League.
There will be a panel discussion on
MohammedanismsbyaMr. Rufai, Mr.
Khatib and Mr. Hasani of the Near
East. (If you wish, come after the
breakfast at 9:30 a.m.) Both Orient-
als and American students are in-
vited.
Health Service Visitation Project
will hold its initial meeting at 3:30
p.m. Sunday afternoon, Nov. 15 in
the Upper Room at Lane Hall. All
those interested are urged to attend.
Deutscher Verein: There will be a
meeting Tuesday, Nov. 17, at 8 p.m. in
the Michigan League. Miss Mary A.
Gies, Grad., who studied at the .Uni-
versity of Heidelberg last year, and
Mr. Israel Warheit, Grad., who spent
the year studying at the University
of Zurich, Switzerland, will discuss
informally student life at those in-
stitutions. All those interested, and
especially old members and former
members of the Deutscher Zirkel, are
invited to attend.
The Michigan Dames will initiate
the new members at the general
meeting at the Michigan League,
Tuesday evening, Nov. 17. The wives
of students and internes who would
like to become Dames, but who have
not yet been reached by the Member-
ship committee, are cordially invited
to call the Membership chairman,
Mrs. Ford Graham at 22147, or the
Treasurer, Mrs. David Andrews at
6917.
University of Michigan Flying
Club: There will be a meeting of the
University of Michigan Flying Club,
Tuesday, Nov. 17, at 7:30 p.m., Room
302 at the Michigan Union.
All students who are pilots, and
those desirous of becoming pilots are
invited to attend.
German Table for Faculty Mem-
bers: The first luncheonmeeting will
be held at the Michigan Union, Mon-
day, Nov. 16, at 12:15 p.m. All fac-
ulty members interested in speaking
German are cordially invited.

Theatre Arts Committee: All those
interested in working in the box
office, please, attend a short meeting
at 5 p.m. Monday, Nov. 16, at the
League. The room will be posted.
Stalker Hall, Sunday:
9:45 a.m., Student class. Subject,
"Enthusiasm for One's Work." Lead-
er, Dr. C. W. Brashares.
6 p.m., Wesleyan Guild meeting.
Student discussion on the subject
"Why Are We Learning?" Fellow-
ship Hour and supper following the
meeting.
- First Methodist Church, Sunday:
Morning worship at 10:45 a.m. Dr.
C. W. Brashares will preach on "Gos-
sip or Gospel." Evening service, 7:30
p.m. Theme, "The Need of a Chris-
tian Crusade."
First Baptist Church, Sunday:
10:45 a.m., Mr. Sayles will speak
on "TheP 5SinrempCrnndA Art-nor to-

MUSIC
A Tcliikowsky Program

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of tho
University Copy received at the office of the Assistant to thePresident
until 3:30, 11:00 a m. on Saturday.

Roger Williams Guild, Sunday:
Meets at 12 noon at Guild house.
Dr. Frank W. Padelford, Boston, Ex-
ecutive Secretary of Northern Baptist
Board of Education, will address the
student class.
6 p.m. Students at Guild house.
Prof. Preston W. Slosson will speak
on "Peace or Truce." A cordial wel-
come to all students.
Church of Christ (Disciples) Sun-
day:
10:45 a.m., morning worship. Rev.
Fred Cowin, minister.
12 noon, Students' Bible Class.
Leader, H. L. Pickerill.
5:30 p.m., Social Hour and Tea.
6:30 p.m., The program will con-
sist of a panel discussion on world
peace. A group of five on the panel
will represent the positions of the
following: the average citizen, the
business man, the preparedness ad-
vocate, womanhood, and the muni-
tions maker. Opportunity will be
given for the audience to participate.
Bethlehem Evangelical Church,
Sunday:
South Fourth Avenue. Theodore
Schmale, Pastor.
The morning worship program at
Bethlehem Evangelical Church will
include a, special song by the Con-
firmation classes and a sermon for
young people on the topic "A Certain
Young Man" The service begins at
-0:30 a.m.
The Young People's League will at-
tend the Rally Banquet to be given
at Emanuel Church, Manchester,
Cars will leave the local church at
4:15 p.m.
Harris Hall ,Sunday:
The regularstudent meeting will be
held at 7 p.m. in Harris Hall. Pro-
fessor Robert Angell will be the
speaker. All students and their
friends are cordially invited.
Saint Andrew's Episcopal Church,
Sunday:
8 a.m., Holy Communion.
9:30 a.m., Church School.
11 a.m., Kindergarten.
11 a.m., Morning prayer and ser-
mon by the Right Reverend John N.
McCormick, D.D.
The Lutheran Student Club: Prof.
Ralph Hammett of the School of Ar-
chitecture will show slides on the
grcat cathedrals of Europe and dis-
cuss the effect the cathedrals had on
architecture. Fellowship and sup-
per hour at 5:30p.m. Forum hour at
6:30 p.m. Everyone is welcome.
The Lutheran Student Club will
have a Bible Study Class on Tues-
day at 7:15 p.m. at the Michigan
League. Everyone is welcome.
Congregational Church, Sunday:
10:45 a.m. Service of Worship, ser-
mon by the minister. Following the
sermon Prof. Preston W. Slosson will
give an address on "False Gods," his
subject being, "The State as God, or
Worshipping Leviathan."
International Night, 6:30 at the
Student Fellowship. All foreign stu-
dents on the campus are cordially
invited to be the guests of the Fel-
lowship. There will be a panel dis-
cussion on the subject, "The Issues
of Youth-East and West," led by Dr.
Blakeman and a group of foreign
students. Refreshments will be served.
Congregational students and friends
are urged to attend this most in-
teresting meeting.
Unitarian Church, Sunday:
3 p.m., Symphony on the Air. 5
p.m. Twilight Service, Mr. Marley
will speak on "John Reed and the
Gospel 6f the Authentic." Violin solo
by Edwin Sherman.
7:30,. Liberal Students' Union.
Round Table discussion by students

on "Changing Status of the Newspa-
per."
St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Sun-
day:
Liberty at Third St., Carl A. Brauer,
minister. Nov. 15.
Morning worship and sermon by the
pastor at 10:451 a.m. "Christ's Obe-
dience to the Law" will be the sermon
topic.
Supper for students and young
people will be had at 6 p.m. followed
by a purely social program at 6:30
p.m. Students and their friends are
invited to spend a pleasant evening
at St. Paul's Lutheran Church.
Trinity Lutheran Church, Sunday:
Services will be held at 10:30 a.m.
in Trinity Lutheran Church, corner
of William and Fifth Ave. The Rev.
Henry Yoder, pastor, will use as his,.
theme "Strong in the Lord."
Graduate Outing Club: Trip to
Camp Newkirk at Dexter on Sunday
afternoon. Party leaves Lane Hall
at. 2:30 p.m. and will return early in
the evening. At this meeting, elec-
tion of officers will be held. Refresh-
ments and transportation provided.

T HE INTERNATIONAL Labor Of-
fice in Geneva has released fig-
ures which indicate such a precipitous drop in
world unemployment during the past three years
that the jobless of all nations are only 38 per
cent more numerous than in 1929. With the
figure 100 representing the 1929 level, today's in-
dex figure is 138 compared with the 1933 peak of
315.
Relying now upon figures presented in the -En-
cyclopedia"of Social Sciences, this means that
there are about 13 million unemployed today in
27 major countries of the world, whereas there
were about 30 million in 1933. Post-war unem-
ployment was least in 1925 when slightly more
than six million were out of work. The Soviet
Union, famous today for its labor shortage, had
one and one-half million unemployed in 1929,
chiefly because of the great flow from country to
town. From 85 to 95 per cent (the percentage
varying from year to year) of world unemploy-
ment since the war has been concentrated in the
seven greatest nations-the United States, Great
Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the
Soviet Union.
At first glance, the apparent decrease of 17
million in unemployment totals is tremendously
encouraging. But some reflection brings the
following observations, which give matters a less
optimistic hue.
Any unemployment at all indicates a certain
inadequacy of structure or function of an eco-
nomic system. During capitalism's most pros-
perous post-war year, 1925, there were more than
two million out of work in the United States
alone, and one and one-third million British job-
less.
The Labor Office report says: "Unemployment
has not been reduced to the extent that indus-
trial production has recovered." In the United
States especially the reabsorption of unemployed
in industry is far behind the pace of increasing
industrial prosperity. With business activity ap-
proaching to within a few percentage points of
pre-depression levels, according to the latest
charts, we still have at least nine million persons
out of work. And so, if during the years of in-
tense industrial activity in the '20's, there was
an unfailing labor surplus of from two to four
million, we need not be surprised to find from
four to six million constantly unemployed in the
future. Technological factors, prev ailing mo-
nopolistic organization, and the disappearance
of frontiers, share most of the responsibility for
this.
The Labor Office also reports that there is no
improvement in international trade comparable
to increased industrial production. Economic
nationalism, then, promises to cut short the
life of any prosperity and re-employment which

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