ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 1922
A Possible edium of World Peace
--An International Court
(By Paul Watzel) In December, 1920, the Assembly of
A step toward the assurance of the League unanimously approved of
more friendly relations between na- the draft statute of the permanent
court that was drawn up by ; com-
tions,-that is how the permanent mission, and submitted by the Council
court of International Justice, which under the article in the covenant.
is now in the final stages of orgdniza- Shortly afterward the statute of the
tion could be characterized. court was submitted in the form of
a protocol. to the members of the
"The court more nearly approaches League, and others, for signature.
the medium by which world peace With the signing of a majority of the
may be maintained than any other ar- members, the draft came into effect
rangement that has yet been devised," and the judges of the court were cho-
said Prof. Robert T. Crane of the sen. The court met at The Hague,
political science department, in speak- Jan. 30. for organization. This is now
ing of the body which is now practical- practically effected.
ly ready for its firt session, which The court may sit in any dispute
will begin in June. "Although it is I between members of th'e League, and
set up by the-League of Nations,.-any also in disputes arising between any
governments may submit to it disputes other nations which desire to
arising which they feel cannot be submit them. Eleven judges and four
settled by any other means. This of- deputies, chosen from different na-
fers the machinery for nations to avoid tions, but in no way representing
needless warfare, and with present those nations, have been selected. This
day sentiment against plunging hastily number -in the future hsay be raised to
into a conflict, I believe that the court 15 judges and six deputies by action
will do much to remedy the minor dis- of the court. The judges chosen are
putes that occur between states from prominent in international affairs and
time to time." were picked because of their ability
The permanent court of Internation- as jurists .
al Justice is founded on the belief "Although theamen chosen are not to
that lasting peace is dependent upon represent the nations from which they
peaceful settlement of international come, they have been chosen because
differences, and that a peace based on they represent different systems of
force cannot be of long duration, for law," declared Professor Crane. "It is
continual pressure must be exerted in the hope of the court, taking cogni-
its enforcement. The court is set up zance of the different types of law,
by Article. XIV of the covenant of the to discover- a juristic basis that will
League of Nations, which declares satisfy the public opinion of the
merely that the Council of. the League world.
shall formulate. a permanent court, "It will be interesting to note," he
with the power to "hear and determine dontinued, "the amount of weight that
any dispute of an international char- will be placed on precedent. Much of
acter which the parties thereto sub-* international law now is a matter of
mit to it," and to "give an advisory -precedent, due to the fact that English
opinion upon any dispute or question law takes much account of what has
referred to it by the Council or Assem- gone before, and that England, be-
bly." cause of her position upon the sea,
has formed much of the existing inter- sentiment against warfare which is
national law. When the judges at-I shown to be growing year by year.
tempt decision, the rules of precedent The jurisdiction of the court is a
will come into sharp conflict with the question that might arise. How far
systems that do not base their deci- can it enforce its decision? Will it
sions upon previous cases. be effective? In the first place those
"The court, too, must decide early nations which have agreed to submit
in it' existence the rules which will their disputes to the decision of the
govern its actions. There has been no court cannot well refuse to abide by
court corresponding to the one which is them when they are handed down.
now being set up. The Hague Court There is nothing that requires na-
of Arbitration is the nearest approach tions to submit their disputes to the
and that, as we know, is not a perma- tribunal, and in fact it is hoped that
nent body, but only a representative regular diplomatic negotiations will
body from which a board of arbitra. take care of the majority of the minor
tion can be selectpd to settle any dis- differences which may arise from time
pute which may arise.. to time, as they do now. However,
"And there lies the greatest ad- a member of the League must either
vantage of the present court over the take its case before the Council or,
other attempts that have been made with the other party to the dispute,
to assure peaceful settlements of dis- to the court. Having agreed to take
putes between states. The present its case befor~e the court, a nation
court is permanent, it is lasting. It cannot well turn in an opposite direc-
is in existence as much as our own Su- tion and refuse to recognize the juris-
preme Court. It is not constructed diction of that body.
to deal with any particular case that "Of course, you could not have a
may arise but it is organized and court with compulsory jurisdiction,"
ready to meet at any time and take stated Professor Crane. "If that were
jurisdiction upon any question sub- to be the case; the international aspect
mitted to it." would die--you would then have a
By the rules of the court it must world-state."
meet in one session each year, but the In a way, then, the effectiveness of the
president, who must reside at The court is dependent upon the opinion
Hague during the term of office, may of the other nations. "The court," as
call a special session of the court Doctor Moore states, "if it is to fulfill
whenever he thinks it necessary. its high mission, must have the sup-
Thus, it was pointed out by Profes- port of the governments of the world,
sor Crane, if a dispute arose during and of public opinion." And this it
the time when the court was not ac- hid during the early days of organiza-
tually in session, the president could tion. Whether it will stand a crisis,
put the machinery of the court into such as the events of 1914 would have
operation within three weeks. This caused for it, is still a matter of con-
would have a decided influence on jecture.
the parties to the dispute., With the "The influence of the new court in
machinery for peaceful settlement and keeping a lasting peace is .as yet unde-
arbitration so convenient, it would termined," concluded Professor Crane.
be doubtful if the most reckless power "Certainly, it will prevent many of
would attempt to go contrary to the (ConTinued on Page 3)
Fifty Years Ago
(By George E. Sloan) of the dependence of the University bitter complaints at having to build tion of the airplane. Dean's famous
It is hard for us to realize the dif- on the state; and secondly, the results a new walk after such an "accident." coal-oil lamps were considered as quite
e 'U . of the admission of women upon the However, it was not until after the an invention, and the addition of tin
University." Indeed, for some years introduction of concrete walks that the reflectors behind the lamps gave the
Michigan of 50 years ago and the Uni- it was undecided by the male students practice was broken up. last magnificent touch to any evening
versity of Michigan today. 'Way back whether the feminine "interlopers" Around the 70s and '80s the boys party. In 1892 the "Prohibition Club"
in 1872, when the first Junior dance should be accepted "gracelessly or got the "bo#ting" habjit. One fine occupied a pro'minent place in Michi-
was held, the male students viewed otherwise." In the intervening years, Spring day van Ambergs circus ,came gan's student life, and its meetings
however, most of, the boys seem to to town and almost the entire student arodlsed much enthusiasm. All forms
the young ladies who dared to matricu~ have overcome their aversion to the body "bolted" en masse to see the of oratory, "declamations," and "reci-
late at this emphatically "Man's" young ladies in question, circus. This was too much and re- tations" flourished throughout the '70s
school with much misgiving. The old About this time the University itself sulted in the notice in the University and '80s, and even in the '90s.
"University Chronicle," an eight-page was =conne'cted with Ann Arbor by catalogue the following year regard- It was only about 1894 that the stu-
fortnightly, said \ in December, 1871, board walks, the original town being ing "bolting," either individually or dent paper made the solemn state-
un- across the Michigan Central tracks, in groups, which broke up the prac- ment that "upon good authority," Ann
that it would be considered almost and creeping out from what we now tice. However, it is to this escapade Arbor would positively "have a tele-
believable by the students, and espe- know as "old town" 'toward the cam- that we owe one of our most popular phone exchange within the near future,
cially by the alumni,'to know that pus. Of course the students had to songs, "We're going to the (H)amberg 26 persons having already been se-
"25 ladies are considered members of use these walks in coming to and from show, we'll all stick together, in rain cured as subscribers." But we are
the Department of Literature, Science, the business district and in fulfilling or stormy weather, and we'll see the now used to the telephone, bicycles
theDepArtmenTht .their numerous evening engagefments whole show through." no longer serve to take a young, swain,
and the Arts. This is merely a state- with the "town girls." A city ordi- In the '90s Michigan boasted of a and his "steady girl" on long Sunday
ment of facts." nance required that these board walks bicycle club, with a captain, lieuten- trips over the country roads, the old
Dr. Angell, in his inaugural address, be kept in good condition, but per- anti and everything necessary to make fence around the campus is long torn
more than a half century ago, said, haps more effective-than the ordinance it a going organization. Several times down, the "magnificent new library"
"We may perhaps well remember that was the custom of the boys to set fire the various wheels are spoken of as has given way to another magnificent
academic circles just now watch with to any walks that did not meet with "the last thing in transportation," and new library, the law school is no
special interest for the light which our their approval. It is said that this the advent of the "safety" wheel prob- longer larger than the literary school.
experience may shed upon two points; playful practice did not meet with the ably produced more excitement at True it is, the world do move, and
first, the consequence in the long run favor of the townspeople, who made Michigan than the news of the inven- Michigan moves with it.