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March 26, 1936 - Image 4

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FOUR

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

THURSDAY, MARCH 26, 1936

_._._ -_..-....- _ _. _..._ -- -_ T _

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

1..

-a-

power and made the formation of despotic govern-
ments well nigh inevitable.
Mussolini's latest action concerning the Cham-
ber of Deputies is certainly proof to the world
and to the few democratic countries of the
world that representative government is on trial
Whether the liberalism of John Stuart Mill
Jeremy Bentham or Thomas Jefferson will with-
stand the present pressure of intolerance, dicta-
torship and suppression of freedom will be deter-
mined within the next few years. The success
or failure of liberalism may only be settled by a
great war, with the resulting depression, chaos
and possible decline of the West.

.A

[Te Conning Towerj
THE DIARY OF OUR OWN SAMUEL PEPYS
Saturday, March 14

71

-- -,1

w

4,. , - , - . . .. .. .. ,
Publisned every morning except Monday during theo
University year and Summer Session by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.
MEMBER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or
not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All rights of
republication of all other matter herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor. Michigan as
second class mail matter.
Subscriptions during regular school year by carrier, $4.00;
by mail, $4.50.
Iepresentatives: National Advertising Service, Inc., 420
Madison Ave., New York City; 400 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, Ill.

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT
BOARD OF EDITORS

Telephone 4925

MANAGTING EDITORT............IOMAS H. KLENE
ASSOCIATE EDITOR .............THOMAS E.GROEHN
Dorothy S. Gies Josephine T. McLean William R. Reed
DEPARTMENTAL BOARDS
Publication Department: Thomas H. Kleene, Chairman;
Clinton B. Conger. Robert Cummins, Richard G. Her-
shey, Ralph W. Hurd, Fred Warner Neal.
Reportorial Department: Thomas E. Groehn, Chairman;
Elsie A. Pierce, Joseph S. Mattes.
Editorial Department: Arnold S. Daniels, Marshall D.
Shulman.
Sports Department: William R. Reed, Chairman; George
Andros, Fred Buesser, Raymond Goodman.
Wom en'sDepartmeim: Josephine T. McLean, Chairman;
Josephine M. Cavanagh, Florence H. Daves, Marion T.
flden, Charlotte'' D. Rueger, Jewel W. Wuerfel.
BUSINESS DEPARTMENT Telephone 2-1214
BUSINESS MANAGER.........GEORGE H. ATHERTON
CREIT MANAGER------JOSEPH A. RoTH. ARD
WOMN'S BUSINESSMi NAGER....A.MAGARET OWIE
PV MEN'S SERVICE MAAGt ...L IZAETH SIIONEDS
DEPARTMENTAL MANAGERS
p lalnAdvertising, William , Bant; Service Department,
Willis Tomlinson; Contracts, Stanley Joffe; Accounts,
ward Wohgemuth; Circulation and National Adver-
t!ninL, John Park; Classified Advertising and Publica-
tons, Lymnan Bittmnan.
NIGHT EDITOR: RICHARD G. HERSHEY
Tac~tical
Errors.. .
THE WAY thin gs look today, the de-
feat of President Roosevelt will be
on a protest vote or nothing. This the Republicans
shQuld realize, and probably do, but they evidently
Co not see that protest propaganda must be pre-
cented with as much finesse as anything calculated
to win public sentiment. They, in other words,
stick their necks out needlessly.
A good example of this is Al Smith's Liberty
League speech of not many weeks ago. As Arthui
Krock. New York Times Washington correspon-
dent, remarks "In a setting of vast wealth, men
and women whose names -rightly or wrongly
are synonymous in the public mind with sodal and.
ecnomic privileges cheered Alfred E. Smith whom
they had turned from as a radical in 1928, when
this time he implied that Soviet philosophies,
politics and fruitless waste were the chief aspects
of the New Deal."
It is true that more people than ever before feel
there is something innately wrong in wealth. These
people are hardly disposed to cheer along with
multi-millionaires on political issues. Perhaps
Roosevelt has built up this suspicion of wealth -
perhaps it is an entirely unfounded suspicion, but it-
exists and the Republicans were foolish in this
case.
Another fault in this very speech, very common
ti speeches of the desperate party, is the red flag
waving. To any intelligent person the Roosevel;
Administration is nowhere near Communism -
and some less intelligent people who hear that
might think: "Well, then, Communism is a good
thing."
As the campaign wages there will be many more
oppQrtunities for foolish mistakes. For example,
some conservatives seem foolish enough to attac
velief. A statement to this effect can do no good
but tremendous harm.
Protest propaganda, conducted wisely and run-
bing against no grain of public sentiment, could;
very possibly win the 1936 election for the Re-
^ublican party. 3ut they will have to overcome,
some very serious tactical errors.-
Democ racy's
Crisis ...;
T HE AEOLITION OF the Italiana
Chamber of Deputies by MussoliniI
marks one more step in what seems to be a'
gradual decline of parliamentary government in
Europe, although the change made by II Duce
came as no surprise to those interested in ItalianI
politics since the famous March on Rome in
October, 1922.
Sincera brief period after the World War when
constitutions and parliamentary governments
were being set up throughout the Continent, they
have been steadily gainig disfavor. In Germany
and Italy dictatorship has replaced parliamentary
government, and in various other countries, such
as France, grave doubts as to the practicality of
the representative governments have arisen.
Democraticgovernments in most cases have'

fallen because they were powerless. Especially
was this true of the Italian system prior to the
time of Mussolini. The political leaders of Italy,
formed coalitions, and these governments were
short lived. Terrorism, which fostered Fascism,

As Others SeeIt__
Why Congress Should Pass
The Nye-Kvale Bill
EDITOR'S NOTE: The following editorial by
Roger E. Chase of Columbia University was award-
ed first prize in the contest for an editorial on the
above subject conducted by the Committee on
Militarism in Education.
"WE WON some things from the war, that were
not on the program. For example, we had
a complete demonstration of the fallacy of the
old tradition that preparedness prevents war." -
George H. Dern in an address at Riverside, Cali-
fornia, December 1931.
In December, 1935, Mr. Dern, as Secretary of
War, is busy spending the largest peacetime mili-
tary appropriation in the history of the United
States, making capital of "the old tradition that
preparedness prevents war" to hasten the drive
toward a bigger and better war.
The patrioteers - including, we trust, Mr. Dern
- have not forgotten the institutions of higher
learning. To dte more than two !hundred
campuses have found a place for the Reserve
Officers' Training Corps. Another hundred are
expected to add military training to their curricula
in the near future. In 118 institutions of learning
drill is not only offered but required.
Senator Nye of North Dakota and Representative
Kvale of Minnesota have introduced a bill intended
to eliminate conscription from American educa-
tion. The bill would amend the National Defense
Act of 1916 with the stipulation that no R.O.T.C.
unit be approved at any school or college "until
such institution shall have satisfied the Secretary
of War that enrollment in such unit (except in
the case of essentially military schools) is elective
and not compulsory." Mild as it may appear,
consonant with the democratic idea as it is, the
Nye-Kvale Bill is by no means assured of passage.
No sooner did the campaign against militarism
in education begin to assume formidable propor-
tions than spokesmen for "national defense"
rushed forward with euphemisms and counter-
charges. The R.O.T.C. was a higher form of
"physical education"; the goose-step was "char-
acter education"; compulsory drill was "citizen-
ship training", an antidote for the subversive
agitation of students who felt, and said, that
was unnecessary and futile and they would have
nothing to do with it.
It means little to the defenders of the R.O.T.C.
that the best minds in the field of physical edu-
cation have characterized as a hollow falsehood
the claim that drill "builds men."
It is irrelevant to the apostles of chauvinism that
the kind of "character" developed by the corps
is otherwise known as the "military mind" which
-Professor Reinhold Niebuhr once stated -
"makes unthinking obedience the summum bonum
in the hierarchy of virtues."
It is not at all alarming to the super-patriots
that "citizenship" as promoted in the R.O.T.C. has
meant the negation of science and democracy,
that the training corps have been as culpable as
any other group in the revival of American col-
lege vigilantism.
What that "citizenship" implies was once illus-
trated in an official R.O.T.C. manual (withdrawn
from circulation, thanks' to student protests, ten
years ago.) One passage read: "This inherent
desire to fight and kill must be carefully watched
for and encouraged by the student . . . " And
further: "To finish an opponent who hangs on
or attempts to pull you to the ground, always
try to break his hold by driving the knee or foot
to his crotch and gouging his eyes with your
thumbs."
"Citizenship," indeed!
As it becomes increasingly apparent that the
nation's military machine is being geared to the
inevitability if not the early desirability of another
war, rstudent protests against militarism and thej
society which breeds it will be increasingly vocal.
At the same time, R.O.T.C. units will crop up on
campuses which never had military training be-
fore. The corps already established will emergel
more clearly as storm-troops of bogus "American-
ism," intolerance, anti-intellectualism. They are
strongholds of reaction today; they may be the
vanguards of fascism tomorrow.'
Wide public support for the Nye-Kvale bill

may not signify the beginning of the end for the
R.O.T.C. But it will prevent further expulsions
of students who, on religious or political grounds,
refuse to submit to compulsory drill. More import-
ant, it will attract public attention to what has
long been an anti-social feature of our educational
system and today is an incubator of forces which
may some day destroy our civilization.
The campaign should not be confined to those
schools where compulsory R.O.T.C. exists. The
menace of jingoism cannot be isolated. Every
senator, representative in Congress should be no-
tified, deluged with petitions, hounded until such
time as he places his influence behind the bill.
It is encouraging that the tremendous growth
of the R.O.T.C: since the war has not occurred
without artificial stimulation. Although the cav-
alry went out of style and utiliti after Appomatox,
thousands of horses have been provided as sugar-
coating for the pill of compulsory training. For-
tunes have been spent on flashy uniforms. Pretty
girls have been recruited as "sponsors." The

EARLY UP, and by train to the city, and fussing
with my income tax, and fuming even more
s than fussing: and so at some work. and Mr. B. K.
Hart come to see from Providence, and tells me of
matters on that highly prosperous newspaper, the
Journal; and so at work some more, and thence
to play pool with J. Kirkland, and T. Bamberger,
and so had supper, and thence to play at cards,
winning Ten and no 100 Dollars; and so to H.
Miller's, hard by the East River, where I was
lulled to wakefulness by the boats on dat ole debil,
but fell asleep by dawn.
Sunday, March 15
UP, AND after breakfast to the train, and so
to the country for luncheon, and thenafter
worked all afternoon; and to bed early after sup-
per.
Monday, March 16
BETIMES UP, and at work in the afternoon,
putting in the morning at reading "The Great-
est Pages of American Humor," by Stephen Lea-
cock, which struck me as being a slipshod book,
and to speak of "Mr. Dooley, mopping up the beer
on the bar of his Archer Street Saloon," is wrong,
forasumch as the Archery Road Mr. Dunne speaks
of is not Archer Avenue; and Mr. Leacock speaks
of "the law office of Harry D. Feldman" and "the
Koshinko Bank," though Montague Glass wrote
of Henry D. Feldman and the Kosciusko Bank; nor
do I think that the selections are well made, for
instead of printing Bret Harte's parody of J. Feni-
more Cooper's Leather Stocking Tales, highly in-
telligible as parody - and so hilarious that I read
it before I tried to read "The Deerslayer" and
"The Last of the Mohicans" and never was able to
read them - he prints "Lothaw," which is a parody
of Disraeli's novel "Lothair," which while humorous
is still a poor selection, for I do not know anybody
who hath read a Disraeli novel. So for a trip to
the Horace Hurlbutt School, in Weston, and so
home, and found that our dog Duke had been
shot, and Mr. E. Atkins the veterinary come to
take him away. to see whether his life might be
saved; but we all mighty dejected over it.
Tuesday, March 17
VERY EARLY up and to the city on business,
and glad for my sake that the elevators were
again being run by experienced men; and it seemed
to me a Cock Robin affair:
Who won the strike?
"I," said Jim Bambrick,
"Without throwing a damn brick.
I won the strike."
Who won the strike?
"I," said the Board,
"With my strikebreaking horde,
I won the strike."
So by early train to the wet country, and did
some work, and in the evening read Rebecca
West's "The Thinking Reed," mighty interesting,
and the flavour that she gives of the fatuous
wealthy people, who never did anything that they
wanted to, I thought pathetic but very wittily done.
And when she was describing Marc Sallafranque,
thus:
Social fictions deceived him completely. He
placed credence in everything that anyone said
to him, whether it was a servant telling him
that his master was out, or a woman saying
she had not been able to attend his mother's
reception because she had had a headache. One
serious consequence of this was that, when
people said that they were pleased to see him,
he really believed that at the sight of him
they had been transfixed by an actual frisson
of pleasure.
I thought, Lord! how like me that is! For when
I ask somebody to do this or that, and he, and
especially she, says "I shall be delighted," it never
occurs to me that the person may be saying only a
tepid "Yes." I am so literal a man that I take
others literally, which is one reason why the easy
greeting of "Darling" between strangers never'
will cease to make me wince.
Wednesday, March 18
TP BY TIMES, of a raining morning, even the
Saugatuck River being mighty swollen. I am
not able to interpret what is occurring in Europe,
not knowing whether any of the nations actually
want war. To hear them tell it there never yet
was a nation that was not forced into a war. And
now there is a inquiry into the telegraph and
telephone company; and I doubt that anything
will come of it. But when they tell me that
naught came of the Senate Munitions Committee's
investigation, I do not agree. For what most per-

sons believe and remember, is not the actual testi-
mony, but a general idea, wrong or right, that the
big financiers were the motive power for the
war, and that the propaganda of munitions in-
terests was strong and subtle. This business of
having fifteen more letters in the alphabet is as
great popycock as the idea that next season we
shall all be wearing scarlet evening suits. So
read most of the afternoon and evening by the fire,
it being a chill and rainy day.
Thursday, March 19
fO THE CITY with my boy Tim for his dentistry,
and so he back alone on the 11 o'clock train,
and I to the office and at work upon matters liter-
ary and financial, which I do thank Heaven are
not yet synonymous in my life's vocabulary. So
late in the evening to H. Miller's and saw R. Crouse
who tells me that hath been 27 hours on the train
coming from Pittsburgh, owing to the flood, and
a snowstorm in Buffalo. Saw too Dot Thompson,
but not yet have I seen her there. So home and
to bed.
Friday March 20.
I AY LONG of a warmish and sunny morning, and.
for a million dollars I would not have risen
at all, and for half that sum I would take a fort-
night's holiday. So by train to the office, and sad-

Washingon
Off The Record
By SIGRID ARNE
COME WHAT MAY in the November-
elections, Representative Dewey
Short, of Missouri, has a job waiting
for him. A letter was forwarded from
his Galena home written by a Mis-
sourian who said:
"Dear Sir: There was a man here
tonight said you worked for him and
was a good worker. I have a cafe
and a good business. I will try you
out and if you are satisfactory pay
you reasonable wages."
Short answered on House of
sentatives stationery:
"Dear Sir: As you will observe by
the letterhead, I am at present em-
ployed. But this is election year so
I am filing your offer."
Marvin McIntyre and Stephen
Early were being ragged about
theis Jobs as secretaries to the
President. They are known effi-
cially as the "secretariat." Some
question had arisen as to the or-
igin of the word.
"That's easy," said the wag,
"it's because the President is al-
ways shouting, 'Where's my sec-
retary at?'
REPRESENTATIVE JOHN M. COS
TELLO of California has an ar-
gument in favor of airplane travel. He
took an air trip on congressional bus-,
iness, and on the return the plane
was wrecked. Costello and the pilot
crawled out unharmed and took the
train back to Washington.
On arrival Costello started to walk'
straight to the capital. After two'
blocks he suddenly saw a huge, black
object hurtle past his head. A man-
hole cover had blown off and nar-
rowly missed him.
Habit played an amusing trickj
on the House of Representatives
en a recent day when the House
was not in session.t
Capitol electricians were test-1
ing bells which call members to
the floor. On the first signal
representatives automatically
dropped work in their offices and
dutifully trekked to the House
chamber.
REPRESENTATIVE D. J. Driscollt
insists a vote is a vote, so he holds
no resentment for the old German
back home in St. Mary's, Pa.
The old German passed Driscoll's1
headquarters with a friend during the
last campaign, and Driscoll over heard
them:
"You going to vote for dis fel-
low?" asked one.t
"Yah,,
"But you always don't like him."
"Yah, but I vote for him. He go
to Washington and we get rid of him."
MEXICO furnished Representative
Kent Keller of Illinois with an3
illustration for the theory of rela-i
tivity.
He spent 12 years below the Rioc
Grande. Once he superintended thex
building of a mine where he had to use
untrained Mexicans.
They had never seen a wheelbarrow,
so Keller loaded one, rolled it and
dumped it. "Now you do it," he or-
dered and walked off.
When he came back, the Mexicanst
were doing just as they were toldt
with one exception. After they hadc
dumped their barrows they care-t
fully carried them back in their armsf
to the loading spot.9

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication In the Bulletin is co n~fruetlve notice to al emrs of the
WJveraity. Copy received at the officc of the Assistant to the President
mtfl 3:30; 12:00 a.m. an Saturday.

THURSDAY, MARCH 26, 1936
VOL. XLVI No. 124
Notices
Students of the College of Litera-
ture, Science, and the Arts: A meet-
ing will be held on Thursday, March
26, at 4:15 p.m., in Room 1025, Angell
Hall for students in the College of
Literature, Science and the Arts and
others interested in future work in
Library Science. The meeting, one of
the vocational series designed to give
information concerning the nature
and preparation for the various pro-
fessions, will be addressed by Dr. W.
W. Bishop, Librarian of the Universi-
ty and Chairman of the Department
of Library Science. The next pro-
fessional talk, -to be given by Prof.
R. B. Rodkey of the School of Busi-
ness Administration, will be given on
Tuesday, March 31.
All Students of the University who
are Daughters or Sons of Rotarians
are cordially invited to be the guests
of the Ann Arbor Rotary Club for
luncheon on Wednesday, April 8, at
12:15 o'clock at the Michigan Union.
Please make reservations promptly in
Room 107, Mason Hall.
Students, College of Engineering:
The final day for dropping a course
without record will be Salturday,

Differences and Numerical Summa-
tion of Series." Review of Litera-
ture. Meeting in Room 314 W. Engi-
neering Annex, 4:00 p.m. All inter-
ested are cordially invited to attend.
Scabbard and Blade: Rushing
Smoker at 7:30 p.m., Room 319-325
Michigan Union.
Weekly Reading Hour; Prof. Clar-
ence D. Thorpe, of the English De-
partment, will read from the poetry
of John Keats at the Weekly Read-
ing Hour at 4 p.m., Room 205 Mason
Hall. All persons interested are cor-
dially invited to attend.
Harris Hall: Today at 12 noon to 1
p.m. there will be the Student Star-
vation Luncheon in Harris Hall. All
students and their friends are cor-
dially invited. The proceeds will go
to the Rector's Discretionary Fund
for students.
Hillel Foundation: There will be a
tea at 3:30 at the Foundation, spon-
sored by the Hillel Foundation. All
are welcome.
Sigma Delta Chi: Regular dinner
meeting for members, pledges and
guests at 6:15 p.m. in the Union.
Pledge speakers will be Mr. Arnold
Daniels and Mr. Maynard Hicks.
Maj.-Gen. Smedley D. Butler (U.S.
Marines, retired), will speak on "War
Is A Racket" at 8:15 p.m. today in
Hill Auditorium. The lecture is spon-
sored by the Students' Alliance.
Coming Events

March 28. Courses may be dropped
only with the permission of the clas-
sifier after conference with the in-
structor in the course.
Senior Women may get tickets for
J.G.P. and Senior Supper in the Un-
dergraduate Offices of th eLeague on
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and
Thursday, from 3:30 to 5:30. The
price is 65 cents, and includes dinner
and the play. Dormitories and sor-
orities are urged to buy blocks of
tickets. No reservations will be held
longer than 24 hours.
Senior Women: No one will be ad-
mitted to the Senior Banquet and
Play without cap and gown. There
are still a few available at the League.
They may be obtained from Miss Mc-
Cormick.
Academic Notices

From The Daily Files
March 26, 1936
Prof. Thomas C. Trueblood of the
public speaking department, who has
been a member of the University
faculty since 1889, presented his res-
ignation to the Board of Regents
Wednesday. Professor Tiueblood has
for many years been the director of
the University golf teams. He is the
inventor of the famous Michigan yell.
Captain Rene Fonek, France's pre-
mier fighting aviator of the World
War, today announced plans for an
attempt to make a non-stop flight be-
tween Paris and New York, but said
he probably would not be ready for
the adventure before next year. It is
possible an American aviator may ac-
company him as an aide.
Five articles of the impeachment
against Federal Judge George W.
English of Illinois for "high misde-
meanors in office" were laid before
the House today by its judiciary com-
mittee, and action on them will be
taken next Thursday.
Michigan's Varsity track team, ac-
companied by Coaches Farrell and
Hoyt, will leave Ann Arbor for Ithica
at 3:28 o'clock this afternoon to com-
pete in the 15th annual dual indoor
track meet with Cornell.
Michigan's first student interna-
tional tribunal will assemble at 7:30
o'clock tonight in Lane Hall to dis-
cuss world problems and their solu-
tion.

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Economics 52: Rooms for the blue-
book on Thursday at 2 o'clock are as
follows: N.A.Aud., Danhof and An-
derson's sections. 25 A.H., Hebbard
and Church's sections. 35 A.H., Mil-
ler's sections. 231 A.H., Wiers' sec-
tions.
Lecture
Presbyterian Lenten Lecture: The
fifth in the series of Lenten Lectures
at the Masonic Temple given by Dr.
William P. Lemon will be offered to-
night at 7 p.m. The subject will be
Tennyson's "Idylls of the King." The
dinner will be served promptly at 6
p.m. Students and faculty are in-
vited.
Exhibition
Exhibition, Architectural Building:
A collection of drawings representing
the work of the schools affiliated with
the Association of Collegiate Schools
of Architecture is now on view in the
third floor exhibition room of the
Architectural Building. Open daily
9 to 5 except Sunday, through March
31. The public is cordially invited.
Evets Of Today
Psychology Journal Club meets at
7:30 p.m., in Room 3126 N.S. Profes-
sor Maier will discuss Koffka's recent
book on Gestalt Psychology.
Applitd Mechanics Colloquium: Mr.
D. K. Kazarinoff will speak on "Finite
Eden Declares
Italy's Answer
Unsatisfactory
LONDON, March 25. - (A') - For-
eign Secretary Eden informed the
House of Commons today that he had
told Italy that Great Britain was
unable to regard Italy's answer to rep-
resentations made over the bombing
of a British Red Cross unit in Ethi-
opia "as in any way satisfactory."
Eden's statement was a written
reply to Lieut. Commander R.T.H.
Fletcher, Labor Party member, who
wanted to know the result of Great
Britain's representations.
Eden said that he still was awaiting
further information by the officer in
charge of the ambulance unit.
(The British Red Cross unit in
Ethiopia was bombed last month by
an Italian airplane. The Italians
claimed that the unit was carrying
Munitions).
ROME, March 25. - (A') - Marshal
Pietro Badoglio, commander of the
Italian forces in Ethiopia, reported
today that a squadron of 80 Italian'
airplanes had again bombed Jijiga,

Delta Epsilon Pi: There will be a
meeting at the Michigan Union, Fri-
day, at 8 p.m. sharp. Officers for the
year 1936-37 will be elected. All mem-
bers are urged to be present.
Graduate Outing Club: Second an-
nual banquet of the Graduate Outing
Club. Meet at Lane Hall Saturday
at 3:00 p.m. Transportation will be
provided to Wolverine Day Camp
(scene of the event). Total expense
50 cents.
Stalker Hall Dance: Jacob's Wol-
verines, a six-piece orchestra, will
play for a dance Friday, March 27.
The charge for dancing and .refresh-
ments will be 25 cents. All students
are cordially invited.
Congregational Student Fellowship
Party in the Parlors of the Church,
Friday, 8:30 to 12:00. All Congre-
gational Students and their friends
are cordially invited.
Kagawa Gives
First Lecture
In Loud Series
Great Japanese Answers
Many Questions On Life,
Work And Beliefs
(Continued from Page 1)
spirit of peace, recognition of labor,
and a spirit of personal piety.
In the first of the Martin Loud lec-
tures, given yesterday afternoon in
Hill Auditorium, Kagawa expressed
the opinion that war was impossible
to prevent by any means other than
the securing of cooperation and feel-
ing of good will between nations. The
topic of the lecture was "Christian
Cooperatives and World Peace."
Five elements were mentioned by
Kagawa as confronting the nations
of the world and as being the causes
of the economic and militaristic chaos
existing today. These included the
problems of over-population, the
necessity for "aw materials, national
loans, commercial policy and trans-
portation policy. Kagawa stated that
peace cannot be obtained until every
one of the problems is solved.
Finland and the Scandinavian
countries of Norway, Denmark and
Sweden were cited by Kagawa as an
example of international cooperation.
Each of these countries has a coopera-
tive system of its own, Kagawa stated,
but in addition these nations cooper-
ate with each other in their com-
mercial relations. These northern
countries were characterized as bear-
ers of international good will, and
were contrasted with the other powers
of Europe whose histories were "red
with the blood of imperialistic wars."
The Japanese cooperator deplored
the fear that has developed among
peoples by the rapid and scientific
growth of the last few decades. He
stated that psychological differences
and fear of each other among various
peoples of the earth have caused the
present armament building programs.
One solitary banking system for the
entire world was advocated by Ka-
gawa. With this device, he claimed,
problems arising from international
loans could be avoided. "During the
war, we lent the allies money," K-
gawa said. "Why can't we go a step

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