The Washington Post
The Michigan Daily - Tuesday, November 20, 2001-- 7
claims more power
in light of attacks
PULI-ESTIKHAM, Afghanistan - Four
foreign journalists and an Afghan guide were
missing and feared dead yesterday following an
ambush by Kalashnikov-wielding gunmen who
reportedly shot them when they refused the
attackers' order to march into the hills.
Harry Burton, an Australian reporter for
Reuters; Aziz Haidari, an Afghan-born photog-
rapher for Reuters; Julio Fuentes, a journalist
from El Mundo newspaper in Madrid, and
Maria Grazia Cutulli, a reporter for Corriere
della Sera newspaper in Milan, Italy, apparently
died in the noon incident on a deserted stretch
of highway about 10 miles from here, accord-
ing to accounts from the site. The Afghan guide
was not identified.
The three news organizations involved con-
firmed that the four were missing.
An armed search party sent by the provincial
governor in Jalalabad yesterday afternoon did
not reach the site, and officials here said it was
too dark and dangerous to continue past the
provincial border. But bus passengers traveling
from Kabul yesterday afternoon said they had
seen the dead bodies of three men and one
woman lying by the highway.
The governor, Abdul Qadir, told journalists
in Jalalabad yesterday night that he believes the
journalists might have been kidnapped but not
killed. He said the gunmen were robbers rather
than terrorists, and that "thieves collect money
and terrorists shoot people." He said he was
continuing to investigate the incident.
Italian Foreign Minister Renato Ruggiero
told journalists in Brussels, Belgium, that,
based on reports from the scene, it appeared the
In this image from television, the body of French radio journalist Pierre Billaud is carried by members
of the northern alliance last Monday near Khwaja Bahuaddin, Afghanistan, after he was killed by
Taliban forces in northeast Afghanistan Nov. 12.
four were killed.
The apparent killings came amid an atmos-
phere of growing lawlessness in eastern
Afghanistan, where bands of heavily armed
militiamen have been occupying and looting
buildings in the past several days, stealing vehi-
cles from international aid groups and racing
through Jalalabad and the surrounding Nanga-
Two French radio reporters and a German
magazine journalist were killed near Taloqan
on Nov. 12 when Taliban forces ambushed
fighters of the opposition Northern Alliance.
About a dozen other journalists in yester-
day's convoy, including a reporter for The
Washington Post who was traveling two cars
behind the ambushed vehicles, escaped
unharmed after the Afghan driver of the taxi
carrying Haidari and Burton fled the site and
warned the other cars to turn back toward Jalal-
abad. The lead car in the group reached Kabul
The taxi driver and an interpreter accompa-
nying the two Reuters journalists said later that
as they were passing a stretch of isolated, rocky
hills along the 100-mile highway, six gunmen
in robes and turbans suddenly appeared, telling
them to stop and warning them that there was
fighting ahead between Taliban and opposition
forces. "They told us not to go on, the Taliban
will kill us," the driver, Tury Ali, told journal-
ists in Jalalabad. Just then, he recounted, a bus
coming from Kabul stopped and its driver said
the road behind him was quiet and clear. "Then
I thought they must be thieves, and I started to
go on," Ali said. "But they said, 'Don't move,
Ali and the interpreter, Mohammed Farooq,
both Afghans, said the gunmen ordered Burton
and Haidari to walk with them into the hills, but
they begged to be set free. The gunmen started
throwing stones and hit one journalist with a
rifle butt. Then they pointed rifles at them and
'Ihe Washington Post
WASHINGTON - The Sept. 11 terrorist
attacks and the war in Afghanistan have dramati-
cally accelerated a push by the Bush administration
to strengthen presidential powers, giving President
Bush a dominance over American government
exceeding that of other post-Watergate presidents
and rivaling even Franklin D. Roosevelt's com-
On a wide variety of fronts, the administration
has moved to seize power that it has shared with
other branches of government. In foreign policy,
Bush announced vast cuts in the U.S. nuclear arse-
nal but resisted putting the cuts in a treaty - there-
by averting a Senate ratification vote. In domestic
policy, the administration proposed reorganizing
the Immigration and Naturalization Service with-
out the congressional action lawmakers sought.
And in legal policy, the administration seized the
judiciary's power as Bush signed an order allowing
terrorists to be tried in military tribunals.
Those actions, all taken last week, build on earli-
er Bush efforts to augment White House power,
including initiatives to limit intelligence briefings
to members of Congress, take new spending
authority from the legislature, and expand the exec-
utive branch's power to monitor and detain those it
suspects of terrorism.
Presidential power ebbs and flows historically
and, by necessity, typically heightens during times
of war because of the need for a unifying figure in
government. Lyndon B. Johnson gained clout
under the Tonkin Gulf resolution, as did Roosevelt
during World War II. The War Powers Act and
other reforms by Congress to limit presidential
power after Watergate made for weaker executives,
as did the reduced threat from the Soviet Union.
Now, in the views of many scholars, Bush has
restored the "Imperial Presidency," a term Arthur
Schlesinger Jr. used to describe Richard M.
Nixon's administration in 1973.
"The power President Bush is wielding today is
truly breathtaking," said Tim Lynch, director of the
Project on Criminal Justice at the libertarian Cato
Institute. "A single individual is going to decide
whether the war is expanded to Iraq. A single indi-
vidual is going to decide how much privacy Ameri-
can citizens are going to retain."
The White House says an increase in presiden-
tial power is the correct prescription for a crisis.
"The way our nation is set up, and the way the
Constitution is written, wartime powers rest funda-
mentally in the hands of the executive branch,"
White House press secretary Ari Fleischer said.
"It's not uncommon in time of war for a nation's
eyes to focus on the executive branch and its ability
to conduct the war with strength and speed."
The public - -and Congress - seem content
for Bush to assume as much power as he desires.
He had 90 percent approval ratings in polls even
before last week's dramatic progress in the
Afghanistan campaign, and congressional leaders
have mustered little resistance to the administra-
tion's bid to increase power in the interests of
Even before Sept. 11, the Bush administration
has been looking for ways to reassert presidential
prerogatives, particularly in its relationship to Con-
gress - which some in the administration believe
grew too powerful during the Clinton and Reagan
years and first Bush administration..
"Every administration resets the balance with
Congress as times change," said Fleischer. "When
the executive branch gets itself into trouble, the
congressional role, particularly the one on the
investigative side, grows. The nation grew weary of
endless investigations and fishing expeditions."
Rival Jewish, Muslim groups
lobby for presidential favor
The Washington Post
WASHINGTON - As President Departn
Bush hosts Ramadan feasts at the tions.
White House this week to bolster "It's
Muslim support for the war on terror- Phil Ba
ism, he is shadowed by criticism of the Ameri
administration's outreach efforts to WhiteI
American-Muslims during-thepast two the pe
Jewish groups and some conserva- bombin
tivs have been lobbying the president Thel
to stop courting certain Muslim lead- tration
ers who, they say, have equivocated on leaders
terrorism by condemning the Sept. 11 their c
attacks but praising Hamas and port fo
the michigan daily
lah. Those two groups, which
hting Israel, are on the State
ment's list of terrorist organiza-
a very simple proposition," said
aum, executive director of the
can Jewish Congress. "The
House ought to be certain that
ople they associate with don't
, excuse or condone suicide
pressure presents the adminis-
with a problem. Many Muslim
being criticized are popular in
ommunities. Their visible sup-
ir the president is critical to
Bush's contention that the war is
against terrorism, not Muslims, and
certainly not American Muslims. Even
before the war, Arab Americans had
proven themselves good friends to
Bush, supporting him en masse in the
The White House has rejected the
idea that any Muslim leader would be
excluded for statements he made in the
past, and sources there say the White
Ilouse is expanding its list of Muslim
contacts. At the same time, these
sources say, the White House has
begun to vet more carefully leaders
who appear with the president.
Continued from Page 1
dropping bombs on Taliban targets. But the Taliban force
there still had not surrendered after being surrounded for
In Kandahar, the Taliban's southern power center, tribal
leaders of the dominant Pashtun ethnic group were still trying
to negotiate a transfer of power. But Taliban leader Moham-
mad Omar vowed not to surrender power, even as dozens of
U.S. warplanes flew overhead looking for what Pentagon offi-
cials called "targets of opportunity."
On the diplomatic front, negotiations continued between
the United Nations and the Northern Alliance, a loose coali-
tion of rebel groups that drove the Taliban from the capital
city of Kabul a week ago.
The alliance is under pressure not to declare itself
Afghanistan's new government. It has yet to formally accept
an invitation to U.N.-backed talks on a political solution. But
James Dobbins, the Bush administration's special envoy, said
after meeting with alliance officials that the talks could be
held by the end of this week, probably in Germany.
Speaking to reporters after a three-hour session with
alliance leaders at Bagram air base, 35 miles north of Kabul,
Dobbins said the only unresolved aspect of the proposed
political conference was the size of factional delegations to
the talks, which would aim at establishing a post-Taliban
The apparent progress came one day after the Northern
Alliance abandoned its insistence on holding the conference
in Kabul, where it controls the levers of power. The alliance's
foreign minister, Abdullah, said Sunday that proposed venues
in Austria, Germany or Switzerland were acceptable; Dob-
bins said yesterday that "the Germans have offered to host it."
At the Pentagon, Rumseld indicated that U.S. forces had no
immediate plan to start actively searching for bin Laden in
remote mountain caves and tunnel complexes. "That would
probably require somewhat different types of forces,"he said.
His comments closely followed those of President Bush,
who told reporters after a Cabinet meeting that the "noose is
beginning to narrow" around bin Laden, Omar and other
senior leaders. But, Bush added, "I've told the American peo-
ple right from the get-go of this eftort, it may take a month, it
may take a year, or however long it takes, we'll succeed."
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many police chiefs see it as an elitist
organization that does not want to both-
er discussing its investigations with
"The FBI, which is an agency of
11,000 or 12,000 agents, can't do it all,
that there are 650,000 police officers in
this country who could help," he said.
The "insular environment" of the FBI
must also be changed, he said, and the
bulk of these changes must be made by
Mueller, the director. They won't be
made by Tom Ridge, President Bush's
newly appointed director of homeland
security, he said.
"Congress can do oversight hearings
and I predict that eventually Congress
will hold hearings to ask the question,
'What did the FBI know and what did
other federal intelligence agencies know
and when did they know it?"'
Oates said he was pleased with what
he has seen so far and he believes
Mueller and Attorney General John
Ashcroft were already working to clean
things up in the bureau. "The number
two guy in the FBI retired two weeks
ago. ... It would probably suggest there
was some internal tensions there as a
result of September 11 and the demands
the new director has been putting on
people," Oates said.
For now, he says, he is working to
keep Ann Arbor safe, and with the
recent wave of anthrax-laced letters
found in New Jersey and Washington,
his department has examined envelopes
that local residents have reported as sus-
Oates himself received a suspicious
letter from someone he didn't know in
Venezuela, and procrastinated several
days before opening it. It turned out to
be harmless, but, he emphasized, this
fearfulness is the new reality.
Continued from Page 1
dissatisfied buyers can easily switch to
another product," Fornell said in a press
He also pointed out that "the market
offers numerous brands with many
purchase alternatives, thus satisfying
many different consumer tastes. Also,
customer service, which often creates
havoc in other industries, plays only a
minor role in the purchase and con-
sumption of non-durables."
Of the industries in the non-durable
sector, only food processing posted a
customer satisfaction increase, rising
to 82 from 81.
The personal care product industry
had the highest satisfaction of all
industries overall, with a reading of
83. All other industries posted small
decreases. Athletic shoes posted the
largest decline, dropping four percent.
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Continued from Page 1
who will be at home in Detroit for the holiday break.
LSA sophomore Lindsey Strieter said she too has chosen
to stay home.
"I hesitated a little bit, but would much rather go home,"
said Strieter, who will be traveling to California. "My
friends who live around here are coming back, but everyone
who lives out of state is going home."
For many out-of-state students, this will be the first time
they've been home since the start of the semester.
"I'm ready to go home," said LSA freshman Justin Klee-
berg, who is from Williamsville, N.Y. "I definitely thought
about (staying), but I haven't been home since August, so I
sold my ticket to my big brother in my fraternity for $20."
Kleeberg said he felt that he should sell the ticket for
equal value because it was his fraternity brother. Other
students, however, are selling pairs of tickets on eBay for
upwards of $170 each. Michigan law prohibits ticket
sales for more than face value.
"I sold my ticket for $60," said Sara, an LSA senior, who
did not want her last name to be printed. "I'm from D.C.
and I don't want to come back."
BLOOD The Universit
won the competi'
Continued from Page 1 Ohio State won h
Although the competition with pints -- two mo
Michigan's rival Ohio State encour- 1,679 pints.
aged students to go to the collec- Totals for bot
Despite the number of students going home, University
Director of Ticket Operations Marty Bodnar said tickets
sales are going well.
"The game is sold out, except for the last remaining sin-
gle tickets," he said. "We'll figure out the actual attendance
The last time Ohio State came to the Big House on Thanks-
giving day weekend was in 1985, when 106,102 fans packed
into the stadium before renovations added nearly 6,000 seats.
At that time, the stadium's capacity was 101,701.
The Wolverines defeated the Buckeyes, 27-17, in that
Students still looking for tickets for this weekend's game
may find it more difficult because of this year's drop in stu-
dent ticket sales, which the Athletic Department has partial-
ly blamed on the scheduling of this week's game.
"We can only conjecture that having the OSU game on
Thanksgiving affected the student ticket demand," Bodnar
said. Student ticket sales this year dropped from 22,000
tickets sold last year to 19,600.
"I'm still looking for tickets," said LSA senior Kristen
Korytkowski, who has friends coming in from Boston for
the game. "I'm a senior and it's my last one. I made sure
that I had all day off."
of Michigan has TDA
n nine times, but TRAVEL
t year with 1,681 Continued from Page 1
than Michigan's much information as possible.
"We will continue to add to and
universities will improve it as situations change," God-
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