The Michigan Daily - Tuesday, September 30, 1997 - 7
WASHINGTON (AP) --The debate
over whether President Clinton should
apologize for slavery is evolving into a
call to apologize for another wrong: the
rigid segregation endured by black
Americans under Jim Crow laws.
That suggestion was offered in some
the 600 pieces of mail sent to the
hite House and the offices of
Clinton's advisory board on race since
June. The board, which Clinton charged
with analyzing a slavery apology, will
meet for the second time today.
Race board chairperson John Hope
Franklin bolstered the suggestion yes-
terday, saying in a radio interview that
any presidential apology would have to
extend beyond slavery and address seg-
ation; because the institution of seg-
egation endured for so many years
after slavery ended.
"The most rigid apartheid laws this
country has ever seen were passed in
this : century," Franklin told the
American Urban Radio Network.
"What are you going to do about all
of the examples and practices of
degradation and humiliation and seg-
regation practiced in the 20th centu-
r ? An apology for slavery is not
ing to do it."
Clinton appointed the board to spend
a year gathering information on the
country's racial climate that he will use
to compile a report on race. The board's
main activity is to conduct a series of
town hall meetings where Americans
can talk openly about race.
The White House said that, for now,
it is unlikely that Clinton will apologize
r segregation, the same response it
ve to the suggestion for an apology
"If you must do something now,
today, the president doesn't think any
AIDS drug fails in
half of patients
President Clinton gestures while meeting with reporters in the White House briefing room. He discusses the possibility of the
United States government apologizing for slavery.
Acclaimed new drug
only stops virus' advance
TORONTO (AP) -Widely heralded
new AIDS treatments that seemed to
stop the virus' advance and revive
patients from near death are now begin-
ning to fail in about half of all those
treated, doctors said yesterday.
The disappointing reports suggest
the tough virus is coming back after
being knocked briefly into submission,
just as many experts feared it would.
"Over the past year, we had a honey-
moon period," said Dr. Steven Deeks.
"The epidemic will likely split in two,
and for half the people we will need
new therapeutic options."
Deeks presented data from the
University of California at San
Francisco's large public AIDS clinic at
San Francisco General Hospital.
Prescriptions of so-called three-drug
cocktails - two older AIDS drugs plus
one of the new class of medicines
called protease inhibitors - have clear-
ly revolutionized AIDS care. In many
places, more than 90 percent of AIDS
patients are taking these combinations,
and typically people start on them as
soon as they learn they are infected,
even before they get sick.
Patients whose disease-fighting T
cells were ravaged by HIV have gotten
out of bed, regained normal lives and
even gone back to work. However,
many worried from the start that the
virus would eventually grow resistant to
the protease inhibitors and resume its
The latest data, presented yesterday
at an infectious disease conference
sponsored by the American Society of
Microbiology, suggests this is indeed
Decks and colleagues reviewed the
records of 136 HIV-infected people
who started on protease inhibitors in
March 1996, when Crixivan and
Norvir, the first two powerful protease
inhibitors, came on the market.
Most patients responded dramatically.
Their virus levels dropped so low they
could not be found on standard tests. But
since then, the virus has returned to
detectable levels in 53 percent.
Although this is ominous, no one
knows exactly what it means.
"All of our 'failures' are clinically
feeling very well," said Deeks. "It's
very important to understand we have
no idea of the prognosis of people who
have resistant virus."
Decks said other large AIDS clinics
are having similar experiences, although
his is the first to present the data publicly.
"There is a whole mixture of expla-
nations" for the failures, said Dr. David
Ho of the Aaron Diamond AIDS
Research Center in New York City.
Ho said that for people who had rel-
atively low virus levels when they start-
ed taking the drugs and had not used
other AIDS medicines, failure almost
always means they did not take their
pills on schedule. Even missing a few
doses can ruin the treatment.
"Compliance is absolutely critical"
Decks said. "When we say compliance,
we mean rigid adherence to over 20
pills a day."
Decks said his data are far different
from the carefully controlled drug
experiments sponsored by pharmaceu-
tical companies to demonstrate the
medicines' potential. These studies
show far more encouraging results.
Among the longest-running of these
is a study of 28 patients who have been
taking Crixivan, AZT and 3TC. Dr. Roy
Gulick of New York University said
Monday that after almost two years, the
virus is still undetectable in 22 of them,
or 79 percent.
Decks said real-world experience is
not as promising as the trials because
patients in the studies are less sick to
start with and more highly motivated to
scrupulously follow their drug regi-
kind of apology would be productive at
this point," said spokesperson Joe
Lockhart. The matter will be referred to
the race advisory board, Lockhart said.
Judith Winston, the advisory
board's executive director, said the
board would explore an appropriate
response to the whole question of
apologies, but was "not spending a lot
of time on that."
Jim Crow laws, named for the black
character in an 1830s-era song, were
enacted by Southern states in the late
1800s. They required separate facilities
for blacks and whites - sometimes
even separate Bibles in courtrooms --
and were bolstered by the Supreme
Court's 1896 decision that upheld
Louisiana's "separate but equal" facili-
ties on railroads.
Segregation endured even after the
Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board
of Education decision, which called for
integration of schools. It was officially
eliminated by the Civil Rights Act of
1964, although *civil rights activists
argue that its vestiges linger today in
such areas as education and housing.
The White House shunned the slav-
ery apology idea because it would touch
off a demand for reparations - govern-
ment compensation to the descendants
of African slaves. Clinton ruled out
reparations in June, saying it would be
impossible to determine who should be
Privately, Clinton aides say an apolo-
gy for Jim Crow seems more acceptable
because it was a more narrowly focused
racial action. An apology would provide
a natural means for Clinton to defend
affirmative action and other federal
programs created as a remedy for
A sampling of the president's mail,
provided to The Associated Press on the
condition that the authors' names be
concealed, showed some writers calling
directly for an apology for segregation,
while others proposed that Clinton
address segregation in some form so
that the country can start dealing with
slavery's deeper wounds.
0"It is time for a moral reckoning with
segregation," said an Aug. 23 letter
from a writer who identified himself as
a historian at Stanford University. "I am
convinced that multiracial democracy
cannot be achieved until the nation
faces up to its history of racial segrega-
Not all writers were pleased with the
notion of an apology. "Let's just forget
about white people, you know. Let's
make them the minority,"said a June 19
e-mail whose author signed off, "An
Unhappy White Person."
Another letter, dated Aug. 14, pro-
posed nominating a colonial-era New
York cemetery as a "world heritage
site" under a 1972 U.N. convention. The
Negros Burial Ground, unearthed in
1992, dates back to the 1750s and con-
tains the graves of slaves and poor
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MEDAN, Indonesia (AP) - The
pilot said "right." The control tower
thought "left:" Seconds before an
Indonesian jetliner crashed into a jun-
gle, killing all 234 aboard in the coun-
try's worst air crash, it appeared no
one knew which way the plane was
supposed to turn.
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confused two planes as he gave instruc-
tions for a turn, according to a transcript
of the plane's final radio conversation
The controller was handling two
other flights at the same time - one
arriving and one departing from the
A transcript of the confused
exchange between Capt. Rachmo
Wiyogo and the controller portrays a
distracted pilot getting wrong infor-
mation in the critical moments before
he attempted to land.
The conversation ended when
Rachmo cried out, "Allahu akbar!"-
"God is great!" in Arabic.
As details of the final conversation
emerged Monday, weeping relatives
threw flowers into a mass grave of 48
bodies mutilated beyond recognition.
The transcript shows Rachmo and
the unidentified air traffic controller
confusing the words "left" and "right"
Friday as the plane approached
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versation, conducted in English, showed
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Control tower: "Turn right heading
046 report established localizer (this
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Pilot: "Turning right sir."
Control tower: "152 Confirm
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Pilot: "We are turning right now"
Control: "OK you continue turning
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Control: "OK (pause) OK.
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followed by the pilot's desperate
scream. At that moment, according to
witnesses, the plane smashed into
trees and exploded.
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selection begins in Nichols bombing trial
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illusion created by distance to misdirect the male
DENVER (AP) - The trial of Terry
Nichols got under way yesterday with the
search for jurors unaffected by the tears
and testimony of the first Oklahoma City
bombing trial, which ended with his co-
defendant sentenced to death.
Defense attorney Michael Tigar was
turned down when he argued it was no
longer possible to find an impartial jury
Despite the difficulty of finding an
impartial jury, Denver defense attorney
Scott Robinson said many people still
don't know Nichols.
Nichols was indicted two years ago
on charges of conspiracy, use of a
weapon of mass destruction, bomb-
ing federal property and murdering
eight federal law enforcement offi-
cers in the line of duty, all punishable
by the death penalty. Timothy
the same "In realitj,
Nichols' role in the
attorneys say he
didn't know larfeIv Un,
bombing to avenge those deaths.
According to Time, Nichols said
McVeigh was much more "hyped"
about Waco than he was.
Prosecutors say Nichols played a key
role, acquiring ammonium nitrate fertil-
izer and other bomb components, rob-
Army buddy, testified during
McVeigh's trial that McVeigh asked
him to take part in the conspiracy
because "Terry wanted out anid Terry
did not want to mix the bomb." Fortier
said he refused to help.
Fortier pleaded guilty in a plea bar.
gain and faces a 23-year sentence for
running stolen weapons that federal
agents believed helped finance the
"The only real battle will be over
Terry Nichols' life," Robinson said. "If
Michael Tigar can save Terry Nichols'
P bombing is
purchase of a
and the get-