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U. THE NATIONAL COLLEGE NEWSPAPER 23
2 U. THE NATIONAL COLLEGE NEWSPAPER
EPTEMBER 1988 Student Body
News Features SEPTEMBER 1988
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AIDS study to advance health education
Animal research debate probes lab ethics
By Mike Drummond
Oregon Daily Emerald
U. of Oregon
The U. of Oregon's animal research
facilities: scientific laboratories or tor-
ture chambers? The answer depends on
who you ask.
Research proponents say cures for
AIDS and cancer rest on animals. They
cite breakthroughs ending polio and di-
abetes as classic examples of the ne-
cessity for animal experimentation.
Research opponents cite documented
cases of animal abuse, wasted lives and
worthless - or at best doubtful - hu-
man benefits from animal experimenta-
tion. Animal research is not a pretty
Inside the university's animal labs,
one sees a kitten with its right eye su-
tured shut and a guillotine used to de-
"It's (research) absolutely necessary,
but ... you should only use animals
when nothing else is available," said
Greg Stickrod, director of animal care.
Animal rights advocates list compu-
ter models and in vitro (cell and tissue)
techniques as viable alternatives, but
researchers say these methods cannot
show how neurons and cells interact
within a living organism.
"I'm astonished at the ignorance ...
of my critics. And as soon as I get over
"I'm astonished at the
ignorance ... of my critics.
And as soon as I get over
my astonishment, I realize
this is not an intellectual
concern - it's an emotional
one, an ethical one and a
- RICHARD MARROCCO
the sick. But very early on, they do dis-
section of animals, and I think they lose
the sense of the integrity of the body,"
Dr. Barbara Gordon-Lickey, a
psychologist and animal researcher
who has spent 20 years working with
vision, primarily in kittens, said, "the
things I'm looking at will probably not
make it into the human medical realm
for a very long time."
Leading ophthalmologist and Re-
search Modernization Committee mem-
ber Dr. Steven Kaufman said of Gordon-
Lickey's research, "I know of no past or
present clinical applications."
Marrocco said many scientific adv-
ances do not recognize every indi-
vidual's results - "they're pieces in a
big puzzle," he said.
. "It's really a big puzzle to me how he
(Marrocco) gets a nickel out of the feder-
al government," said Ingrid Newkirk,
national director for the Washington,
D.C.-based People for the Ethical Treat-
ment of Animals, a 250,000-member
organization. Newkirk believes animal
research is an advanced form of pulling
wings off flies.
But Steve Carroll, executive director
of the 2,000-member Incurably Ill for
Animal Research, disagrees that anim-
al research is a business of torture. He
and his fellow members "stand the most
to gain with animal research and the
most to lose if it's discontinued. It's not
just a philosophical debate, it's a debate
about reality," Carroll said.
By Mary Goldstein
U. of Maryland, Baltimore County
Debbie Sivertson, director of Student
Health Services at the U. of Maryland,
Baltimore County (UMBC), said the
school's participation in the HIV (Hu-
man Immunodeficiency Virus) study
will help advance needed AIDS educa-
tion among college students.
"Ninety-six percent of people (in col-
leges) know how AIDS is passed,"
Sivertson said. "You ask them about
their (sexual) behavior and they're not
using condoms. They don't know their
sexual partners. When you ask them if
they can get AIDS, they say 'No!'
Sivertson said this is because college
students don't "personalize" the in-
"College students feel invincible," she
said. "We know that there are heterose-
xuals out there who are HIV positive
and who are having sex."
She said college is the "peak of learn-
ing for health education," and the col-
legiate group, which consists of future
leaders, "is an incredible population to
The Student Health Center will fol-
low "normal routines" in drawing blood
- no extra blood will be drawn for pur-
poses of the study, Sivertson said. She
added that "other universities in the
study have wonderful support from stu-
The results of the survey will be com-
piled regionally; the results of HIV in-
fection on individual campuses will not
Dr. Richard P. Keeling, director of the
American College Health Association,
said the survey will produce "the first
actual data about the frequency of HIV
infection among students."
He added that since college students
tend to have several sexual partners,
they are among those most likely to en-
gage in risky behavior.
The study, part of a family of surveys
being conducted to determine the pre-
valence of AIDS among different de-
mographic groups, will run through
January when the 20 participating uni-
versities have each collected 1,000 sam-
my astonishment, I realize this is not an
intellectual concern - it's an emotional
one, an ethical one and a moral one,"
said Richard Marrocco, psychology pro-
fessor and animal researcher.
Dr. Neal Bernard, a member of
Washington, D.C.-based Physicians
Committee for Responsible Medicine,
says that animal research drains
would-be funding for other means of re-
search and that researchers have been
desensitized to more ethical alterna-
tives. Bernard likened this perceived in-
sensitivity in animal researchers to
that experienced by medical students.
"Students go to medical school to help
By Editorial Staff
The Daily Targum
Rutgers U., NJ
Student government associations
have condemned the participation of the
university's health service in a national
AIDS survey. The survey, which
n in AIDS testing violates students' rights
denied a blood test. The mind boggles
when it considers that someone who
must have taken the Hippocratic Oath
will not administer a blood test to some-
one who should have one simply
because the patient does not want to
participate in the survey. That is medi-
cal blackmail and is positively obscene.
Most students should consent to the
testing due to the gravity of the AIDS
problem. It must, however, be our
Dartmouth president ousts
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Is it a violation of civil rights
to have blood tested for
AIDS without consent?
If blood tests positive for
AIDS virus, should student
To give you an opportunity to express your opinions on important
campus issues that affect your life, the AT&T STUDENT OPINION
POLL will appear in each issue of
U. The National College Newspaper.
Watch for the results of this month's poll in U
By Cheryl Family
The Daily Pennsylvanian
U. of Pennsylvania
The educators of Dartmouth College
have harshly criticized the editors of an
ultra-conservative student newspaper
for what Dartmouth President James
Freedman termed "poisoning the intel-
lectual environment of our campus."
Since its gene-
sis in 1980, Thez
view has been w L
attacked as anti-
h om os ex ual, o
stems from a
confrontation President Freedman
last winter between Review staffers and
Music Professor William Cole, who is
black, over a Review article which criti-
cized his teaching ability.
The incident occurred when four stu-
dents from the Review refused to leave
the professor's classroom when asked.
Three students were suspended and one
was put on a year-long disciplinary
"The students were punished for
what happened in the classroom, not
what they published," Dartmouth
spokesman Alex Huppe said. "They out
and out harassed Professor Cole."
During a special faculty meeting,
Freedman branded the newspaper's
staff as "ideological provocateurs posing
Freedman said that the college "must
not stand by silently when a newspaper
maliciously engages in bullying tactics
that ... have the effect of discouraging
women and members of minority
groups from joining our faculty or en-
rolling as students."
"The faculty gave the speech a stand-
ing ovation. It's the first time a presi-
dent at Dartmouth has spoken out
against the Review in a public and force-
ful manner," Huppe said.
"The speech was so appalling," said
Review editor Chris Whitman. "Yes,
we're very opinionated, but you can't
categorize all of us together."
An appeal by the punished students
was denied, but Whitman said the Re-
view will continue publishing.
Although many Dartmouth students
initially supported the Review staffers,
"everyone I know supported President
Freedman's speech," said Dartmouth
senior Kirby Fowler.
But students also said the speech cre-
ated concern about alumni donations
since a large percentage of Dartmouth's
alumni support the Review.
The Review and its three suspended
staffers are charging Dartmouth with
censorship (a state suit) and reverse
discrimination (a federal suit). The staf-
fers seek reversal of the suspensions,
clearance of its mention from their
academic records and money for dam-
age they have suffered from the ordeal.
Harvey Myerson, named by Fortune as
one of the nation's top five lawyers, is
representing the students. Among
those supporting the lawsuits are Wil-
liam F. Buckley, Jr., Rep. Jack Kemp
(R-N.Y.), Sen. Gordon Humphrey (R-
N.H.) and Mark Goodman, executive
director of Washington, D.C.-based Stu-
dent Press Law Center.
The U.S. Department of Education
is investigating Dartmouth in response
to civil rights complaints filed by the
Review with the National Endowment
for the Humanities. Dartmouth could
lose up to $32 million in federal grants
(85 percent of the college's annual
funds) if found guilty of civil rights
Michael Reynolds and David Groff of
The Dartmouth, Dartmouth College,
NH, contributed to this story.
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three-year period, said Men's
Athletic Director Chalmers
"This is a tremendous asset.
We've promised some money and
we're very happy we can deliver" on
early promises made to minority
students, said Philip Hubbard, vice
president for academic affairs.
"This is an extremely generous
contribution which comes at a par-
ticularly challenging time for the
University Libraries, and it is a gift
that constitutes support of the en-
tire university community - stu-
dents, faculty and staff," said
Sheila Creth, university librarian.
The funding sources for the gift
are unbudgeted revenue from
NCAA basketball tournament
appearances, football bowl games
and profits from the Iowa Hawk
Shop. Elliott said the gift does not
include any private contributions
to men's athletics or other budgeted
income from ticket sales and televi-
includes ZU universities across the coun-
try, is designed to determine what per-
centage of American college students
have been exposed to the HIV virus,
which is believed to cause AIDS.
With a disease as serious as Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndrome, any
steps to control its spread should be
taken. We are not living in a perfect
world, however, and the question of
health versus civil rights comes into
The problem with the survey is that
it is involuntary. Students will have no
way of knowing whether their blood will
be sent to the Center for Disease Con-
trol (CDC) in Atlanta, and therein lies
the problem. No matter how noble the
cause, the involuntary aspect of this
program makes it repugnant.
Dr. Robert Bierman, medical director
of the student health services, said any
student who wishes not to have his or
her blood sent to the CDC will be
Continued From Page 1
would ordinarily be given a blood test
but do not want to be part of the HIV
testing program will not be given a test.
"If the person is ill, and the doctor has
ordered a blood test for diagnostic pur-
poses, the person will hardly feel free to
pass up the blood test," Neisser said.
Bierman said health care recipients
can obtain blood tests at other health
care facilities if they do not want to par-
ticipate in the study.
Neisser requested that Rutgers in-
form each student individually about
participating in an HIV test.
"Notice is important because the indi-
vidual patient has the right to refuse to
have bodily fluids tested for statistical
or other non-treatment purposes," he
"The program has been reviewed by
our human subjects committee," Bier-
man said. "To the best of our knowledge,
we are complying to all federal regula-
tions concerning this kind of research."
Neisser also requested the University
announce further steps to assure the
anonymity of participants in the study.
"What is there to prevent the health
care professional from putting the num-
ber in the student's folder and thus later
tracing it back?" Neisser said.
"Isn't it at least plausible that the
CDC will know how many were drawn
each.day and thus be able to identify at
least the date, and thus the small group
from which an infected sample was
drawn?" he said.
Bierman said laboratory staff, not
health care providers, assign blood
numbers to the samples.
"There is no way the health care pro-
viders can know the numbers. Our ex-
perience over the last years with public
hysteria over AIDS has led us to de-
mand the strictest of procedures to en-
sure confidentiality," he said.
welcomes new crew
The four smiling faces pictured at
right are the first class of U. The
National College Newspaper Editorial
Fellows. Brent Anderson, Marc Bona,
Mark Charnock and Becky Howard
were chosen from many excellent stu-
dent journalists nationwide for the
paid U. fellowships in Santa Monica,
Calif. As section editors, the fellows
read hundreds of college newspapers
daily to select and edit the articles that
will appear in U.
Former Kansas State Collegian Fea-
tures Editor Becky Howard made the
move from Kansas State U. because
"the opportunity to work on a new,
growing national publication is an ex-
citing way to enhance my copy editing
and lay-out skills." Becky lists sunba-
thing, visitors from Kansas and being
News Features editor as her favorite
"It's a really unique experience be-
cause we have our hands on the pulse
of the college market. And it feels
great," said U. of Iowa's Marc Bona,
who boasts experience as The Daily
Iowan sports editor. Marc's Dollars
and Sense editorship has helped him
maximize the number of nightclubs
for his money.
Santa Monica was a short drive for
U. of California, Santa Barbara's
Brent Anderson, who felt being Life
and Art editor was the perfect way to
ease into the working world. "I like
working with people my age who have
fresh ideas and a lot of creative energy.
It's a great way to stay connected to
college," said former Daily Nexus De-
sign Editor Anderson.
Student Body Editor Mark Char-
nock of James Madison U., Va., admits
that the frequent-flyer bonus mileage
played a small role in his decision to
come to U. "The team concept here is a
big plus," said recent Breeze Managing
Editor Charnock. "U. doesn't try to be
hip or trendy. It just informs. That's
what a good newspaper staffed by
sharp, high-energy people should be
rom your newspaper
dviser or by contacting
l College Newspaper.
s Jan. 6, 1989. Reci-
announced Feb. 10,
Brent Anderson, Mark Charnock, Marc Bona and Becky Howard
The U. Fellowship program expands are available f
on the concept that college journalists editor, media ac
are the best-qualified to comment on U. The Nationa
college life and student concerns. The deadline is
U. is accepting applications for the pients will be
second fellowship class from July 24, 1989. Karen
1989 to March 30, 1990. Applications aging Editor