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October 03, 1935 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1935-10-03

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Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session by the Board in Con-
trol of Student Publications.
Member of the Western Conference Editorial Association
and the Big Ten News Service.
Associated ollegiate ress
-x1934 1935 -
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or
not otherwise credited in this paper and the local news
published herein. All rights of republication of special
dispatches are reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class matter. Special rate of postage granted by
Third Assistant Postmaster-General.
Subscription dpring summer by carrier, $1.00; by mail,
$1.50. During regular school year by carrier, $4.00; by mail,
Offices: Student Publications Building, Maynard Street,
Ann Arbor, Michigan. Phone: 2-1214.
Representatives: National Advertising Service, Inc. 11
West 42nd Street, New York, N.Y.-400 N. Michigan Ave.
Chicago, Ill.
Telephone 4925
News Editor ......... .... . ............. .... Elsie A. Pierce
Editorial Writers: Robert Cummins and Marshall D. Shul-
Night Editors: Robert B. Brown, Clinton B. Conger, Rich-
ard G. Hershey, Ralph W. Hurd, Fred Warner Neal, and
Bernard Weissman.
SPORTS ASSISTANTS: George Andros, Fred Buesser, Fred
Delano, Robert J. Friedman, Raymond Goodman.
WOMEN'S ASSISTANTS: Dorothy A. Briscoe, Florence H.
Davies, Olive E. Griffith, Marion T. Holden, Lois M.
King, Charlotte D. Rueger, Jewel W. Wuerfel.
REPORTERS : E. Bryce Alpern, Leonard Bleyer, Jr., Wil-
liam A. Boles, Lester Brauser, Albert Carlisle, Rich-
ard Cohen, Arnold S. Daniels, William John DeLancey,
Robert Ecklouse, John J. Frederick, Carl Gerstacker,
Warren Gl1dders, Robert Goldstine, John Hinckley,
S. Leonard Kasle, Richard LaMarcarHerbert W. Little,
Earle J. Luby, Joseph S. Mattes, Ernest L. McKenzie,
Arthur A. Miller, Stewart Orton, George S. Quick,
Robert D. Rogers, William Scholz, William E. Shackle-
ton, Richard Sidder, I. S. Silverman, William C. Spaller,
Tuure Tenander, and Robert Weeks.
Helen Louise Arner, Mary Campbell, Helen Douglas,
Beatrice Fisher, Mary E. Garvin, Betty J. Groomes,
Jeanne Johnson, Rosalie Kanners, Virginia Kenner,
Barbara Lovell, Marjorie Mackintosh, Louise Mars,
Roberta Jean Melin, Barbara Spencer, Betty Strick-
root, Theresa Swab, Peggy Swantz, and Elizabeth Whit-
Telephone 2-1214
DEPARTMENTAL MANAGERS: Local advertising, William
Barndt; Service Department, Willis Tomlinson; Con-
tracts, Stanley Joffe; Accounts, Edward Wohlgemuth;
Circulation and National Advertising, John Park;
Classified Advertising and Publications, Lyman Bitt-
BUSINESS ASSISTANTS: Jerome I. Balas, Charles W.
Barkdull, D. G. Bronson, Lewis E. Bulkeley, John C.
Clark, Robert J. Cooper,nRichard L. Croushore, Herbert
D. Fallender, John T. Guernsey, Jack R. Gustafson,
Morton Jacobs, Ernest A. Jones, Marvin Kay, Henry
J. Klose, William C. Knecht, R. A. Kronenberger, Wil-
liam R. Mann, John F. McLean, Jr., Lawrence M. Roth,
Richard M. Samuels, John D. Staple, Lawrence A. Star-
sky, Norman B. Steinberg.
WOMEN'S BUSINESS STAFF: Betty Cavender, Bernadine
Field, Betty Greve, Helen Shapland, Grace Snyder,
Betsy Baxter, Margaret Bentley, Mary McCord, Adele
Freshmen Should
Wear 'pots'. .

"Democracy is not a static thing. It is an ever-
lasting march!"
"The President," shouted Colonel Knox to a
cheering Chicago crowd Constitution Day, is put
in office by the provisions of the Constitution.
It does not lay within his power to alter that to
which he is responsible!"
Within these quotations are embodied the es-
sential differences in the philosophy of the two
parties. It is doubtful whether the President will
consider the matter of constitutional amendment
strong enough to raise 'as a campaign issue. And
yet, underlying the political give-and-take, there
remains this fundamental problem that the voter
must consider - expediency versus a lifelong com-
mittment to an inflexible political spine.
It is not a case of liberals versus reactionaries.
It means that ordinary, conservative people as you
and I must decide whether democracy is an "ever-
lasting march" or an eternal consecration to the
principle of the unswerving separation of the
executive, legislative, and judicial powers.
The New Deal was the answer to a nation's cry
for "action." As such, it was justified by the de-
mands of expediency. Such a demand may trans-
cend constitutional standards, if you're Demo-
cratic; or they may not, if you aren't. This is
the real campaign issue.
Michigan Gets
A Carillon.
BEFORE so very long the clear, beau-
tiful notes of a carillon, the third
largest in the world, will ring out across the
University campus.
Money for the carillon - $50,000 some time ago
and, just Monday, an additional $4,000 -has been
given by a munificent alumnus, Charles L. Baird,
'95L, a Kansas City lawyer. The added grant will
go for the purchase of an E flat bell, which will
enable the University carillon to strike as great a
variety of notes as that at Mount Lake, Fla.
The location of the tower has not yet been de-
termined. Wisely, however, plans seem to be
forming to erect it on or near the campus, where
it will make a worthy addition.
Michigan indeed owes much to Mr. Baird. His
generous gift is timely and shows a civic spirit-
edness typical of many University alumni. While
Michigan, in the past, has not ranked high among
the higher institutions of learning in large dona-
tions received, it now appears to be coming into
its own. First comes the resplendent William L.
Clements Library, then the Law Quadrangle, and
two weeks ago the $5,000,000 from the Rackham
fund for a new graduate school.
Mr. Baird's contributions to the University's
good has not been in money only. He was Mich-
igan's first athletic director and it was under his
administration that Fielding H. Yost came to the
Inspection Of
Fraternities.. .

A Washington

mmm-- - - M _WWAPMW

THE "BOOS" of legionnaires, which rang so
harshly in Representative Patman's ears at
St. Louis, may have been sweet music to Presi-
dent Roosevelt. He faced a difficult question,
both political and economic, in looking forward to
the next session. The non-inflationary pay-the-
bonus resolution adopted at St. Louis may spell
an escape for him on both counts.
Last session, the House voted 322 to 98 to over-
ride his veto of a Patman pay-the-bonus bill which
the President warned would be fraught with "dis-
astrous consequences" for the treasury. The Sen-
ate barely mustered 40 noes against 54 ayes to kill
the bill for lack of a two-thirds majority.
* * * *
Another Veto?
F[HE BONUS BATTLE will be closer next session
for obvious reasons. A new vote in January
has been pledged by administration leaders. A
third of the senators will be campaigning forI
renomination. Among them will be six Democrats1
and seven Republicans who risked political ob-
livion to support the President's hand. Among the
Democrats are Robinson of Arkansas, Senate
leader, and Harrison of Mississippi, New Deal
wheel-horse. Also supporting the President on
the bonus question was McNary of Oregon, the
Republican leader who frequently has cooperated
with the White House as far as party differences
would permit.
Very clearly an adamant White House attitude
would face different conditions in January than
those under which its painfully narrow and highly
negative victory of last May was won.. There can
be no reasonable assurance up to the hour of the
new Senate roll call count that a veto again can
prevail. The "heat" of the impending primary
campaign will be on, those senators. Bonus pay-
ment advocates are ready to stake almost anything
right now that they will triumph in January,
regardless of what the White House says or does.
-* * * *
Compromise Seenm
F THERE is any way to avoid the issue, to lift
that question out of the campaign by accepting
some compromise as to the method of financing
the advanced payment to the veterans, pressure
upon the White House will be very strong to seek it.
Not only political considerations, such as the
fate of Robinson and Harrison in whose behalf the
White House is interested, but administration eco-
nomic policy seems at this distance likely to in-
vite compromise.
Suppose Mr. Roosevelt should not be willing
to compromise, despite the fact that his career as
governor and president indicates he favors making
the best possible bargain with legislators rather
than plunging into head-on and hopeless clashes.
He easily could find himself faced by a manda-
tory bonus payment bill requiring currency ex-
pansion in the billions. If the bonus advocates
are as sure of their strength in January as they
are today they might insist upon that method to
gain support of the outright inflationists on the

Faculty Meeting, College of Liter-
ature, Science, and the Arts. The
regular October meeting will be held
in Room 1025, Angell Hall, Monday
afternoon, October 7, beginning at
4:10 o'clock.
1. Memorial to Professor Wild.
2. Introduction of new members of
professional rank.
3. Elections to Executive Commit-
tee, University Council, and Library
4. Enrollment statistics.
5. Reports.
a. Executive Committee, LaRue.
b. Deans' Conference, Kraus.
c. Administrative Board, Humph-
d. Committee on Schedules, La-
e. Foreign Periodical and Book Sit-
uation, Bishop.
6. Announcements.
Social Chairmen of Fraternities
and Sororities: All party requests,
accompanied by letters of accept-
ance from two sets of chaperons and
a letter of approval from the Finan-
cial Adviser must be submitted to the
Office of the Dean of Women or the
Office of the Dean of Students on the
Monday preceding the date set for
the party.
J. A. Bursley, Dean of Students.
Earhart Foundation Scholarships:
A limited number of Scholarships,
open to qualifying Senior students,
have been made available by a grant
from the Earhart Foundation.
The purpose of the Scholarships is
to enable interested students to un-
dertake field studies of community
problems in the Detroit area. The
stipend merely covers transportation
Applications will be considered dur-
ing the present week in the office of
the Department of Sociology, Room
115, Haven Hall.
English for Foreign Students: For-
eign students who feel that they need
help with their English may be in-
terested in the organization of a two-
hour non-credit course in conversa-
tional English to be offered Wednes-
days and Fridays at 4 o'clock. The
first meeting of the class will be held
next Wednesday, October 10, in Room
J. Raleigh Nelson, Counselor to
Foreign Students.
Choral Union Ushers: Sign up at
Hill Auditorium box office Thursday
or Friday between 4:30 and 5:30 p.m.
Women Students - Defers in Phys-
ical Education. Students who find'it
necessary to ask for a defer of their
physical education for this semester,
must make these arrangements this
week. Consult'Dr. Bell in the Barbour
Gymnasium office 8:30 to 10:00, or
at the Health Service 10:00 to 12:00.
Upperclass Women - Hygiene Ex-
amination. The hygiene exemption
examination for upperclass women
will be held at 8 o'clock on Saturday,
October 5, in the West Amphitheatre
of the West Medical Building. This
examination is for students who have
received no credit. This will be the
only opportunity to take the exam-
ination. Any questions should be
referred to Dr. Schutz at the Health
The League Library is building up a
Clipping File, and would appreciate
having any old literary and book-
reviewing magazines which faculty
members or students are willing to
contribute. Please phone Mary Wed-
emeyer, Librarian, 3877.
Academic Notices
Graduate Students in Education.
Course B160 in Education, scheduled

for Saturday from 9-11, has been
withdrawn, and Course B255, Social
Interpretation ,has been substituted
at the same hour. Students who have
selected the first course are requested
to make their changes in election as
soon as possible.
Applicants for Ph.D. Degree In Ec-
onomics: Preliminary examinations
for the Ph.D. degree in Economics
will be held the week beginning Oc-
tober 28. Students who are qualified
to take these examinations, wishing
to write them at this time, should
get in touch at once with the De-
partment office.
English 1, Sec. 45, meets in Room
3231 Angell Hall.
English 1, Sec. 46, meets in Room
2231 Angell Hall.

the Hopwood Room, 3227 Angell
R. W. Cowden.

English 230
will meet for
at 5 o'clock in

(Spenser and His Age)
organization Thursday
Room 2213 Angell Hall.
M. P.Tilley.

all fraternities and.

Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the
University. Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President
until 3:30; 11:00 a.m. on Saturday.

registration of
sororities on the

campus has begun by state fire protection offi-
Obviously this action, taken in compliance with
the State law, will be most commendable. The
Kerns Hotel fire in Lansing last year, the inspira-
tion for the law, is an only too lurid and horrible
example of the suffering and disaster which may
and does result from neglect. Every effort should
be bent to the prevention of fires in Ann Arbor
and on the campus, regardless of how remote the
possibilities of such fires might be.
It is unfortunate, however, that it is only now
that authorities have gotten around to carrying
out the provisions of the statute. As an example
of delay in a vital matter - a delay for which there
is no apparent reason -it is indeed an unencour-
aging example of the attitude which must be fought
if fires are to be prevented.
While expressing, therefore, all commendation
for the inspection plans now being carried out,
it is at the same time important to recognize that
procrastination in such matters is both needless
and disastrous, and to warn against it in the fu-
While inspectors are investigating fire hazards,
it would be wise if careful attention is given the
heating systems of the houses. A defective fur-
nace fire at a Dartmouth dormitory two years ago,
cost several student lives. Careful inspection
would have prevented this disaster.

English 221 (Studies in Tudor and
Stuart Drama) will meet at 4 o'clock
Thursday, October 3 in Room 3212
Angell Hall.
O. J. Campbell.
Geology 11: The Tuesday field tripI
section will be held; the Thursday
field trip section has been cancelled,
Business Administration 171: The
course in Insurance, Business Ad-,
ministration 171, will be offered in the
first semester. It will be taught by,
Mr. Hampton Irwin of Detroit.
Business Administration 209: This
is a new course in Tabulating Ma-
chine Practice, one hour credit,
Thursday two to three, Tabulating
Office, Angell Hall. Mr. Meacham.
Hygiene 211 Race Hygiene: This
course will be given the first semester,
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at
11:00, Room 135 West Medical Build-
ang. Previously, this course was list-
ed for the second semester.
Advanced Automotive Testing and
Research. Students electing this
course will meet in Room 209 West
Engineering Annex Thursday at 4:30
p.m. Semester arrangements will be
made at this time.
Students of Mathematics: The
comprehensive examination in math-
ematics for students entering upon
concentration in this field will be held
in Room 3010 A. H., Thursday, Oct.
3, 3 to 5 p.m.
Mathematics 301 and 370. Seminar
in Analysis. Preliminary meeting for
the arrangement of hours and dis-
cussion of topics Thursday, Oct. 3,
3 p.m., 3001 A. H.
Psych. 33L, 35, 37. All students in
these courses are required to attend
the introductory lecture to the lab-
oratory work, given by Professor
Shepard on Friday, October 4, 4:15
p.m., Room 3126 N. S. Building. As-
signment to laboratory sections will
be made at that time.
Psych. 55. Students who were not
present for the first meeting of this
course are expected to get the ma-
terial for their first assignment on
Friday, October 4 at 5:00 p.m., in
Room 3122 N. S. Building.
Sociology 201, Field Work: Stu-
dents who have elected field work in
connection with the Social Service
Curriculum should meet me this
Thursday at five o'clock in room 313,
Haven Hall to plan assignments.
Arthur Evans Wood
Events Of Today
Weekly Reading Hour: The weekly
reading hour for this semester will
be held on Thursday afternoons at 4
o'clock in Room 205 Mason Hall.
Readings from poetry, drama, and
other forms of literature will be giv-
en. The public is cordially invited.
On October 3, Professor Hollister will
read from Tennyson's "Enoch Ar-
Interpretive Arts Society: All mem-
bers of this Society who wish to take
active part in the society this semes-
ter are requested to meet with Pro-
fessor Hollister at 5:00 p.m. Thurs-
day, October 3, Room 205 Mason
Hall, immediately following the week-
ly reading hour.
The Art Cinema League, a student-
faculty organization devoted to bring-
ing to the campus foreign films of
dramatic and artistic merit, will hold
its organizational meeting at 4:30,
Michigan Leagoe. All interested are
cordially invited to attend.
Hillel Foundation: Freshmen re-
ception and social, Thursday, Oc-
tober 3, at 4 to 6 p.m. All members
of class of 1939 and new students on

campus invited to attend.
Opening Friday Night Service, Oc-
tober 4, 7:30. Services conducted by
students, Dr. Bernard Heller will ad-
dress the group.
Coming Events
Delta Epsilon Pi will meet at the
Michigan Union on Friday, October
4, 8:30 p.m.
Contemporary Tryouts: There will
be a general meeting of all those who
are interested in trying out for the
business and literary staff of Contem-
porary, Michigan literary quarterly,
Friday, 4 o'clock, room 2231 Angell
Yom Kippur Services. The Reform
Services will be held at the Unitarian
01.,1rh QIV~rI -%7 vnritflr rlfnhr

Supreme Court
May Undertake
P W A Review
Legislation Of New Deal
To Be Considered This
Fall By High Court
WASHINGTON, Oct. 2. - ()-
Activities of the Public Works Ad-
ministration are under attack in the
Supreme Court in two important
One challenges the right of PWA
to make loans or donations to mu-
nicipalities to construct electric
plants and distribution systems. The
Kansas Supreme Court upheld PWA.
In the other, the Sixth Circuit
Court of Appeals ruled invalid the
section of the National Industrial
Recovery Act providing for slum
clearance and low-cost housing. The
case grew out of the condemnation
of land in Louisville, Ky.
Soon after the Supreme Court be-
gins its fall term next Monday it will
announce whether it will review these
controversies. If it refuses, the de-
cision of the last highest court will
The Kansas Utilities Co. contended
PWA hadtno right to make a $45,300
donation to Burlington, Kan., to en-
able the city to construct an electric
plant and distribution system.
In the Louisville slum clearance
case, Edward J. Garnert and other
owners of land condemned challenged
the validity.of the PWA action. The
Federal District Court ruled that "no
power resides in the National Gov-
ernment to condemn the property for
the purposes for which it is intend-
ed" The Court of Appeals affirmed
that judgment and PWA appealed
to the Supreme Court.
Anti - Semitic
Drive Is Given
New Program
Jewish Veterans Deprived
Of Right To Serve As
Notaries By Order
BERLIN, Oct. 2. - (P)-A relent-
less weeding-out of Jews from public
and business life gave impetus to-
day to the anti-Semitic drive in the
Third Reich.
All Jewish notaries who had been
permitted to continue their business
on the ground that they were old
trench fighters have been deprived
of their offices by a circular order.
Reichsfuehrer Adolf Hitler's news-
paper, the Voelkischer Beobachter
announced that the Koesener Student
League --Germany's greatest student
organization, which had defied gov-
ernment demands that it cleanse its
ranks of non-Aryans -had "dissolved
"Reactionaries lost their last
stronghold among students with the
end of this organization," the news-
paper said.
Schwartzkorps, the organ of the
Schutz Staffel - black-shirted, picked
Nazi guards - charged Jews with re-
sponsibility for the Brandenburg gate
subway came-in, which cost the lives
of 19 workers.
In a front page editorial announc-
ing "revelations of an investigation"
the newspaper said the construction
company working on the subway was
Jewish-owned, but had been disguised
as Aryan. It asserted the company
obtained the contract without prev-
ious experience in subway excava-
Schwartzkorps said further that

30 Jews who occupied leading posi-
tions in the German railway admin-
istration, which gave orders for the
construction work, were discharged.
It demanded elimination of all non-
Aryans from railway organizations.
Laman Clemency
Is Up To Brucker
LANSING, Oct. 1. - (YP) - Parole
Commissioner Joseph C. Armstrong
said Monday that he would not grant
further clemency to Joseph (Legs)
Laman, convicted kidnaper, unless
former Gov. Wilber M. Brucker
recommends it.
Laman, convicted of kidnaping
Fred Begeman, of Wyandotte, gave
the state information that resulted
in the conviction of a band of kid-
napers. Laman's sentence of 30 to
40 years in Jackson prison was re-
duced by Brucker to from 10 to 20
years. Less special good time, the
minimum term would expire April
DETROIT, Oct. 2.-(P)- Carne-
gie McCauley, 24-year-old Negro, was
in a critical condition in Redford Re-
ceiving hospital today as the result
of an explosion which wrecked the
Triad corporation plant at 14265
Birwood Ave.
Lutheran church, 309 E. Washington
*,.nn 4-ri flonpl ,'n a ll Tmf,.4h- n , ...

o'clock there will be a mass meet-
ing of the freshman class, sponsored by the Men's
Council, to decide whether or not the class of 1939
will resume the custom of wearing "pots," aban-
doned two years ago.
It is the sincere wish of The Daily, and we feel
sure the rest of the University, that the class of
1939 will act favorably on this effort of the Council
to restore a Michigan tradition.
Such action by the freshmen will not be unique.
Recently the class at the University of California
voted to restore the wearing of freshman caps.
The reason, supposedly, freshmen object to
wearing pots is that it brands them. Many look
on the pot as a disgrace. It is certainly no dis-
grace to be a freshman -everyone is sometime -
and there is no reason it should be considered a
disgrace to be identified as a freshman. The fresh-
man should take pride in the class of 1939 and
should be proud to be recognized as a member of
In recent years Michigan class and school spirit
has suffered a sad decline. Many of last year's
defeats in football are directly traceable to poor
There is nothing that would do more for the
spirit of the freshman class than the collective
and proud wearing of a badge. The restoration of
the "pot" will accomplish this and the class of 1939
will set a helpful example of spirit to the other
Michigan classes.
The University has few enough traditions now.
The class of 1939 will make itself appreciated by
the whole University if it will voluntarily restore
the tradition of wearing "pots."
The Real
Campaign Issue .. .
44 EARS AGO, President Wilson told
j me a story," Franklin Roosevelt
told California aundienns this week.

Letters published in this column should not be
construed as expressing the editorial opinion of The
Daily. Anonymous contributions will be disregarded.
The names of communicants will, however, be regarded
as confidential upon request. Contributors are asked
to be brief, the editors reserving the right to condense
all letters of over 300 words and to accept or reject
letters upon the criteria of general editorial importance
and interest to the campus.
Hawaii Speaks
To the Editor:
In the interests of accuracy, exception is hereby
taken to a news item in column 1, page 5, of your
issue of October 2, in which Hawaii and the
Philippines are classified as "foreign."
The United States Supreme Court has said that
a foreignycountry is one exclusively within the
sovereignty of a foreign nation, and without the
sovereignty of the United States. (DeLima v.
Bidwell, 182 U.S. 1).
Moreover, the Court has also held that the
term "United States" includes the states, incor-
pIorated territories, and the District of Columbia.
Therefore, the citizens of Hawaii (an incorporated
territory) are citizens of the United States, and
not "foreigners." As for the Filipinos, they are
"nationals," since the Philippines constitute an un-
incorporated territory. The point of distinction
between the two types of territories lies in the

As Others See It
Newspapers Have Confidences
(From the St. Louis Post-Dispatch)
The need for state laws protecting newspaper
confidences is in evidence more and more. The
latest case of this sort involves a student journalist,
Elbert L. Herron, managing editor of the Daily
Illini, student newspaper at the University of Illi-
nois. Following an announcement by Mayor James
Flynn that gambling had been suppressed in
Champaign, the Daily Illini printed a report of a
visit to a betting place. Thereupon, the mayor
served notice on the student editor that unless he
voluntarily divulged the name of the reporter who
wrote the account, an effort would be made to
force disclosure of his identity and the source of
his information through grand jury action. To
the credit of the university's president, Dr. Arthur
Cutts Willard, the latter. has announced that the
university will exert no pressure on the student
editor. A bill to protect newspaper confidences
was passed by the last session of the Illinois legis-
lature, only to meet with an ill-advised veto. Illi-
nois did not have long to wait to see the need for
this important safeguard against possible misuse
of local authority.
Comprehensive Exams
(From the Los Angeles Junior Collegian) -
IN CONSIDERATION as a more practical meas-
ure for testing the semi-professional student's
mastery of a broad field of knowledge rather than
the mastery of specific courses, a new type of ex-
amination, called comprehensive examination, is
being approved by educators throughout the
This form of examination should prove worth-
while as a means of testing practical experience
coupled withtheoretical experience.
At first the movement was concerned with ex-
aminations given to students seeking degrees in
honor work. Now, in a broader trend of use the
examinations are given to all candidates for de-
grees and in some cases for promotion from one
college year to the next, as at the University of
This form of examination is still new to the
junior college; however, the idea is not entirely
new, as it has been used and is still being used
with considerable success in many American uni-

English 2, Sec. 5, meets
3212 Angell Hall.

in RoomI

English 1, Sections 44 and 48 drop-
E. A. Walter.
Bit~rl h7 2 n _a .nfc n Rn

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