2- The Michigan Daily - Tuesday, December 3, 1996
FBI helped Marshall wthCommunists
WASHINGTON (AP) - Civil rights leader
Thurgood Marshall was so worried in the 1950s about
Communist Party efforts to infiltrate and influence the
-NAACP that he turned to the FBI for advice, newly
released agency files indicate.
"The matter which is worrying him more than any-
thing else right at the moment is the Communist
Party's effort to get into the NAACP and forge out to
the forefront," said a 1952 memo by Louis Nichols,
assistant to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover.
Marshall, at times a forceful critic of the FBI in
those years, had traveled to Washington from New
York City for a meeting with Nichols after asking
unsuccessfully to meet with Hoover.
Marshall, who was to become the first black
Supreme Court justice in 1967, was general counsel of
the National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People at the time.
He died in 1993, two years after poor health forced
him to retire from the nation's highest court.
A longtime crusader for racial justice, Marshall was
linked in FBI reports of the 1940s and early 1950s to
organizations such as the National Lawyers Guild,
then considered a Communist front.
The allegations had a long life. When Marshall was
nominated by President Johnson to the Supreme
Court, Sen. Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.) wrote to Hoover
to ask whether reports linking Marshall to Communist
groups were true.
The 1,200 pages of FBI files on Marshall include
episodes in which he attacked the agency's diligence
in investigating crimes against black victims, and
instances in which he sought its guidance.
In a 1946 letter to then-Attorney General Tom
Clark, Marshall questioned the FBI's performance in
probing race riots in Columbia, Tenn.; lynchings in
Minden, La., and the beating of a black man in
"Such a record demonstrates the uneven adminis-
tration of federal criminal statutes, which should not
be tolerated," Marshall told Clark.
The letter was passed on to Hoover, who wrote this
response: "Marshall should be informed in no uncer-
tain terms that all investigations conducted by the
bureau are conducted impartially and without regard
to race or color of any persons involved.'
A 1968 memo tells of Marshall's calling an FBI
agent to report that he was the target of a Black
Panther demonstration at the University of Wisconsin
and asking whether the agency knew whether similar
action was planned when he attended a University of
Although he generally voted for broad free-press
rights, Marshall was never particularly fond of the
In a 1959 contact with the FBI, he told an agent
about an encounter with a New York Post reporter. The
agent later wrote that Marshall, who sometimes criti-
cized the FBI publicly, "gained the impression that the
Post people were looking for something, fishing -
that they appeared to be trying to find out what makes
Mr. Hoover tick."
In 1982, Justice Marshall apparently was outraged
by a magazine article, called "How to Write Dirty,"
which purported that he was its author. The article
contained many coarse and crude sexual comments.
Marshall sent a copy from an unidentified publica-
tion to then-FBI Director William Webster along with
a "Private and Confidential" note asking for "some
suggestions as to what can be done about it."
The FBI discovered that the article was a spoof pub-
lished in the National Lampoon. "No FBI jurisdiction
is apparent," an agent told Webster.
Information from the files was first published in
USA Today yesterday.
Dow Corning offers new settlement
NEW YORK - Emboldened by new studies that failed to prove a link between
breast implants and disease, Dow Corning Corp. yesterday raised new obstaclesto
women seeking damages from the company.
Dow Corning, once the largest implant maker, made a new $2 billion settlement
offer, but said it would only pay $600 million unless a court rules that the implahts
make people sick.
Dow Corning proposed paying $2 billion two years ago as part of an unsuc-
cessful attempt to settle all implant claims around the world.
The stringent terms of the new offer partly reflect an accumulation of evidence
that breast implants may not cause the litany of ills claimed by thousands of
women, the company said. Those claims helped push Dow Coming into bankrupt-
cy reorganization in May 1995.
"The evidence disproving a link between implants and disease has been over-
whelming,' said Dow Corning spokesperson Michael Jackson.
Dow Coming's new offer is contained in a reorganization plan aimed at getting
the company out of bankruptcy court.
Leaders of anti-breast implant groups condemned the plan as woefully inad-
quate, pointing out that when the settlement collapsed two years ago it was beca
thousands more women filed claims than expected.
« lecture Notes
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Parents push for use
of new AIDS drug
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WASHINGTON (AP) - Rosemary
Johnson finally felt healthy thanks to
powerful new AIDS drugs. But she was
still in torment -- unable to give her
sick daughter the same medicines
because no one knew how they would
Since none of the three new and
potent medicines revolutionizing AIDS
care is yet approved for child use, pedi-
atricians and parents have begun strug-
gling on their own to determine safe
doses - fearing that otherwise the
children will die waiting as drug com-
panies study the question.
"I looked over to my daughter and
thought, 'How could I sit here and try to
save my life and not my daughter's?"'
Johnson, of Baltimore, angrily told
government AIDS experts last week.
"We are not going to let our children die
without a fight.'
Under a pediatrician's care,
Johnson's 9-year-old now is one of just
a handful of children nationwide taking
one of the new drugs. So far, she is
doing well. "I want other children to
have this chance," Johnson said.
Drug makers say they're working
hard to get the new drugs, called pro-
tease inhibitors, to children. They have
studies planned for early 1997 on
everything from liquid formulas to
drug "sprinkles" that parents would
mix into applesauce.
The drug companies say children spit
out earlier liquid formulas because they
were too bitter. And the companies had
problems getting the right drug absorp-
Still, "in hindsight, perhaps we should
have moved forward to get some experi-
mental data" sooner, said Dr. Miklos
Salgo of Hoffman LaRoche, maker of
the first protease inhibitor, saquinavir.
The issue doesn't just touch AIDS.
Eighty percent of prescription drugs are
sold with no information on how safe or
effective they might be for children.
A little more than 10,000 of the
nation's half a million AIDS cases have
been in children and teen-agers. Some
3,156 children under 13 and 1,452
teens are still alive and in need of med-
icine compared with tens of thousands
Doctors say it's unethical to ignore
children just because there are fewer
"AIDS kills children just like it kills
adults," said Dr. Nancy Hutton of Johns
Hopkins University's Children's Center.
NASA plans for
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. -
NASA scrambled yesterday to come up
with a plan for Columbia's astronauts to
safely open and close a jammed hatch
in the remote chance an emergency
spacewalk is needed.
In 15 years of space shuttle flight,
astronauts have never had to perform an
emergency spacewalk before returning
to Earth. But they've also never
encountered a stuck hatch before, so
Mission Control is considering some
nightmare scenarios -just in case.
Flight controllers are considering all
sorts of options - some of them "pret-
ty far-out" - in case Tamara Jernigan
and Thomas Jones have to go out to,
say, shut Columbia's cargo-bay doors.
It's doubtful Columbia and its five
astronauts could survive the fiery
plunge through the atmosphere if the
cargo-bay doors were open. The crew
typically closes these doors from
inside, but what if the automatic system
didn't work? And what if Jernigan and
Jones managed to pry open the hatch
and shut the cargo-bay doors, but the
hatch behind them didn't seal?
Without a decent seal on the hatch,
Jernigan and Jones would be unable to
enter the pressurized crew cabin, arid
would have to ride back to Earth in e
airlock - the cramped chamb
between the cabin and the cargo bay
Navy training plane
crashes, kills 2
MONTGOMERY, Ala. - A Navy T-
34 training plane crashed yesterday
while the pilot practiced takeoffs and
landings, and a witness said it may have
had engine trouble. Both crew members
The single-engine, turboprop T-34
went down about 300 yards from a run-
way at Maxwell Air Force Base during
clear weather, base officials said.
The pilot had been practicing touch-
and-go maneuvers, in which a plane
makes a landing approach and touches
down, then immediately takes off
again, said Capt. Robert Gonzalez, a
Continued from Page i
Since California approved the propo-
sition Nov. 5, state and federal law
enforcement officials - fearing soar-
ing drug use as a result - have been
trying to figure out how to circumvent
Proposition 215 and use federal drug
laws that prohibit the possession and
sale of marijuana.
Washington's pace in responding to-
the new law came under attack at the
hearing. "The election was a month ago
and the administration doesn't have a
plan," complained John Walters, a for-
mer deputy director at the White House
Office of National Drug Control Policy
under President Bush.
In particular, he scoffed at a repeated
assertion by McCaffey that the adminis-
tration intends to collect data on the harm
it predicts will come as a result of
Proposition 215. 'One thing they want to
do is watch the body count in California,"
said Walters. "Why don't they prevent
the body count in California?"
Continued from Page I
"Prices tend to be a bit higher on
those particular spring break
weeks," Stamos said.
Students who would rather improve
communities than work on their tans
signed up for Alternative Spring Break,
an event sponsored by Project Serve.
Students travel to sights nationwide
and volunteer in the area of their
Many students said they would pre-
fer to go home and avoid exorbitant
hotel and airplane costs.
"I'll probably go home, depending
on how my winter break goes," said
Engineering sophomore Anthony
There are still students who have
not worried about their plans for a
vacation that is more than three
"I haven't even thought about it,"
said LSA first-year student Shannon
Beattie. "Its too far away."
Continued from Page 1
"There will be new advertise-
ments in January before registration
begins," Antonini said. "Hopefully
students who want to take these
courses will be able to find the sign-
up without any difficulty at the
"We're also planning to bring
popular courses from the past such
as bartending, CPR, and add some
new nne that we thinkr th e tudentR
from Czech pres.
PRAGUE, Czech Republic -
Doctors removed a malignant tumor
and half of President Vaclav Havel's
right lung yesterday and gave the chain-
smoking former dissident good chances
Havel regained consciousness soon
after the operation and was in intensive
care, doctors said.
Chief surgeon Dr. Pavel Pafko told
reporters a malignant tumor of about
half an inch in diameter was taken out
during the 3 1/2-hour surgery, which he
described as "very radical."
Pafko said Havel probably would
remain hospitalized for at least a week
and should recover fully in about six
weeks. He did not specify what treat-
ment Havel would undergo after
Presidential spokesperson Ladislav
Spacek told the state-run CTK news
agency that the president's condition
after the operation "corresponds with
the surgery he underwent."
Premier Vaclav Klaus, in Lisbon,
Portugal, for a summit, also told
reporters the prognosis was "positive"
and that Havel likely would be back at
work within weeks.
Havel stopped smoking in front 0
television cameras years ago but has
kept up the habit in private despite, a
history of respiratory problems.
U.N. strives to
GENEVA - People surfing the
World Wide Web, downloading sor
and novels, could cost the music 'and
publishing industries billions of dollars,
say officials meeting here to see that
The U.N. body that oversees.the
lucrative world of copyright and patent
protection opened a three-week con-
ference yesterday, hoping to catclhr up
with the sweeping changes caused 'by
computers and the Internet.
- Compiledfrom Daily wire repo.
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