Vol. C, No.14 Ann Arbor, Michigan - Tuesday, September 25,1990 The Michigan Daily
WASHINGTON (AP) - President Bush said
yesterday that South Africa's campaign to abolish
white supremacist rule is irreversible and assured
President F.W. de Klerk the United States won't
impose new conditions for lifting economic sanc-
"These conditions are clear-cut and are not open
to re-interpretation. And I do not believe in moving
the goalposts," Bush said, referring to the require-
ments South Africa must fulfill before the sanctions
will be suspended. The sanctions were imposed in
1986 over then President Reagan's veto.
Bush also said all political groups in South
Africa "have a special responsibility to support the
process of peaceful transition."
- That statement appeared aimed at African Na-
tional Congress leader Nelson Mandela, who refused
during a meeting with Bush in June to foreswear vi-
MOSCOW (AP) - The move away
Supreme Soviet legislature voted ning systen
yesterday to move toward a Western- technologi
style market economy and gave Pres- shortages of
ident Mikhail Gorbachev sweeping sumer good
new powers to make the switch. Insteadc
Despite warnings by some law- three plansI
makers that the special powers weeks, the
would make Gorbachev a virtual committeet
monarch, the legislature passed a port back by
resolution allowing him to issue de- Despitet
crees on property, wages, prices, the make the s
national budget, the financial sys- viet's votej
tem, and law and order. has commit
Gorbachev promised to exercise ket-based sy
the powers with care. "It's a respon- from seven
sibility," he told the legislature. "It's economics.
not a tea party." The mos
After rancorous debate, the law- written by
makers were unable to agree on a Shatalin, c
specific, step-by-step program to tral plannin
from the central plan-
m that they blame for
cal backwardness and
f housing, food, and con-
of choosing one of the
presented in the past two
Supreme Soviet set up a
to combine them and re-
disagreement on how to
witch, the Supreme So-
marked the first time it
ted the country to a mar-
ystem and was a departure
decades of Communist
st radical reform proposal,
y economist Stanislav
alls for junking the cen-
ng system and moving to
a market economy within 500 days
by selling factories to private owners
and breaking up collective farms.
The most conservative proposal,
backed by Prime Minister Nikolai
Ryzhkov, would leave the govern-
ment in control of most of the econ-
omy while moving gradually to al-
low free enterprise.
Gorbachev has backed a compro-
mise that contains many elements of
the 500-day plan, but would not
move as fast. He also wants a na-
tional referendum to decide whether
to return land to private farmers.
Before and during the Supreme
Soviet's meeting, protesters gathered
outside the Kremlin and at Pushkin
Square in downtown Moscow to
condemn the decision, to give the
See U.S.S.R., Page 2
Secretary of State James Baker, left, escorts South
African President F.W. de Klerk to a meeting at the State
Department in Washington yesterday. No South African
head of state has visited Washington since 1945.
Experts talk of
Mideast crisis '
by Ken Walker
Dr. Jill Crystal and retired Admi-
ral Stanley Fine lectured an audience
of roughly 50 people last night on
the background of the Persian Gulf
W The presentation was the first of
four in the "University and Commu-
nity Teach-In on the Persian Gulf
Crisis," sponsored by a variety of
local and University groups. The
groups hope to draw upon the ex-
perts at the University and elsewhere
to cultivate a better understanding of
the Gulf crisis among local residents
Crystal, an assistant professor of
political science at the University,
has lived and studied in Kuwait, and
teaches and researches Near Eastern
politics at the University. She is the
author of the recent book, Oil and
Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and
Merchants in Kuwait and Qatar.
Crystal sought to explain the back-
ground of the political interactions
in the Gulf.
She pointed out that the regional
borders created by European colonial-
ism prior to World War II often bore
little resemblance to the actual divi-
sions among Middle Eastern peoples
and cultures. As a result, Crystal
said, "Many states in the region do
not exercise very much territorial
control very far beyond their capi-
"Generally, states in the region
have a problem developing ideologi-
cally acceptable ideas to tie their
people to the European structure,"
See CRISIS, Page 2
City property tax
by Donna Woodwell
Daily City Reporter
The proposed override of a state
law which limits property tax in-
creases failed by a margin of 58 per-
cent to 42 percent in a special elec-
tion in Ann Arbor yesterday. The
Ann Arbor Board of Education
wanted to use the additional revenue
to make up for a $4 million budget
Schools Superintendent Richard
Benjamin said he was disappointed
by the results. "The next step is to
try and figure out all of the different
reasons for voting no," Benjamin
The deficit is the result of a $4
million cutback in state education
funds this summer. The Board of
Education has already cut $1.5 mil-
lion from their budget and had hoped
the other $2.5 million would be
made up through increases in prop-
"It (the cutback of state funds)
comes at a time when students are
needier than ever," Benjamin said.
"They need a good education to
compete in a competitive market."
Since the proposal failed, the
board must begin to make further
cuts in the school system's $95 mil-
lion budget. Programs facing cuts
include the schools' art and music
programs, extra-curricular activities
budgets, and sports programs.
However, Benjamin conceded,
'There were good reasons not to vote
"Many voters believe a no-vote
will send a message to the state to
reform the educational funding pro-
cess," he said.
The state's funding cutbacks are a
part off the 1990-91 State School
Aid Act which will shift $50 mil-
lion in funds from school districts in
more affluent areas to poorer ones.
The Board of Education is joining
with 20 other school districts in a
See VOTE, Page 2
Junior Greg Tornga prepares for rush at Theta Delta Chi. Rush began Sunday and continues until Thursday.
Fraternities welcome second dry rush
by Matthew Pulliam
For a second semester, the
Interfraternity Council (IFC) is
enforcing a policy of "Dry
Rush," a ban on alcohol at
official rush functions.
Ken Kelly, IFC fraternity
coordinator, is optimistic about
the effects of dry rush on the
fraternity pledging process. "The,
purpose of dry rush is to remove
the effects of alcohol from the
membership process. Alcohol is
not permitted at any official Rush
function. We are very much in
favor of recruitment without
alcohol," Kelly said.
According to the official IFC
rush rules, "All rush activities
between 4 p.m. on Sunday
through 11:59 p.m. on Thursday
during the week of rush will be
conducted without alcohol."
Compliance with IFC rules is
mandatory, with possible fines of
$1,000 resulting from
The policy of an alcohol-free
rush week has not had an adverse
affect on rush activities, said
LSA sophomore and Delta
Upsilon member Ron Hessler.
"Dry rush hasn't changed a great
deal at (Delta Upsilon). It is
better to have a candidate's judge-
ment unimpaired by alcohol,"
Sigma Chi Social Chair Burt
Engel echoed Hessler's opinion.
"It's not making a big difference.
We're still getting good guys,
and it's an easy transition.
Although alcohol was present,
rush was not ever a party," he
Sigma Nu President Dan
Behm said that dry rush hasn't
hurt his fraternity. "I don't think
that wet rush had a place in the
past. It's had no adverse effect on
Sigma Phi Epsilon Member
Carlos Gerbi said that dry rush
has improved the rushing
process. "It takes the attention
away from the alcohol and
focuses more on the pros of fra-
ternity life," he said.
Though many of the fraternity
members supported dry rush,
some noted the positive effects of
alcohol in a rush setting.
"When rush was wet, it made
it easier to talk to rushees... they
were less nervous. Now you get-a
more honest opinion of what
someone is really like, even
though it's a little more difficult
to talk," said Beta Theta Pi
Member Josh Aaron.
A Sigma Chi Member, who
requested that his name not be
used, said, "(Alcohol) can be an
icebreaker... or make for a much
more casual, laid-back
conversation. It's sometimes a
good thing to loosen people up
but it can be abused or taken-to
See RUSH. Page 2
Faculty, students debate diversity course
by Amanda Neuman
Daily Staff Reporter
Faculty and students debated the
pros and cons of the four proposals
for a graduation requirement on di-
versity yesterday in the first of two
scheduled public forums.
The debate over a mandatory
course on ethnic and racial issues
began in 1987 when students in the
United Coalition Against Racism
(UCAR) presented the demand for
such a course to the administration.
Elizabeth Douvan. professor of
Douvan added that she has tried to
raise the issue of racism in her
classes by adding relevant literature
to the course material. She said her
students seemed curious and relieved
to have the chance to discuss such
English Prof. James Gindin lob-
bied for Proposal B, also written by
the LSA Curriculum Committee.
This proposal would require courses
to examine the culture and/or experi-
ence of a group in any society that
lum Committee proposals, he said.
Speaking in opposition to any
requirement was Philosophy Prof.
Carl Cohen. He presented three ma-
jor arguments rejecting all the pro-
Cohen first objected to the
"overestimated efficacy" of the re-
quirement. "To make obligatory
some course... is likely to not only
be unproductive, but counterproduc-
tive," he said.
Cohen also opposed the coercive
element of a course requirement. "It
prepared presentations. McDonald
responded with counter-objections to
each of Cohen's arguments. He said
the faculty proposal is effective and
"encourages discourse of important
issues in society."
McDonald disagreed that the re-
quirement is coercive. "Let's not as-
sume that our students resent this
kind of information," he said, adding
that many of his students are curious
about issues of diversity.
One student who spoke in favor
of Proposal A said a requirement
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