The Michigan Daily - Monday, September 19, 1994 - T
ongress, Haitians respond to agreement
Continued from page 1
was hopeless and agreed to relinquish
Paradoxically, Cedras agreed to
leave Haiti last Oct. 15 under the
terms of the Governors Island agree-
ment that called for Aristide to regain
power last Oct. 30.
But Cedras reneged on the agree-
ment last year, a fact that Clinton
emphasized last week in announcing
that the United States would invade if
the Haitian military leaders did not
tep down voluntarily.
"This wouldn't have happened if it
weren't for all those troops on the car-
riers and the planes in the air," an ad-
ministration official said. "It wasn'tjust
Jimmy Carter's persuasive powers that
got this done.
"They heard about it from Colin
Powell," the official added. "And if
they don't listen to Colin Powell on that
nd of thing, they're pretty stupid."
WThroughout Carter's visit to Port-
au-Prince, the Haitian capital, which
began at midday Saturday, the former
president had one point to make to the
generals: Any refusal to give up power
could lead to a "large loss of life,'
including their own, according to
sources briefed by Carter.
Carter warned several times that
"an invasion was within hours, even
inutes," if they did not resign and
accept the quick return of Aristide,
according to the sources.
The message was delivered in three
meetings between Carter and Cedras
Also attending were Powell and Sen.
Sam Nunn (D-Ga.) the chair of the
Senate Armed Services Committee.
As Carter's talks dragged on far
kpnger than anyone in the White House
ad expected, Clinton spent the day
huddling with his top foreign policy
advisers, including Secretary of State
Warren Christopher, Defense Secre-
tary William J. Perry, Vice President
Al Gore and Gen. John M.
Shalikashvili, chair of theJoint Chiefs
smiles, gunfire in
Anti-invasion protesting Haitians yell out on the streets of Port-au-Prince shortly after Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedras' last
meeting with former U.S. President Jimmy Carter at the Presidential Palace last night. Haiti's military leaders agreed
to step down after marathon talks with former President Carter, paving the way for exiled President Jean-Bertrand
Aristide's peaceful return.
Capitol Hill leaders express relief, apprehension
The Washington Post
WASHINGTON - Congres-
sional leaders last night expressed
relief that the invasion of Haiti had
been averted, but some expressed
apprehension over how that result was
reached and what happens from here.
They said they believed the agree-
ment with Haiti's military leadership
to step down would dim congres-
sional ardor for a vote this week on
resolutions putting Congress on record
as opposing an invasion.
Rep. Robert G. Torricelli (D-N.J.)
chairman of the House foreign affairs
subcommittee on western hemisphere
affairs, expressed "considerable re-
lief' about the agreement but said the
deal could have been reached "months
ago," without bringing the nation to
the brink of war.
"I want to make certain that we're
not facing a potential Somalia, that
American forces will be in Haiti for a
limited period and that any force will
be genuinely international," said
Torricelli. He said he planned imme-
diate hearings on the U.S. commit-
ment and the likely expense and pre-
dicted there would be lingering un-
happiness in Congress about the
administration's willingness to pro-
ceed with an invasion without obtain-
ing congressional approval.
Sen. John F. Kerry (D-Mass.) a
senior member of the Senate Foreign
Relations Committee who had backed
the invasion threat, disagreed with
Torricelli's assessment that the deal
could have been brokered earlier.
Kerry said Clinton "did what he did
because, without the threat of an inva-
sion, there was no way to break the
However, Kerry said the agree-
ment leaves risks remaining, includ-
ing the possibility that "people who
have previously reneged on their
words will do so again." That was a
reference to the events one year ago,
when Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedras, the head
of the Haitian armed forces, signed an
agreement to relinquish power but
then balked at leaving.
House Foreign Affairs Chairman
Lee H. Hamilton (D-Ind.) said he was
"immensely pleased" by the deal and
described "the credibility of the threat
of force as being essential to getting
The Washington Post
PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti - As
President Clinton concluded his an-
nouncement last night that Haiti's
military rulers will surrender power,
a half-dozen Haitians listening to the
broadcast together smiled and quietly
"This pleases me," said an aged
musician named Jedeo. "It's good that
they are going."
"It is good, but we will still have to
wait and see," said a young man named
Giselle, a former army corporal who
recently resigned from the military.
He said that as U.S. troops prepare to
restore ousted president Jean-Bertrand
Aristide to power, "the most impor-
tant thing is what happens among the
If Aristide supporters "begin to
attack (their enemies) in the army,"
he said, "the soldiers will react, and
we will have fighting even with the
In general, Port-au-Prince ap-
peared calm last night, with a curfew
in effect. There were no public dis-
plays of sentiment to indicate how
Haitians felt about the soft surrender
of the military regime and the immi-
nent return of Aristide. In one of the
city's most violent neighborhoods,
Carrefours, nightly gunfire that often
signals attacks by army-backed gun-
men on Aristide supporters stopped
for about an hour as Clinton spoke.
Then it resumed as usual.
Earlier in the day, this teeming
capital had slowed to a near standstill
as it waited - quiet, shuttered and
resigned - for the promised U.S.
military intervention. Streets normally
pulsing with life were cloaked in a
somber stillness as thousands of Hai-
tians fled the city and thousands more
stocked up on food and water to await
the arrival of American troops -
whether as invaders or as guarantors
of a peaceful political transition.
The only stir seemed to be in the
vicinity of television cameras. Out-
side army headquarters here, where
former President Jimmy Carter was
urging Haiti's ruling triumvirate to
step aside, members of the impover-
ished nation's rich and powerful elite
led a few hundred demonstrators in
shouting defiance. As a dozen TV
cameras whirred, the crowd chanted
slogans against U.S. intervention and
the man the operation would return to
But the noisy crowd demonstrated
something else as well - the deep
class divisions within Haitian soci-
ety. Most of the protesters were fash-
ionably dressed young men, while
occupying the choicest vantage points
- atop late-model cars and pickup;
trucks - were a number of mulatto
women from wealthy families that
supported the military regime and the
old Duvalier dictatorship before it.
At the back of the crowd, poor
Haitian men - their hands gnarled
from heavy labor, their feet in plastic
sandals - watched curiously but did
not join in the sloganeering. The rich
and poor did not speak to each other.
"The situation is terrible," said a
well-dressed woman named Regine,
who was perched atop a Jeep Chero-
kee with her arm around an army
"Because of the American oppres-
sion against us, I cannot buy my chil-
dren schoolbooks; we cannot even go
to the beach. We will fight the Ameri-
can soldiers, and many of us will die,"
But beyond the protest scene, Port-
au-Prince was hunkered down. "Fight
them?" exclaimed one man in won-.
der. "No, we will go home and wait
for them quietly."
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