in the use of the term "Middle Ages tine who died in 430. By this time a
The h ind the I akrna Our histo -ical text-books usually in- great part of the critical Greek books
I lude in that period the happenings had disappeared in western Europe.
(Continued from Page 3.) bins in the distinction and variety of between the dissolution of the Roman * Worldly knowledge. was re-
9. Ifluence of Plato and Aristole his achievements. It is not his fault Empire and the voyages of Columbus dued to pitiful compendiums on
Plato madeterms Aithte that posterity used his works to ham- or the opening of the Protestant re- which the medieval studentf were
* * * Plato made terms with the per further progress and clarification volt. To the student of intellectual later to place great reliance. Scienk
welter of things, but sought relief in * * * history this is unfortunate, for the tific, literary, and historical informa-
wthehicdll Tbe mechanical inventiveness of the simple reason that almost all the I tion was scarcely to be had. * * * As
etena inhnia theniens heves after
ternal.ntl s was slight, and hence they ideas and even institutions of the Mid- Harnack has so well said, the world
things wIre imperfectly fashioned. Be nev-r came upon the lens; they had de, Ages, such as the church and was already intellectually bankrupt.
confessed that he could not bear to reveal lhe minute Monasticism and organized religious **
accept a wortd which was like a leaky io telescope to 'tract the remote; intolerance, really originated in the The second, or "Dark Age," lasted
lot or a man rutining at the nose. In y late Roman Empire. Moreover,. the,
abort, he ascribed the highmest turin they.neerldecised amechanical tie-clatesRootwills only slight ,improvement from
of existence to ideals ani abstractions, piece, a thermometer, nor a barom- intellectual revolution which has ush- Augustine and Abelard, about seven
Tlsis was a nea and sophisticated re eter, to say nothing of cameras and -red in lb r y did not hundred years. The prosperous villas
icat spectroscopes. get well under way until the seven- dioappeared' towns vanished or
publication of savage animism. It in- teenth century. We have to con- sriveed; lbais w e r
vited lesser minds than his to indulge 10. Origin of Medieval Civilizatio, tinue to employ the old expression for shriveled up; libraries were burned,
in all sorts of noble vagueness and * * * When we think of the Mid- convenience' sake, but from the stand- or rotted away withneglect;
impertinent jargon which continues to de Ages we find ourselves in a world point of the history of the European r s
curse our popular discussions of of monks, martyrs, and miracles, of mind three periods should be distin- From about the year 1100 condi-
human affairs. He consecrated one popes and emperors, of knights and guished. * * * tions began to be more and more fav-
of the chief foibles of the human mind ladies; we remember Gregory the The first of these is the of obitiun he revival of intellectual
and elevated it to religion, * * Great, Abelard, and Thomas Aquinas ambition, a recovery of forgotten
- * * Aristotle combined the su- -and very litte do these remini- the Christian Fathers, culminating in knowledge, and a gradual accumula-
preme powers of an original and ere- sconces have in common with those of the authoritative writings of Angus- (Continued on Page 8)
ative thinker with the impulses of a Helas.
text-book writer. He loved order and After the Hellenes were absorbed
classification. He supplied manuals tato the vast Ronan Empire critical
of Ethics, Politics, Logic, Psychology, Ithought and creative intelligence-! ;i g - '
Physics, Metaphysics, Economics, rare and precarious things at best- e S
Poetics, Zoology, Meteorology, Consti- began to decline, at first slowly and a L.ri
tutional Law, and God only knows then with fatal rapidity and complete- + Car. Pain and Washington
what not, for we do not have by any ness. Moreover, new and highly un-
means all the things he wrote. * * * critical beliefs and modes of thought
And some of his manuals were so became popular. * * * The Stoic
overwhelming in the conclusiveness and Epicurean dogmas had lost their,
of their reasoning, so all-embracing freshness. The Greek thinkers had -
in their scope, that the medieval uni- all agreed in looking for salvation
versities may be forgiven for having through intelligence and knowledge.
made them the sole basis of a liberal' But eloquent leaders 'arose to reveal Capital $300,000 Surplus $300 000
education and for imposing fines on a new salvation, and over the portal
those who ventured to differ from of truth they erased the word
"The Philosopher." * * * 'Reason" and wrote "Faith" in its Resources $4,000.000
Aristotle combined an essentially stead; and the people listened gladly
metaphysiedl taste with a preternat- Ito the new prophets, for it was nec-,
tj?-al power of observation in dealing essary only to believe to be saved,
wilh the workings of nature. .In spite and believing Is far easier than think-
c his inevitable mistakes, which be- ing. / * * *
cane the curse of later docile gener- Before considering this new phase 0 T H E 1 w -
ati'ons, no other thinker of whom we * * it is necessary to guard
have record can really compare with against a common misapprehension
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