The Michigan Daily - Thursday, October 27 1994 - 7
injustices against Asians
of smoking largely
By JANET HUANG
For the Daily
Injustices againstAsian women was
one theme of a lecture by noted jour-
nalist, writer and women's activist,
VeenaCarbreros-Sud, last night.
* Carbreros-Sud spoke before a group
of about 30 Asian American students at
the School of Education.
Her lecture, called "The Face of the
New Filipino American Reality,"
marked the firstofayear-long series of
educational lectures sponsored by the
United Asian American Organizations
ate of Columbia University, inspired'
students by citing graphic examples
'throughout history where Filipinos and
other Asians have been unjustly treated.
Carbreros-Sud works for ThiOd
World News Reel, a film and video
collective that focuses on unifying the
Carbreros-Sud began her lecture
by explaining when she first began
to identify herself as an Asian first,
as opposed to an American. She
Ofound herself realizing who she was
through photographs and films of
the Vietnam War.
Images of cruelty haunted
Carbreros-Sud and encouraged her to
look into her own history She began to
re-educate herself about tie Philippines
and its relationship withAmerica.
"I want people to gain a hunger for
learning our history in America and in
the Philippines," Carbreros-Sud said.
In her lecture, Carbreros-Sud also
mentioned the lack of motivation that
Asian Americans have to support their
people in time of need.
"We need to come together to feel
thepowerofouridentity. We also need
to show identity is not anyone's own
forum to define," Carbreros-Sud said.
Students attending thelecture found
it extremely motivating.
"I thought she was incredible. Her
presence and the way she carried her-
self visibly touched people. I could feel
and see their instant frustration," said
Christine Santiago, an LSA senior.
LSA senior Jason Moraleda
"I think she's a dynamic speaker.
I've read a lot of her articles....
She's a prime vocal source for Asian
Americans to speak out about im-
Josd Soliman, a member of the
Filipino American Students' Asso-
ciation, one of the sponsors of the
lecture, said he was "hoping to at-
tract a larger group from the Asian
American community, since she is
half Filipino and Indian. She is also
closer to our age so she's more in
tune with what our issues are.,,
This event was also sponsored
by the Indian Asian Students' Asso-
ciation, Asian Pacific American
Women's Journal, the Office of
Academic Multicultural Initiatives,
Minority Student Services, East
Quad and the Michigan League.
By VAHE TAZIAN
For the Daily
The health hazards of smoking have
long been known throughout the world.
However, the severity of the hazards
have been greatly underestimated, a
new report finds.
Smoking kills three million people
yearly worldwide - 400,000 in the
United States alone, concludes a recent
report headed by the Imperial Cancer
Research Fund and the World Health
The report predicts that by 2020,
smoking will kill 10 million a year, if
current trends continue. Of the 5.5 bil-
lion people now alive, a half a billion
will eventually be killed by tobacco.
control smoking in public places such
as restaurants and workplaces. U.S.
airlines have prohibited smoking on
flights lasting six hours or less. The
U.S. Army has been particularly strict
in imposing smoking restrictions
among the military.
HHS studies show that thousands
of Americans pick up the habit every-
However, the detrimental effectsof
smoking have heightened concerns for
many smokers to quit. HHS also re-
ports that three million Americans quit
smoking every year.
Along with the National Cancer
Institute, HHS has made a strong com-
mitment to alert smokers to the dangers
of tobacco smoke
as well as urging
studies in the
Britain and else-
that smoking is
people than all
other causes of
death in Western
Studies show that
smoking is killing more
people than all other
causes of death in
smokers to quit.
setting a realistic
target date for
stand that with-
Veena Carbreros-Sud speaks to Asian American students at the School of
Education yesterday. Her address, "The Face of the New Filipino American
Reality," is the first of a year-long series of lectures sponsored by the United
Asian American Organizations.
After 60 years, $OM,
U rojecto COmpie
Middle English dictionary nears completion
By JENNIFER HARVEY
Daily Staff Reporter
A University project, has been on
campus for more than 60 years is
coming to an end.
The editing of the Middle English
Dictionary (MED) is now more than
90 percent complete.
MED is a definitive dictionary of
the English language used between
1100 and 1500. The edit staff is now
$more than halfway through the letter
"The work is not as dry as it might
seem to the average person," said
Robert E. Lewis, MED's fifth editor
Generations of researchers have
found the work enjoyable. Editors
have been working on MED at the
University since 1930.
The project thus far has cost more
hthan $10 million. The first 45 years of
work cost about $1.6 million. Since
1975, about $9 million have been
devoted to MED. The current annual
operating budget is $790,000.
MED receives funds from several
sources. The University provides 48
percent of the funds. Grants from the
National Endowment for the Humani-
ties and the Andrew W. Mellon Foun-
Odation each provide 26 percent of the
When completed, the dictionary will
contain 80,000 words and 15,000 pages
total funds. Donations from private
individuals also help.
Some funds go to the salaries of the
17 paid staff members who spend many
hours with various citations. Much of
the information they work with comes
from data gathered by editors of the
Oxford English Dictionary.
The citations have the word and a
quote containing the word printed on
them. Many are handwritten. MED
researchers prepare entries from these
They use their extensive collec-
tion of works in Middle English to
check the meanings of the words.
Editor Elisabeth Girsch estimated
their collection at about 10,000 indi-
Girsch said that the preparation of
entries is often made difficult by a
lack of standardized spelling and nu-
merous meanings for the same words.
Each entry provides one quotation
using the word every 25 years of the
period. It provides two quotes for a25
years of the 15th century.
"We provide the information so
people can see how we arrived at our
conclusions. It also allows them to
make some of their own based on the
texts," Lewis said.
The entries may range from a few
lines to 100 columns for the verb
"taken" (to take).
Once the preliminary entry is
complete, the review editors exam-
ine the glosses. Then the entry goes
to the production staff, who verify
all quotes and spellings in the entry.
The final review is made by the
editor in chief. The production staff
enters the information into the com-
The entry can then be printed in
a fascicle of the dictionary. The
MED is produced at a rate of four
fascicles per year.
The University Press prints 2,400
copies of each fascicle. Each fas-
cicle is sent out to 1,100 subscrib-
ers. Most of the standing orders be-
long to research libraries and indi-
MED is shipped to locations in the
U.S., Canada, Europe and Japan.
"There is intense interest in the En-
glish language is Japan," Lewis said.
MED serves a variety of people.
Scholars of medieval art, music and
philosophy, historians, language spe-
cialists and modern dictionary mak-
ers all use MED.
Lewis said that when complete
MED will cover 75,000 to 80,000
words on about 15,000 pages. The
end date is fast approaching for MED
staff. The work of the editors should
be completed in 1996.
"The review editors work about
three years behind the other editors.
We should be totally done with the
dictionary in 1999," Lewis said.
MED staff will have to move on
when the dictionary is complete.
Only Lewis is a University faculty
In the past, there had been discus-
sion of the Middle English work con-
tinuing with a supplement to the MED
including corrections and new entries.
"That's still a pipe dream," Lewis
said. "Right now we do not have the
funding available to do that project."
Lewis emphasized his deep en-
joyment of his work. "The word I'm
currently working on is always my
favorite. They are all so interesting,"
more, the study describes smoking as
"the biggest epidemic of fatal disease
in the world."
According to the U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS),
new smokers in the United States are
predominantly women, while the rate
of smoking among men has recently
begun to flatten out. Still, nearly one-
third of U.S. adults continue to smoke.
The Michigan Public Health Asso-
ciation reports the state has the third
highest rate of smokers per capita, sur-
passed only by tobacco growing states
of Kentucky and Tennessee.
Cigarette smoking is the chief avoid-
ablecause of death and disease in Michi-
gan and in the United States. In Michi-
gan, 60 percent of smokers begin be-
fore the age of 16 and 90 percent begin
before the age of 20.
Additionally, the Public Health As-
sociation estimated that increasing the
tax on tobacco from 25 cents to 50
cents would encourage 21,000 people
to quit smoking or never start, thereby
saving 18,000 lives. The findings also
show that every 10 percent increase in
cigarette price will decrease youth con-
sumption by 12 percent.
The Center for Disease Control re-
ports that passive or environmental
smoke is responsible for an estimated
53,000 deaths among non-smokers in
the United States each year.
Passive smoke is the third leading
preventable cause ofdeath in the United
States, behind smoking and alcohol.
Studies released in 1992 implicated
passive smoke in both lung and heart
problems of non-smokers and found
that children are particularly sensitive
to passive smoke.
Most states have passed laws to
occur for about
one to two weeks
ditionally, they suggest smoking only
half of each cigarette, postponing the
lighting of the first cigarette each day,
and avoiding alcohol, coffee and other
beverages commonly associated with
University Health Services provides
information and services to assist stu-
dents who aretrying to quit. University
Health Services offers a "You Can
Quit Program" that advises students of
the ways to quit smoking. Group and
individual counseling sessions are also
Janet Zielasko, associate director
of health promotion and community
relations of the University Health Ser-
vices says that most people do have the
desire to quit smoking.
"Nine outoften people who smoke
do want to stop smoking, however,
they don't have any motivation to quit.
There must be some motivation if some-
one wants to quit smoking." Zielasko
feels smokers need to realize the posi-
tive effects ofquitting smoking.
Smokers who quit will experi-
ence a dramatic decrease in cough-
ing and phlegm production, there-
fore making breathing easier. The
quality of sleep for those who quit
will improve, as well as a decrease
in stress and fatigue. Sensitivity to
taste and smell will greatly improve
and an increase in energy level will
result after quitting smoking.
Zielasko said people will quickly
realize the benefits of quitting once
they decide to quit.
For more information about
smoking cessation, contact the Uni-
versity Health Service, Department
of Health Promotion and Community
Relations at 763-1320.
'U' geochemists use oxygen isotopes
to study fall of Norse civilization
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S AY S:
By MICHELLE LEE THOMPSON
Daily Staff Reporter
University geochemists have found a clue to the myste-
rious downfall ofaNorse civilization that disappeared more
than 500 years ago - the settlers' teeth.
The discovery, based on oxygen isotopes contained in
natives' teeth, supports a theory that the colonies fell as a
result of rapid cooling patterns preceding the Little Ice
Age that hit Greenland in the early 1500s. The Little Ice
Age lasted from about 1300-1850, and killed off many
The research was performed in the University's Stable
Isotope Laboratory, one of six labs globally where this type
of material can be analyzed for isotopic composition.
Prof. James R. O'Neil and graduate student Henry C.
Fricke collaborated on the project, which also showed that
human tooth enamel found in archaeological digs can
provide a valuable record of climate changes over time. This
new method will be one of the few concrete quantitative
methods for determining Paleolithic climatic data.
"By tracking changes in isotopic ratios, we can deter-
mine the rate and direction of temperature changes in agiven
area ... depending on the accuracy of the dating," Fricke
O'Neil and Fricke presented their research to a meet-
ing of the Geological Society of America that began
Sunday in Seattle and ends today. The National Science
Foundation funded the project.
The geochemists discovered that the ratio of two oxygen
isotopes - 011 and 016 - is directly related to rain and
snowfall, both of which vary with temperature changes.
With that knowledge, the researchers analyzed isptope-
containing calcium phosphate from 29 teeth of Norse set-
tiers. The teeth were pulled from three archaeological sites
by archaeologists from the University of Copenhagen.
Because the geologists had to destroy the teeth to extract
the calcium phosphate, anthropologists are unlikely to give
up many valuable specimens to geochemists.
However, Fricke said he would like to utilize the proce-
dure again soon to determine the origin of several bodies
buried in a mass grave in Greenland. "Human teeth provide
an isotopic signature of a person's origin," Fricke said.
A similar study, conducted by University geochemists
Kyger C. Lohman aid William P. Patterson last year,
determined that tiny bones within fish ears - called
ooliths - can provide similar clues to climate change.
Flint voters to test on-line voting system
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BURTON (AP) - In a test of an
electronic voting system, residents of
this Flint suburb will touch acomputer
The Michigan Board ofCanvassers
approved the Patriot's use in the state
people working until 2 or 3 a.m. the
morning after the election, on-line vot-
ing would let a much smaller number