Page 2- The Michigan Daily - Monday, March 6, 1989
Continued from Page 1
The University had already
divested $50 - million in South
African operating stock when the
regents first sued the state in 1983.
So why do the shanties still
FSACC member Pam Nadasen
said last week that the shanties -
replicas of housing most Black
South African families are forced to
live in - represent solidarity with
those opposing apartheid in South
Africa, and will not be dismantled
until the system of apartheid is
But University divestment also
remains an issue.
The Michigan Appeals court said
it ruled in favor of the University
last January partly because the state
did not have a South African
divestment law for its own
Continued from Page 1
phy recognized as a civil rights vio-
lation" both nationally and interna-
MacKinnon's said her main pro-
ject "is on constructing the law of
equality." This subject is a part of
MacKinnon's book "Toward a Fem-
inist Theory of the State", to be
published later this year by Harvard
"The state is an arm of male
supremacy and attempts must be
made to find out if and how, it can be
constructively used for women," the
book says. "Women have been ex-
Their book also addresses mater-
nity leave, rape, abortion, pornogra-
phy, marriage and divorce as well as
other family issues.
Asked about the challenges
investments. It said thestate was
acting hypocritically by requiring its
Universities to divest from South
African operating companies while
the' state's pension fund was not
But last July, the Michigan
legislature passed a law requiring the
state workers' pension fund to divest
over $1 billion of its holdings in
South African operating companies.
The law not only ereated a state
precedent for divestment, but also
included broader definitions for a
company to be considered as
operating in South Africa.
Under these new definitions, the
University still holds, large
investments in South African
According to State Rep. Perry
Bullard (D-Ann Arbor), who
proposed the law, the new
definitions were a response to the
way in which many corporations
reacted to earlier divestment
women face today, MacKinnon said
she sees a "pervasive inequality on
the basis of sex. We swim in it as
fish swim in water. Although it is
not that benign, it is difficult to see.
Of course sometimes it is obvious."
For college women and all
women to meet these challenges
MacKinnon says that they should
"struggle for self-respect and insist
on the integrity of their own contri-
bution. They should try to move
their institition in a way that ac-
cords with their own conception of
their human dignity."
One way they can do this, said
MacKinnon, is by challenging sex-
ual harassment in the University
Another way for women to meet
the challenges they face is to orga-
nize and try "not only to change
their situation but pass on their
knowledge to younger women."
Many corporations have claimed
to be "officially" withdrawn from
South Africa, but still maintain
indirect, profitable, ties to the
country. This action by
corporations, anti-apartheid activists
say, defeats the purpose of
divestment legislation - to create
an economic embargo against South
Africa by pressuring foreign
companies to withdraw from South
For example, General Motors
announced the sale of its operations
to the South African Delta
Corporation in 1987, but Delta
Corporation continues to use GM-
made parts to assemble its
This past summer, after the state
legislature passed the new
divestment law, George Schreck,
former manager of South African
relations for General Motors, and
currently Latin American manager,
said the ties GM still keeps with
South Africa are for the benefit of
Black South Africans.
"We regret if someone or. some
agency feels that the stock is not
worth holding because of our efforts
to be responsible... and preserve
jobs," Schreck said.
The University currently holds
stocks and bonds in GM totalling
more than $100 million. The
University also holds stock in Coca-
Cola and International Business
Machines, which have similar
indirect ties to South Africa.
The University investments are
not illegal, as the state's new
definitions currently apply only to
state pension fund holdings. The
1982 University divestment law does
not require the University to divest
from companies with indirect links
such as GM, Coca-Cola, and IBM.
But some say the University has
a moral responsibility to take a stand
against South African apartheid.
Nadasen said the regents should
divest from GM and all other
companies which do business in
"Let's not get hung up on what's
legal or illegal with this issue," she
said. "The laws themselves have
come about from pressure. The issue
is the morality of what we are doing.
The University needs to take the
initiative on dealing with the issue
of apartheid, even if requires going
beyond what, the state requires it to
Nadasen said the University could
take other steps to pressure
companies to leave South Africa,
such as not allowing them to recruit
Regent Paul Brown (D-Petoskey)
said he feels the University has
shown its responsibility by
following the intent of the state
But Brown questioned the
effectiveness of divestment as a
means of effecting change within.
"The University has always been
unanimous in opposing apartheid,"
Brown said. "The question was
how... It is not clear whether
withdrawing of American
corporations from South Africa has
been helpful or not."
An alternative to withdrawal
adopted by some corporations is
'constructive engagement.' This
policy calls for companies to exert
pressure against apartheid while
remaining in South Africa.
Nadasen said that FSACC
strongly opposes this policy.
"In terms of whether divestment
is best, I think we can listen to the
people who know best - the Black
South African leaders - who from
1984 have been calling for the
withdrawal of foreign corporations
from South Africa," she said.
"Constructive engagement is an
excuse that American corporations
use to continue making profits,"
Nadasen added. "American companies
have been in South Africa since the
early twentieth century and their role
in making change has been very
minimal, while their ties to the
racist government have been strong."
Nadasen said IBM supplied
computers to the South African
Department of Defense in order to
keep Black South Africans under
surveillance. She also cited GM
planning documents from 1977 that
read, "In the event of civil unrest...
(GM) vehicles may be taken over for
Civil Defense purposes."
Critics say the regents, rather
than showing a moral commitment
when they divested, only moved in'
order to come out of their court
battle against the state with a
favorable ruling on their autonomy.
After the regents voted in 1983 to
sue the state over the law, Regent
Thomas Roach said, "In the long run
of the University, the question of
who runs the U-M is more
important to this University than the
question of South Africa."
State Rep. Bullard said the
autonomy is so important to the
regents because they can use it in
order to get around state laws they
don't"want to follow.
"The goal of University
autonomy was that academic freedom
was protected," Bullard said. "The
University, on the other hand, has an
absurd history of using it to argue
against state worker's compensation
laws and fair employment laws."
Though three fourths of the
people in South Africa's are Black,
voting for and membership in the
governing parliament is restricted to
South Africa's lack of democracy
has impacted the lives of the native
African population. In 86 percent of
the country Africans are excluded
from ownership of land. The average
monthly wage of a Black South
African is $137 compared to $966
Compiled from Associated Press and staff reports
Several Detroit hospitals will merge
DETROIT - Ailing Michigan residents may face longer drives for
specialized care but shouldn't expect lower health care bills as dozens of
hospitals statewide scramble to merge or affiliate, experts say.
Two-thirds of Michigan's 196 hospitals either have merged or are
negotiating such agreements, said Nancy Fielder, a spokeperson for the
Michigan Hospital Association.
Soaring technology costs, shrinking government payments and
declining patient admissions affecting big urban hospitals and smaller
independent hospitals are behind the trend, she said.
Residents of smaller cities and rural areas might be affected the most
by the trend, said Theodore Maad of the Detroit office of Ernst and
Whinney, an accounting and consulting firm involved with several of the
Scientists may test new treatment
on muscular dystrophy patients
NEW YORK - An experimental treatment for the most severe form
of muscular dystrophy has worked in two new studies in mice, and tests
in human patients may begin this summer scientists say.
The mice belonged to a strain that lacks a protein called dystrophin in
the muscles. In humans, that defect causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy,
.the most common and severe form of dystrophy.
After the mice were treated, portions of muscle began to produce the
"This is the most exciting approach for human therapy that, in my
opinion, has ever come along," said Donald Wood, director of research
for the Muscular Dystrophy Association.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder that strikes boys
almost exclusively, appearing in abut one in every 3,500 male babies in
the United State.
Soviet scientists avert meltdown
MOSCOW - Scientists averted a meltdown aboard a nuclear-
powered Soviet icebreaker by a matter of minutes last fall, a newspaper
that covers Soviet shipping reported.
Vodny Transport said the incident occurred Nov. 11 aboard the
Rossiya while it was docked at Murmansk, 1,000 miles north of Moscow
in Kola Bay.
The ship was there for routine changing of a filter in a reactor, the
newspaper reported in it's Saturday edition.
The reactor was shut down, and cooling water was supposed to be
drained before changing the filter, according to the newspaper.
But a chief physicist aboard the ship gave incorrect instructions to
an operator who opened a drainage valve on the ship's other reactor,
which was in operation, the newspaper said.
Radiation could have spread from the ship to the city of 440, 000
Vodny Transport comes out three times a week. There was no
explanation for the four- month delay in reporting the incident.
JOA delayed for court's decision
DETROIT - A dispute within the Supreme Court might have led to
the latest delay in the proposed partial merger of Detroit's two daily
newspapers, a legal expert said.
The joint operating agreement between The Detroit News and Detroit
Free Press was to have taken effect today.
But in an unexpected move Saturday, Justice William Brennan said the
newspapers' joint operating agreement could not begin until the full
Supreme Court considers the issue at its next regularly scheduled closed-
door conference March 17.
The opponents, a group of Michigan readers and advertisers calling
itself Michigan. Citizens for an Independent Press, still plan to file a
formal request for the full court to hear the case.
The newspapers sought the JOA, which would combine all but their
newsroom operations to stem what they called combined losses of $100
million between 1981 and 1986.
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Plump feline wins cash and years
supply of food in Japan's Cat Day
TOKYO - A fat black cat that makes Garfield look like a compulsive
dieter won the grand prize in a contest on Japan's third annual Cat Day.
Ushiwakamaru, a 26-pound, 6-year-old male, won $787 and a year's
supply of cat food for owner Haruko Kuno, a 60-year-old Tokyo
The organizers of the contest say the cat, named after a great warrior of
yore, won for his enormous girth-just over 27 inches.
Runner-up was Hironosuke, a 13-year-old male Himalayan, who was
labeled the "most spoiled cat in Japan."
Nekochin, 4, a male tabby, was honored as "model cat" for traveling
more than 60 miles to return to 68-year-old Kimiko Tsukagoshi after
Mrs. Tsukagoshi's daughter moved away, taking the cat with her.
The Michigan Daily (ISSN 0745-967) is published Monday through Friday during the fall and winter
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Associate Weekend Editor
Victoria Bauer, Mguel Cnu,
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