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January 14, 2011 - Image 5

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The Michigan Daily - michigandaily.com

Friday, January 14, 2011 - 5

HOMELESS
From Page 1
To be eligible for the court, the
defendant must first be referred
by a social service agency like
Ozone House, SafeHouse or the
Shelter Association of Washtenaw
* County-Ann Arbor. A community
agency then has to sponsor and
work with the defendant to create
a plan to find housing, alcohol and
drug rehabilitation services and
jobs before utilizing the Street Out-
reach Court.
Courtsessions areheldbimonth-
ly at the Washtenaw County Annex
located across the street from the
Washtenaw County Courthouse on
North Main Street.
Hines said she thinks the pro-
gram is an effective way to let the
city's homeless population know
there is support for them in the
community and that there are ways
to improve their difficult situations.
"I like to think that with this
program, people get hope and
see that if they're actually help-
ing themselves, there are a lot of
other people who will help them
to get back on their feet and off the
street," Hines said.
The Street Outreach Court
receives no grant funding and is
run solely by volunteers. According
DEPRESSION
From Page 1
reaction to stressful life events
than people with a different ver-
sion of the same gene.
The 5-HTT gene is involved in
the reabsorption of serotonin at
brain synapses. Seratonin, known
as the "happiness hormone," con-
tributes to general feelings of
well-being. And while the gene
may not be directly associated
with depression, the report states,
it could impact the "serotonergic
response" to stress.
The researchers hypothesized
that variations in the 5-HTT
explain why some individuals
show have a higher risk of depres-
sion after going through stressful
experiences while others seem to
handle stress relatively easily.
To test their prediction in the
2003 study, the researchers sepa-
rated 847 men and women into
three groups depending on which
of the three versions of the 5-HTT
gene they had. The researchers
asked them to report any stressful
experiences such as employment
issues, financial troubles, health
problems or relationship issues

to Ann Savickas, probation super-
visor for the city of Ann Arbor, it
is the only court of this kind in the
Midwest. The court has closed 479
cases and cleared 88 bench war-
rants.
Savickas added that the Out-
reach court's intervention has
saved the city 3,656 jail days,
or days that homeless residents
would have been required to spend
in jail if they were unable to pay
fines. The time in jail is equivalent
to approximately $310,760 in court
fees.
Hines said the court is an impor-
tant resource for homeless indi-
viduals because it helps relieve the
burden of court fees and fines and
alleviates worrying about daily
survival.
"They may have been more con-
cerned with where they were going
eat, or where their kids were going
to sleep that night," Hines said.
Anthony Shall, a client of the
Street Outreach Court, said the
program guided him out of what
seemed like a dire situation and
helped him move forward.
"If they weren't there, I don't
know ifI would have made it," Shall
said. "I've never had so much help."
While the people who go
through the court don't have to pay
fees, Hines said there is a tradeoff
because they are more likely to find

jobs and pay taxes in the future,
therefore financially contributing
to the city.
"They pay in a different form
of currency," Hines said. "If (the
money) could be used to keep their
housing and support their families,
and they can get a job, that's just so
much better for the community."
Hines said she was inspired to
implement the program after hear-
ing about a similar court system in
San Diego, Calif. The program is an
addition to Ann Arbor's Blueprint
to End Homelessness - the city's
plan to help the homeless in the
community.
Hines said she wanted to devel-
op a fair legal system for home-
less individuals, since many of
the cases she'd heard in the past
involved quality of life offenses
and minor misdemeanors like
indecent exposure for urinating in
public - offenses that people who
have houses and private bathrooms
don't often receive.
Everyone in the community has
been extremely supportive of her
"collaborative community proj-
ect," Hines said, including the Ann
Arbor Police Department, who she
said has enjoyed helping the home-
less.
"(The police) like not just giv-
ing a ticket to someone but actually
helping that person," Hines said.

ROBINSON
From Page 1
of running the pro-style offense
and there was some concern that
Robinson wouldn't be utilized to
his full potential. Considering Rob-
inson became the first ever quar-
terback to ever throw for 2,000
yards and run for 1,500 yards, the
question of whether Hoke would
play to his strengths was one that
caused some speculation that Rob-

inson may transfer..
Taylor told The Michigan Daily
yesterday that he thought the idea
of a transfer might be "in the back
of (Denard's) mind." With yester-
day's announcement, however,
Michigan fans can rest easy that
their superstar quarterback will
be back in Ann Arbor for at least
another year.
Taylor said yesterday that two
main factors had to have played a
part in Robinson's decision.
"I think the big thing is he really

does love the University of Michi-
gan," Taylor said. "And he really
doesn't want to sit out a year.
Taylor also acknowledged that
Robinson's beloved status among
fans in Ann Arbor definitely solidi-
fied his decision to stay. During
the basketball team's loss to Ohio
State last night, fans gave Robin-
son a thunderous ovation when he
appeared on the big screen, chant-
ing "Hail to the Victors."
"It's clear he's just really wanted
there," Taylor said.

AUDIT
From Page 1
semester senior who doesn't have
much to do but still wants to learn
from the best professors at Michi-
gan," she-said.
Business sophomore Casey
Goldman considered unofficially
auditing a course on entrepreneur-
ial finance this semester since he's
not permitted to officially enroll
due to his underclassman status.
"It was a class that ties in with
my future career goals that was
highly recommended by my peers,"
Goldman wrote in an e-mail inter-
view.
But because of the amount of
projects and group work involved
in the course, he decided against

auditing. He wrote that he would
consider auditing a similar course
if it was more based on reading
textbooks or attending lectures.
More often, people who are not
students choose to audit classes,
Conway-Perrin said.
Linda Gregerson, the Caroline
Walker Bynum Distinguished Uni-
versity Professor of English - who
is currently teaching one of the
University's popular Shakespeare
courses - said older members of
the University community fre-
quently sit in on her classes. These
members include retired clinical
faculty at the Medical School and
people affiliated with the Univer-
sity like administrators and visit-
ing scholars.
For those who do want to audit
a class, the process of registering is

"pretty straightforward," Conway-
Perrin said. The student simply
meets with a member of the Aca-
demic Standards Board at Newnan
to request the audit. The board
later notifies the office of the Reg-
istrar, and the student is granted
visitor status for the course.
Conway-Perrin said some stu-
dents ask the instructor's permis-
sion to attend the class while others
just sit in on large lecture courses
assumingno one will notice or care
that they're not officially regis-
tered.
"From a University perspective,
if they're going strictly by the letter
of the law, I'm sure (the University)
would prefer that people register
and pay tuition if they're going to
be gaining something from the
course," she said.

they had between ages 21 and 26. about 41,000 people participanted
The researchers then evaluated in the studies.
the participants for symptoms of While the analysis was a great
depression at their current age undertaking, Sen said the real
of 26 and found that those with a work was done in the original data
particular version of 5-HTT had collection. For example, he said
an elevated risk of depression. the researchers who conducted
Sen said he and many other the 2003 study worked on it for
scientists in his field felt that the about 20 years.
2009 analysis of the 2003 study Sen said he spoke with the
was incomplete and biased since researchers of the 2003 study, and
it only looked at 14 of the 54 con- they were very pleased with the
ducted studies. Ten out of the 14, results of his team's analysis.
he added, were negative - mean- "They were convinced that the
ing they didn't find evidence of an 2003 study was wrong and incom-
interaction between the gene and plete," he said. "So they were
an increased risk of depression. happy that somebody was trying
Sen estimated that of the to look more completely at the
remaining 40 studies omitted research."
from the 2009 analysis, only about Sen emphasized that the 5-HTT
eight were negative. gene only accounts for a small per-
Another shortcoming of the centage of variance in symptoms
2009 analysis, Sen said, was its of depression and that this is only
narrow focus. It only considered the beginning of what he hopes
studies that looked at stressful will turn into a genome-wide sur--
life events, while other studies on vey of genetic factors that affect
the same genetic interaction have stress.
investigated triggers such as abuse "I think it's important to note
during childhood and the first that this isn't the depression gene,"
year of medical school. he said. "And that there's going to
Over the course of about be dozens of other genes like this,
nine months, Sen and his team so I don't think people should go
looked at all 54 studies published out and find what genotype they
between 2001 and 2010. In total, have at this gene."

CONNECTIONS
From Page 1
alum.
Reas said he and his co-founders
went to work to create a site that
provides users with "location-
based communication."
Users can go to the website,
select their college or university,
identify their location on campus
and make an anonymous post about
someone around them. Other users
can then' respond to the author,
either publically or privately.
No account is required to make
or respond to a post. Accounts
are available to users who wish to
receive notifications when a com-
ment is made on their posts or want
information about posts in certain
locations across campus.
When responding to a post,
users are randomly assigned the
name of a fruit as their username.
Reas said this anonymity distin-
guishes people in a lighthearted
way. He said he is very focused on
keeping the website's atmosphere

positive and encourages feedback
from users.
Reas also said complimentary
or flirty posts are welcome on
LikeALittle.com. People on the
website often make comments
admiring other students' physical
appearances.
But Engineering junior Dan
Forhan, the University of Michi-
gan's Like A Little page founding
moderator, is able to comment on
or take down posts that may be
inappropriate.
Forhan said there will be "offen-
sive or racist or overtly sexual posts
once in a while." But he said Like
A Little employees are all actively
working to remove any distasteful
material to keep the atmosphere
positive.
Forhan said it is hard to tell how
many actual connections are being
made through the site.
"Judging by the content of the
site, it looks like they're happen-
ing," he said.
He added that it is also possible
that the exchanges between some
users are just jokes.

LSA freshman Saloni Godbole
said a friend told her about the site.
She said she mentioned to a friend
that she saw a cute guy in the
Shapiro Undergraduate Library,
and her friend suggested she post
about him on Like A Little. God-
bole said she never actually posted
anything, but did check out the
website.
Godbole said she thinks many
people are just joking around in
their posts but that "it could really
open up a new way to meet some-
body."
LSA sophomore Rachel Weston
said she thinks the website is
appropriate for a college environ
ment.
"That's the way college is,"
Weston said. "You'll meet. some
one and talk to them and never see
them again, so I think it's kind of a
product of that atmosphere."
LSA freshman Louise Colo
said she recently started visiting
the website. She said she doesn't
believe people are too serious
about what they post but said "it's
definitely a fun social thing."

Biden discusses possible
stay of U.S. troops in Iraq

Sunday Al.amba/APr
President Goodluck Jonathan arrives for the ruling party primary in Abuja, Nigeria, Thursday, Jan. 13, 2011. Delegates so Nige-
ria's ruling party began voting yesterday night to pick its presidential candidate,
igerian president
w ins

Jonathan Goodluck
wins presidential
election after death
of former leader
ABUJA, Nigeria (AP) - Presi-
dent Goodluck Jonathan, who
became leader of Africa's most
populous nation only after the
death of its elected president, won
the endorsement of Nigeria's rul-
ing party this morning, clinching
a victory that makes him the over-
whelming favorite to win April's
presidential election.
Jonathan cast himself as the
leader able to change a nation
blessed by natural resources but
cursed by years of military dicta-
torships. However, the regional
and religious tensions that flared
up during the presidential primary
exist across a country troubled by
violence and extremism more than
40 years after the end of its brutal
civil war.
As the candidate of the People's
Democratic Party, Jonathan can
expect the party to use its political
connections, money and muscle to
propel him to victory in Nigeria's

unruly and corrupt electoral sys-
tem. Since the handover in 1999
from military rule to a civilian gov-
ernment, politics in the West Afri-
can nation have been dominated by
the party.
"We have a chance to transform
ourselves to bea great nation in the
years ahead," Jonathan told del-
egates gathered for the convention
last night in Nigeria's capital, Abuja.
He offered a promise that won a
cheer from the crowd: "Goodluck
Ebele Jonathan and (Vice Presi-
dent) Nnmadi Sambo will never,
never, never let you down."
The president, dressed in the
traditional black caftan and bowl-
er hat of his Niger Delta home,
focused on issues his young admin-
istration hopes to improve over the
next four years. Top among them
is a plan to privatize the nation's
decrepit state-run power compa-
ny. As of now, only those who can
afford private generators have con-
stant electricity.
His main challenger, 'former
Vice President Atiku Abubakar,
hammered the president in a
speech over rising debit and grow-
ing insecurity in a country divided
between a predominantly Chris-
tian south and a Muslim north.

Jonathan ended up taking more
than two-thirds of the vote.
The choice between Jonathan
and Abubakar highlighted the reli-
gious and ethnic fault lines running
through the nation of 150 million
people. Jonathan, a Christian from
the south, became president only
after last May's death of Nigeria's
elected leader, Umaru Yar'Adua,
a Muslim from the north who had
only served one term. For that rea-
son, some within the party believe
its presidential candidate should be
another northerner.
Abubakar repeatedly brought
up the arrangement, saying tossing
it aside would cause "lawless and
anarchy."
The primary results could mean
that the party appears willing to
forget about the arrangement. Del-
egates began voting after the two
men's speeches, dropping marked
ballots into see-through glass bal-
lot boxes as observers from the
Nigeria's Independent National
Electoral Commission looked on.
The small-scale primary elec-
tion offered warnings of what
might come in the April general
election. Some complained that
the ballots, bearing serial numbers,
allowed their votes to be tracked.

VP meets with Iraqi
officials in first visit
since formation of
new government
BAGHDAD (AP) - Iraqi politi-
cians face the contentious ques-
tion this year of whether to ask
U.S. troops to stay beyond an end-
of-2011 deadline for their depar-
ture. That decision has become far
more complicated with the return
to Iraq of anti-American cleric
Muqtada al-Sadr.
The future of U.S. troops in
Iraq was a topic of talks between
Vice President Joe Biden and
Iraqi leaders yesterday during the
first visit by a senior U.S. official
since Iraq's new government was
formed.
The case for an extension cen-
ters around concerns that Iraqi
forces may not be ready -to keep
security. Many Sunnis want U.S.
troops to stick around for their
protection, fearirig domination by
the Shiite majority. Kurds see the
Americans as a guarantee of their
autonomous region in the north.
And some in the party of Shiite
Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki
also want the U.S. forces to stay.
But al-Sadr, a Shiite who came
home last week from nearly four
years in voluntary exile in Iran, is
a formidable obstacle. He imme-
diately put the government on
notice that he and his movement,
which is a pivotal member of the
ruling coalition, will not toler-
ate any lingering American troop
presence.
"We heard a pledge from the
government that it will expel the
occupier, and we are waiting for it
to honor its word," he said during
a speech.
No decision on an extension
will come at least until al-Maliki
has chosen a defense minister.
If Iraq requests an extension,
the overriding question will be
whether al-Sadr is willing to risk
bringing down the government
over it.
Under a deal agreed upon in
2008, the approximately 47,000
American troops still in the coun-
try must leave by the end of 2011.

Privately, many in Iraq and the
U.S. long assumed that the two
sides would, re-negotiate for an
American troop presence in some
form past that deadline. Iraq's
top military commander has said
U.S. troops should stay until Iraq's
security forces can defend its bor-
ders - which he said could take
until 2020.
The U.S. officially doesn't rule
out an extension. Biden told Amer-
ican troops yesterday that the U.S.
should make sure Iraq's stability
and democracy are strong enough
to make it "a country that was
worthy of the sacrifices" Ameri-
can troops have undergone.
He also said the U.S. would
continue to train and equip Iraqi
forces beyond 2011, highlighting
the continued uncertainty about
the future of America's troop pres-
ence.
An aide to Biden said the vice
president reiterated Washington's
longtime position that the U.S.
would listen to any request by the
Iraqi government for troops to
stay longer but that Baghdad has
not asked. The official spoke on
condition of anonymity because of
the sensitivity of the talks.
Biden met yesterday with al-

Maliki, Iraqi President Jalal Tala-
bani and other officials, but not
with al-Sadr, in keeping with long-
standing practice on both sides.
The topic had been sidelined
for most of the past year, with
Iraqi politicians deadlocked after
national elections in March failed
to produce a clear winner. Butwith
al-Maliki's formation of a govern-
ment, the issue is now under dis-
cussion.
Publicly, al-Maliki has rejected
an extension, telling a November
news conference and then The
Wall Street Journal last month
that there is no reason for U.S.
troops to stay past the deadline.
But a lawmaker from al-Maliki's
bloc said an American troop pres-
ence is likely to remain past 2011.
He did not have specific informa-
tion on how many, but said any
remaining forces would help with
specific tasks such as protecting
Iraqi airspace, training Iraqi forc-
es and logistics.
He acknowledged that such an
extension would be "embarrass-
ing" for the government, espe-
cially after al-Sadr's return. The
lawmaker did not want to be iden-
tified because of the sensitivity of
the issue.

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