"27-The Michigan Daily - Wednesday, June 18,1997
'U' study shows relation between money, happiness
By Maria Hackett
Daily Staff Reporter
Money can't buy happiness, or so the proverb
goes. But sometimes, it helps.
A recent University study found a correlation
between yearly income and overall satisfaction
with the participants' lives - especially in the
lives of women.
"I know people who their whole goal is what kind
of job they're going to have and how much money
they're going to make" said LSA senior Nimisha
Patel. "They think that if they don't make $300,000
a year, they won't be happy. I don't think money can
However, some see money as a tool to achieving
happiness and satisfaction.
Out of the 379 subjects sampled from a commu-
nity college, women making $40,000 or more were
happier with their lives than those who earn less.
"It was an interesting finding "said Nursing asso-
ciate Prof. Reg Williams, one of the researchers
who worked on the study. "In men, money didn't
have much of an effect.'
Nursing associate Prof. Bonnie Hagerty, also a
study researcher, said she was surprised by the
result, but "most of it tumed out pretty much the
way I expected.'
Hagerty hypothesized that, "given women's sta-
tus in our community, getting out there and making
a good living gives them a sense of self, a sense of
accomplishment, a sense of belonging?'
Kinesiology junior Deodge Wade agreed with the
study, "because the more money you make the more
you can do. If you're restricted to a low income,
you're always depressed, thinking of all the things
you don't have," she said.
This item was particularly interesting because it
was one of the few gender differences found in the
wide-scoped study, Williams said.
The study, which focused. on how a sense of
belonging is related to social and psychological
functioning, took several variables other than
income into account, including religious and com-
munity activity, education and marital status, as well
as dynamics of interpersonal relationships.
Williams said correlations were slightly stronger
in female subjects.
"Women tended to have a lower sense of belong-
ing when therewere conflicts with the spouse, where-
as males had lower sense of belonging when there
was conflict in their friendships,' Hagerty said.
Both Williams and Hagerty said a sense of belong
ing is a critical link to understanding how well a per-
son functions socially and psychologically.
"We've found individuals with low sense of
belonging have more depression;' Williams said.
The lack of a sense of belonging can have a major
impact on one's self-esteem.
"A lot of my clients came in and didn't have a
sense of belonging," Hagerty said. "They felt that
they didn't really matter to anyone."
Hagerty stressed that a sense of belonging ho
been noticeably missing from research literature.
"I think belonging is behind a lot of problems in
our society, like people feeling alienated in our soci-
ety," Hagerty said. "Gangs do a great job of pro-
moting a sense of belonging. Why can't we do
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Students to compete,
in submarine contest
By Peter Meyers
Daily Staff Reporter
A team of University Engineering
students will be racing their home-
made submarine at an international
competition in Carderock, Md., next
The International Submarine Race
is a biannual event, for which teams
build their own submarines. This
year, 27 submarines from 23 teams
representing different universities,
high schools and independent orga-
nizations will participate.
Naval Architecture and Marine
Engineering graduate Russell
Truemner, one of the team's program
directors, said his team's entry, the
Sea Wolv, is significant for the
"This is going to be the
University's first entrance, eight
years into the conference," Truemner
Truemner and the other founding
members began creatingatheir entry
in November 1995. A year and a half
later, the Sea Wolv is still unfin-
ished. Its hull is still naked blac
plastic and its propeller is not y
fully attached. Team members have
been working frantically to finish the
submarine by the advent of the June
The submarine holds two passen-
gers and will be driven by a pro-
peller. All submarines are human
powered, involving one or two peo-
ple. In the two person models, one
person peddles, while the other navi-
Strict safety requirements define
the competition. To begin, all sub-
marines are "free flooded," which
means that instead of being a pres-
See SUBMARINE, Page 8
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