The Michigan Daily - Monday, February 21, 2005 - 7A
Continued from page 1A
ternity at the University.
No students were punished individu-
ally for the incidents and instead leaders
of the four chapters agreed to work with
the University on a community education
and development plan based on the indi-
vidual goals and needs of each organiza-
Each fraternity or sorority will also
have to follow an improvement plan call-
ing for "stronger institutional support
and national involvement; retooling of
the bid and pledge process; more exten-
sive training for leadership and members;
investigation into removal of some of the
members; and changes in chapter leader-
ship." The plan intends to ensure that the
group's actual activities coincide with the
values of their national organization.
The hazing report cited breakdowns
in leadership, weak ties to alumni and
Continued from page 1A
to make decisions that are popular. We're
in the business to make the right decisions
for all parties included. We think that
Daniel's on a good course. We feel like
this is another good positive step in his
direction, his personal growth. And that's
0 the way we wanted to handle it."
Michigan's 70-63 loss to Indiana yester-
day was its 10th in a row and its eighth
consecutive defeat since Horton was sus-
pended in January. Indiana guard Bracey
Wright, a Texas native, played against
Horton several times in high school.
"It's really difficult to figure what he's
going through," Wright said. "I wish him
the best. He's a good friend of mine, always
has been since we were in high school. I
don't really know details, but I wish him
the best, and I know he'll get through it."
Michigan athletic director Bill Martin,
who was a part of a group of University
officials that decided Horton's status on
the basketball team, compared Horton's
case to that of former Michigan basket-
ball player Bernard Robinson. Robinson
pleaded guilty to two counts of misde-
the michigan dai
insufficient upper-class student presence
or leadership as some reasons why cer-
tain fraternities and sororities hazed.
"Some of the houses had sophomores
as presidents, which usually means they
haven't lived in the house and they don't
really know much about the expectations
and problems that might face them," Dean
of Students Sue Eklund said. "In some
cases, you also might have a leader who
isn't being followed well. It's not always
the case that officers in the organization
want the hazing to happen. Sometimes
they happen despite their best efforts."
The Greek community and the Uni-
versity have taken steps in the past few
years to stop hazing before it starts. The
Greek-letter councils established a haz-
ing task force and an anonymous hotline
for reporting incidents, the Greek com-
munity worked with the University and
state legislators to establish the new state
anti-hazing law and the University imple-
mented the campus wide "Don't Haze the
Blue" poster campaign in fall 2004 to
inform students about the law.
"Eliminating hazing is always atop
Interfraternity Council's agenda and it is
essential to the livelihood of our commu-
nity," Krasnov said. "The IFC is always
working to develop new methods to curb
hazing and improve the efficiency of the
hazing task force."
According to Panhellenic Associa-
tion spokeswoman Lindsey Fediuk, "The
current IFC and Panhellenic executive
boards genuinely believe that hazing
is on the decline in both frequency and
severity. We believe it is possible to even-
tually eliminate hazing on this campus
through harsher consequences to hazing,
an increased educational program for
new members and providing safe alterna-
tives for our members."
Fediuk also encouraged anyone who
knows of any hazing allegations to e-mail
firstname.lastname@example.org. All e-mail
allegations will be kept anonymous.
TRANSG EN DER
Continued from page 1A
was rapidly approaching.
"I think a good guess is that they know that the
contract is going to end, and there's a (GEO) mem-
bership meeting next Wednesday," Wilson said.
"Typically, the administration has tried to move just a
little bit toward us when we are about to have a mem-
Wilson added that the University has not yet
agreed to add language to the contracts prohibiting
discrimination based on gender expression.
Gender expression is defined as the way in which
an individual displays his or her gender. For exam-
ple, a woman might display her gender by wearing
make-up or having longer hair. Wilson explained dis-
crimination based on gender expression by telling the
story of a current court case in Las Vegas in which a
woman was fired from her job as a bartender because
she refused to wear make-up.
Wilson said the University acquiesced on gender
identity but not on gender expression in an attempt to
lead GEO members to think the issue was resolved,
when it really was not.
"What is disappointing is that they would sepa-
rate gender identity and gender expression even
though we've been clear how inseparable they are,"
In addition to gender expression, there are still a
number of issues on the negotiating table, includ-
ing health care coverage, the extent of testing for
international GSIs, mental health coverage and the
rights of same-sex couples in the wake of Proposal 2
- an amendment to the state constitution that defines
marriage and "similar unions" as being exclusively
between a man and a woman. GEO members will
decide during their meeting Wednesday night what
action to take if the two sides cannot come to an
agreement by Thursday, when the current contract
expires. Options include extending the contract to
allow more time for negotiation or voting on whether
or not to strike.
"This is an important win," Wilson said. "But
there are many issues that we are far apart on that we
are concerned about."
meanor assault and battery at the end of
his junior season and did not miss any
games because of the incident during his
"There were a lot of things that were
done with Daniel already - a lot of
things that were done with Bernard that
you guys never knew about, publicly,"
Martin said. "We don't just take this
lightly because this reflects on the whole
institution. It's a critical issue. ... This
was a domestic violence incidence. This
wasn't minor in possession. This wasn't
any of the other misdemeanors."
LSA freshman and basketball fan
Danny Nutters agreed with the suspen-
sion and said he hopes that it will prevent
future recurrences of violent acts.
"I think what he did was wrong, and I
think it's good that Amaker showed disci-
pline," Nutters said. "The season is already
down the tubes, so it doesn't really affect
the team at all. It's good to show that we're
not going to have this kind of thing hap-
pen, and I agree with (the suspension)."
But some students are not content with
the decision. Engineering senior Andy
Englehart said that owning up to his
actions and suffering through the legal
consequences was more than enough for
Horton to deal with.
"It's wrong, but (Horton's) not beating
around the bush, and I think (pleading
guilty) was a good step," Englehart said.
"I think that he made a mistake and he did
something wrong, but he's going to pay the
penalty in court for it, and I think that's
said and done. Everyone needs second
chances, and I think suspending him for
the season was definitely way too much."
Horton, who is free on $5,000 bond,
faces a maximum of 93 days in jail and
a $500 fine. Gerald K. Evelyn, Horton's
attorney, said that Horton will likely
receive a probationary sentence, as well
as court-ordered counseling and that jail-
time is unlikely. Because Horton was
under 21 years old at the time of the inci-
dent, he will be sentenced under the Hol-
mes Youthful Trainee Act. As a "youthful
trainee," Horton's conviction will not be
placed on his permanent record if he com-
pletes his sentence. Horton will be sen-
tenced March 9.
- Daily sports writers James V. Dowd
and Josh Holman contributed to this
Continued from page 1A
goods to attract customers, though this resulted in
longer lines and slower service, Fornell writes in the
Consumer satisfaction with transactions on the
Internet fell as well because companies experi-
enced difficulty providing customer service due to
increased traffic on the Web, ForeSee Results CEO
Larry Freed said in the report. ForeSee Results is a
sponsor of the ACSI.
"Amazon has moved well beyond books and
music and has morphed into an online shopping
mall, selling everything from garden appliances
and apparel to electronics and used books. But
bigger isn't always better from a customer's view-
point," Freed said in the report. "Barnes & Noble
stayed true to its business model and product offer-
ing, which makes it easier to service demand well
and sustain higher levels of customer satisfaction."
U.S. consumer satisfaction with the economy
has held strong over the past two years with steady
increases, but the latest results put an end to the
increases, marking the index's largest decline in
more than seven years, according to the ACSI.
At the end of the third quarter of 2004, the ACSI
stood at 74.3 while the fourth quarter number fell
nearly 1 percent to 73.6.
While this decline may seem relatively small, the
impact on GDP growth is large because consumer
spending makes up a large portion of GDP.
"If consumer spending grows at less than the nor-
mal 3.8 percent annual rate, the GDP growth rate
will take a hit as well, though growth will not be
negative necessarily," Fornell said.
According to ACSI report, a drop of .3 points in
the consumer satisfaction index indicates consumer
spending will grow at 3.2 percent. This slowdown
in consumer spending causes GDP to fall by nearly
$46 billion annually, the report said.
In light of the latest ACSI data, Fornell said that
in the first quarter of this year, consumer spending
growth will probably fall to 2.3 to 2.7 percent.
"It's very difficult to say what will happen in the
long term but there are serious imbalances in the
economy that must be dealt with such as a huge defi-
cit and trade imbalance," Fornell said. "We run the
risk of financial uncertainty."
In order to offset the effect the decline in con-
sumer spending has on GDP, business investment
and government spending need to rise, though such
increases are unlikely, Fornell said.
"Gross Domestic Product growth will also be
more difficult if consumers reduce their rate of
spending," Fornell said in the report. "There will
be more pressure on the dollar and higher interest
rates as a result. Higher rates, in turn, don't encour-
age companies to devote more resources to satisfy-
ing customers. As interest rates rise, the value of
the returning customer diminishes because future
income streams become more heavily discounted."
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