The Michigan Daily - Monday, September 17, 2001 - 7A
U.S. faces different type of enem
The Washington Post
WASHINGTON - As President Bush gathered
his war cabinet at Camp David Saturday, his self-
imposed mission was to bring meaning to some of
the grandest threats and promises by an American
president in modern times. If this is war, what will it
Repeatedly since Tuesday, Bush's public diploma-
cy has invoked the moral crusade of Woodrow Wil-
son and Franklin Roosevelt's "warm courage of
national unity." He has skipped past subsequent gen-
erations whose experience of war was more complex
and less satisfying. Bush's promise Saturday of "vic-
tory against terrorism," and his prediction Friday that
the conflict "will end in a way, and in an hour, of our
choosing," suggest a presumption that there can be
such an end by force of arms.
Modern precedent - from Algeria to Ireland -
promises less. It also promises higher costs than
most Americans have yet imagined, according to a
broad range of authorities, civilian and uniformed,
who study and practice war.
Retired Army Col. Robert Killebrew, a strategic
planner, said the United States may be embarking on
"an endless war of attrition against a faceless enemy
- think of a global Viet Cong."
Such analogies are limited. This conflict is not
only unlike any faced before by the United States,
but also quite different from its closest correlates
elsewhere. In Vietnam - as well as Northern Ire-
land and Israel - the enemy was less diffuse in its
identity and more specific in its aims of political
control. The present foe, unlike lezbollah or the
Viet Cong, is not based where it fights or across a
contiguous border. And it does not aspire to territori-
al conquest, which means that the suffering it inflicts
on American morale and prestige is an end in itself.
Bush and his advisers came to office conceiving
themselves, in public and private, as more tough-
minded than the Democrats they replaced. Defense
Secretary Donald Rumsfeld is said by associates to
enjoy his description by Henry Kissinger, years ago,
as the most ruthless man he knew.
But terrorism is what military planners call an
asymmetrical threat, and ruthlessness is among the
striking asymmetries. Osama bin Laden, the fugitive
Saudi millionaire fingered by the administration as
its prime suspect in Tuesday's attacks, and his allies
are entirely unrestrained in their targets and methods.
More important, because their goals are symbolic
and psychological, they are likely to respond to U.S.
escalation with efforts at still more spectacular
strikes. Destruction of twin skyscrapers was a gut-
rending loss, but greater traumas are potentially
within a terrorist's means.
"Think of anthrax spores, Super Bowl massacres,
celebrity assassinations on live TV," said Cmdr.
Ward Carroll, who teaches at the U.S. Naval Acade-
my. "The eventualities are almost beyond contempla-
tion, but the nation must contemplate them -
because only when we do are we ready to launch the
first Tomahawk Land Attack Missile or Joint Direct
Attack Munition in this war."
Some advisers suggest the president is prepared to
relax traditional U.S. restraints on the killing of inno-
cents - "collateral damage," in military parlance. If
so, he runs additional risks to his own objectives.
Enemies like bin LaI.den depend on fanning
flames of resentment against a smug superpower.
Col. Daniel Kaufman, academic dean at West
Point, warned against "indiscriminate killing -
the Russian model in Chechnya, where you take
out a thousand for every one of your actual targets
you hit." Speaking Friday, he said, "1 was telling
the cadets today, for every one of these characters
you kill, you don't want to create 10 more. or even
Rumsfeld again made clear this week his loathing
for leaks of any kind, and there is no reliable infor-
mation on what he and the president plan. Several
experienced outsiders anticipate a two-phased
response, beginning with an assault - as early as the
next few days - against bin I.aden's known support
centers in Afghanistan and possibly elsewhere.
Retired Marine Lt. Gen. Paul Van Riper likened such
a strike to World War II's "Doolittle Raid," the mod-
est but morale-boosting bombardment of Tokyo in
April 1942, four months after Japan's surprise attack
on Pearl Harbor.
President Bush talks to reporters after arriving at the White House in Washington
yesterday. Bush spent the weekend at Camp David, meeting with his national
Arab g vernments
the Unieted States
The Washington Post
WASHINGTON - Bush adminis-
tration officials reached out to Arab
nations again yesterday, urging them to
help the United States combat terror-
ists for their own benefit, but the call
has raised concerns among Arab
diplomats about the potential targets of
U.S. action and sparked a debate about
how the conflict against Israel would
"They understand very clearly that
it's as much in their interests as it is in
ours that we end these kinds of activi-
ties and that we put a stop to this kind
of international terrorism," Vice Presi-
dent Dick Cheney said on NBC's
"Meet the Press."
But more than a dozen Arab ambas-
sadors met Friday night at the home of
Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi Ara-
bia's ambassador to the United States,
and debated the dimensions of the new
U.S. war against terrorism and their
roles in it.
While the diplomats worried that a
U.S.-led war on terrorism could roil
their own Islamic nations and move
focus away from Israel, one ambas-
sador there said the diplomats recog-
nized that the Sept. 11 attacks had
changed everything. "People and
countries will have to start thinking
differently," he said. "Issues and sensi-
tivities have to be reevaluated. We are
looking at a different era."
Anxieties in the Middle East could
mount if U.S. investigators continue to
discover links between the hijackers in
last week's attacks and countries such
as Saudi Arabia that have dissidents
and Islamic radicals within their bor-
President Bush has vowed that the
United States will pursue not only
individual terrorists, but the countries
that harbor them as well.
Continued from Page 1A
States was on the brink of violent
reprisal for the wave of four suicide
Pakistani officials, who have pleased
the administration with their coopera-
tion, said they are sending a delega-
tion, possibly today, to warn the ruling
Taliban in neighboring Afghanistan
that the country faces massive U.S.-led
retaliation if its leaders do not assist in
the capture of suspect terrorist master-
mind Osama bin Laden. Uzbekistan's
government said it is open to allowing
U.S. forces to use Uzbek airspace or
territory for an attack across its 80-
mile border with Afghanistan.
Even as war clouds darken, today is
supposed to be the first day that Amer-
icans, however groggily, return to
something like a normal routine. The
New York Stock Exchange, just blocks
from where the World Trade Center's
twin towers stood, will be open, fol-
lowing a weekend of tests that showed
communications and computer net-
works are working. This will provide a
critical opening test of how severely
America's already shaky economy,
particularly the ailing airline industry,
were rocked by the blasts.
Major League Baseball's schedule
will resume today. So will comedian
David Letterman's show. And Bush
enjoined Americans to go back to
business today, and "work hard like
you always do."
The elusive bin Laden, an exiled
Saudi multimillionaire who has taken
refuge in Afghanistan in recent years,
issued a statement Sunday through the
Arabic television network Al Jazeera,
in Qatar, denying involvement. "I
would like to assure the world that I
did not plan the recent attacks, which
seems to have been planned by people
for personal reasons," said bin Laden,
whose current location is unknown to
Administration officials dismissed
the denial. Cheney said he had "no
doubt that his organization played a
significant role in this." But even
Cheney cautioned against making bin
Laden the sole focus, painting a fright-
ening picture of an enemy with more
tentacles, and more hiding places, than
many Americans may understand.
Continued from Page 1A
spend money." He noted theatergoers might even attain
what once seemed impossible: seats for the city's most
popular Broadway show. "You might actually have a
better chance of getting tickets to 'The Producers' now,
if you want to come here and see'it,' he said.
Barbara Anschuetz, a trauma therapist from Toronto
in town to work with victims and survivors of the
attacks, offered similar advice - and meant to follow
it herself. Standing in Times Square with a team of
colleagues, she was looking to purchase tickets for a
comedy. "We thought coming to a show in the evening,
some time next week, when we've had pretty intense
days, would help provide a sense of normalcy and
relief for us," Anschuetz said.
Later yesterday, Giuliani offered a personal story
F00TBA LL"I thinki
FOOTBALL gti ne
get in," he
Continued from Page 1A slower proc
should've been canceled," Carr said. past."
One of the biggest concerns with Also, th
playing a game at Michigan Stadium, awareness
which normally houses about 110,000 into the s
people on game days, is security, "there is a
Always an issue, it becomes even more bags may
significant with the events of the past closer eye
week. that try to
"The standing security measures are hol, umbr
just going to be enhances," Depart- things that
ment of Public Safety director Bill inside Mic
Bess said. "We're going to be enhanc- of the extr
ing it with additional personnel." hopes tha
Bess also warned about the delays restrictions
that fans may find when they try to items in. .
enter the stadium. Carr exp
the michigan daily
about perseverance. Addressing a ceremony in which
168 firefighters were promoted, the mayor said he had
an uncle whose legs were broken when he was thrown
from a ladder truck - answering a false alarm.
"One of my earliest memories is his talking about
wanting to go back to work. It was the thing that got
him through, the thing that sustained him," he said.
The Fire Department, in the worst tragedy it has
experienced since its first engine companies were
formed in 1865, lost about 300 members in the trade
Through black and white swirls of smoke, rusty-
looking remains of the center's once-shining exterior
stood at precarious angles. But the rescue work -
dusty, sweaty and likely in vain - continued.
Among the grisly finds have been a pair of hands,
bound together, found on a rooftop. Another was the
torso of a Port Authority police officer, identified by
the radio still hanging from his belt.
James Monsini, a volunteer and demolition expert
from Brockton, Mass., said he and some fellow work-
ers were concentrating on subbasement level garages
and shops. 1He said they were hoping for air pockets
that would allow victims - perhaps trapped in their
cars - to breathe.
"I saw a car with an interior light on, and I got really
hopeful that it was a sign (of life)," he said. "But the
person was dead."
Another volunteer, steamfitter James Drew, said
there was so much glass, hot metal and other debris on
the ground that firefighters had to carry bootee-wear-
ing search dogs where they were needed.
Drew also described a search technique he called
"shave and a haircut": rescuers tap in rhythm on steel
or concrete, hoping for taps in response.
No one has been answering.
t will take a little longer to-
said. "It's going to be a
cess than it has been in the
ere will be an increased
of what is being brought
tadium. Bess said that
a distinct possibility that
be searched," and that a
will be focused on people
bring items such as alco-
ellas and chairbacks .
have never been allowed
chigan Stadium. Because
a security pressures, Bess
t fans will observe the
and not try to sneak the
ects things to go smoothly.
"I think there's been for some time a
lot of security that nobody knows
about around here. Something like this
certainly forces you to take a new look
at it," Carr said. "I don't think there's
any guarantee anywhere but there's an
awareness that that stadium presents
an opportunity for someone to make a
statement. I'm sure there will be no
stone left unturned to make sure it's a
Another issue is television coverage.
Michigan's past 71 games have been
televised, and there is question as to
whether or not the new dates will work
with television schedules.
"That decision will be made by
ESPN working with the Big Ten,"
Continued from Page 1A
Institute of Indian Music.
Jean Bollinger said she feels music
is an important part of students' lives
and members of the groups that per-
"It is wonderful to bring together the
University community at a time of
tragedy and to uplift the spirits of Uni-
versity students," said Eric Hachikian,
a sophomore in the School of Music
and the director of Fanfare.
"We were honored to be able to con-
tribute to the diversity of the afternoon,
said Julie Maltzman, an LSA sopho-
more and member of Kol HaKavod.
The Bollingers, along with Ann
Arbor Mayor John Hieftje, attended
services at the Islamic Center of Ann
Arbor on Friday evening to show their
moral support for members of the
Arab community who may be facing
attacks of retaliation because of their
"It is frightening and disturbing to
people who are subject to that kind of
intolerance," Lee Bollinger said.
Jean Bollinger stressed the impor-
tance of looking out for all the stu-
dents who are away from home, many
of whom are away from home for the
"There is a huge responsibility on
the University in speaking on what
they think is important," she said.
Students were grateful and apprecia-
tive that the Bollingers took the time
yesterday to meet and speak with
"I thought it was very gracious for
the president and Mrs. Bollinger to
open their house to students. It is an
opportunity for students to gather and
take in the event," said Michigan Stu-
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