Page 2- The Michigan Daily - Monday, April 21, 1986
Women haven't made economic gains
WASHINGTON (UPI) - Despite
gains in the labor market and anti-
discrimination legislation, women in
1983 were no better off economically
than they were in 1959 - mainly
because they hold prime respon-
sibility for children, a study released
The study, by Stanford University
economics professor Victor Fuchs,
said women's income doubled over
the quarter century, but their average
hourly pay was still 50 percent less
FUCHS, reporting in the weekly
journal Science, said women also lost
ground in other areas: They had less
leisure, while men had more; because
of the increase in the divorce rate,
women were more dependent on their
own income; and women's share of
financial responsibility for children
"The data examined here suggest
that the massive structural, legal, and
behavioral changes of the last quarter
century did not improve the economic
well-being of women in comparison
with men," wrote Fuchs, who is also a
research associate at the National
Bureau of Economic Research, a
private non-profit organization in
"As long as parents are responsible
for children and this responsibility is
borne disproportionately by women,
sex differences in the labor market
are likely to persist," he wrote.
THE STUDY, based on census data
and population surveys, said women
comprised 54 percent of the labor for-
ce in 1982, compared with 34 percent
Women's wages showed a striking
increase, from $4,139 in 1959 to $9,026
in 1983, because of an increase in
hours worked and in actual pay. Both
figures were given in 1983 dollars. The
ratio of their earnings compared to
men's also doubled.
However, the study found "the
average man still earns almost 50
percent more per hour than does the
average woman of the same race, age
"ALTHOUGH federal and state
laws require employers to have the
same pay scale for men and women in
the same job, the large wage differen-
Many contribute to E. Quad's graffiti debate
(Continued from Page 1)
Some have called East Quad's ef-
forts to stop the graffiti an attempt at
creating a "police state." Others see
such efforts as badly needed in a place
where they ahve to live.
The East Quad graffiti wars reflect
a year-long trend on campus toward
more vandalism. Although much of
the campus graffiti has been
racist-including attacks on frater-
nity and sorority houses-the East
Quad incidents appear to have more
MANY RESIDENTS feel the East
Quad debate began with a letter from
professors Carl Cohen, Libby Douvan,
and other members of the Residential
College Executive Committee to
residents that called any graffiti
damaging, defacing, and an act of
"There are the rooms and halls in
which we live, and we must not permit
them to be damaged, even destroyed
in part. Please help us stamp out this
ugly and infantile practice," the letter
It urged residents to "do what you
can" to stop whoever is defacing the
"I THINK Carl Cohen's letter is
largely responsible for the wave of
reaction about the graffiti," Schuur
said. "The students' letters in turn
provided a force behind the recent in-
crease in attacks that are reflected
upon our walls."
East Quad's Building Director Deba
Patnaik thinks a distinction must be
made between graffiti and vandalism.
"When it turns racist, sexist, vulgar
or into individual attacks with in-
decent comments, then it's not graffiti
any more," he said. "It then becomes
an act of vandalism."
He feels there has been an increase
of graffiti that can be considered van-
dalism. He listed examples such as a
classroom where "You're all right
Carl Cohen" is printed, a defaced
television screen in the Madrigal
Lounge, and other messages on the
main entrance to the Quad- and his
"I FIND it very narrow
and selfish when a small group of
people deface a space such as East
Quad that is used by such a diverse
group of people," said Patnaik. East
Quad not only houses students, but is
also the home of the Residential
College. The dorm regularly provides
programs for the community.
One wall on Cooley Hall's first floor
has been a traditional spot for Quad
graffiti, and Patnaik doesn't object ot
having a graffiti wall. "Graffiti is an
ephemoral art that is a reaction
against permanent bourgeoisis art
forms," he said. "It's an art form,
a way of expressing views to be con-
"Extra time and staff have been
used to clean up, but we can't keep up
with the latest pace," Patnaik added.
Regents order review of
(ContinuedfromPagee A begin at 10 a.m. in the Rackham Am-
revolutionary group, the African phiteatre, to avoid conflicting with the
National Congress, would accept the University's 1 p.m. ceremony in
The alternative ceremony would Michigan Stadium.
.... ... ...... ... - .. ... --- --. - -- - - - - _
NIGHT OWLS TAKE A STUDY BREAKI
' J Buy 2 or more of Mrs. Peabody's cookies
r or brownies after 9:00 p.m. and get
' a FREE beverage!j
Opentill11 pm. dllyCOUPON MUST BE '
Opentl p.m.day PRESENTED WITH PURCHASE
715 N. University OFFER VALID THROUGH '
ALTHOUGH the protesters do not
plan any further actions similar to
Thursday night, they said in a
statement: "We intend to come back
again in the fall more resolute than
ever to pressure the University into
granting an honorary degree to
The regents' review will examine
all aspects of honorary degrees, in-
cluding whether the University should
continue bestowing them. A Univer-
sity review committee will also
evaluate the regents' bylaw that
prohibits giving degrees to those who
cannot accept them in person.
The bylaw was a main reason the
University's honorary degrees com-
mittee did not recommend to the
Apile puts the
fuback into student
regents that Mandela receive the
honor. In January, the regents rejected
the committee's recommendation to
give University alumnus Raoul
Wallenberg, the degree for the same
W ALLENBERG, who saved the
lives of hundreds of thousands of
Hungarian Jews in Nazi Germany,
was arrested by the Soviet Union
shortly after the war and is believed
to be dead.
Mandela, the recognized symbol. of
the anti-apartheid movement in South
Africa, has been serving a life senten-
ce in jail since 1962 for leading the
African National Congress.
One regent who supports changing
the bylaw is James Waters (D-
Detroit). Waters, who proposed the
review, also said he felt the majority
of regents would support the bylaw
"I DON'T see a reason for ex-
cluding people who can't come
because they're in prison, they're ill,
or they're not allowed to leave the
country," Waters said.
It's unknown whether the commit-
tee will recommend that the bylaw be
changed, or, if it is recommended,
whether the regents will approve
giving Mandela the degree at the
University's commencement in
"Obviously a change in the bylaw is
a step in the right direction, but it's
not what we've been working for,"
said Barbara Ransby, another leader
of the protest.
A bylaw change would also improve
Mandela's chances of being
nominated by the honorary degrees
committee, said a member of the
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Libya finds wreckage of U.S.
F-111 warplane, sources say
ABU DHABI, United Arab Emirates - The United Arab Emirates'
state-run newspaper Al-Ittihad reported yesterday that Libya pulled the
wreckage of a U.S. F-111 warplane from the Mediterranean.
It attributed the report to unidentified Libyan sources.
Al-Ittihad said the wreckage of an F-111 and the bodies of the two
crewmen were recovered from the sea off Libya by Libyan military per-
sonnel with Soviet assistance.
Arab and Western diplomatic sources, who insisted on anonymity,
dismissed the account as unverifiable.
In Tripoli U.S. warplanes last week heavily damaged a naval in-
stallation, which U.S. officials said was a commando training base,
during the American raid last week on reputed terrorist targets.
Inside the base, reporters saw the remains of at least four buildings
which had been flattened by direct hits Tuesday.
Soviets willing to hold sunmit
POTSDAM, East Germany - Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev said
yesterday he is willing to meet President Reagan this year if the United
States changes policies he charged were poisoning relations between the
Speaking to reporters at Potsdam, site of the 1945 Allied conference on
Germany, Gorbachev said "the meeting (with Reagan) can take place if
the United States realizes that it is necessary to take this path."
"But if it (America) goes on acting as it is today, trying to poison the
atmosphere, this will throw a shadow over any future meeting," the
Soviet Communist Party chief said. "If it (the summit) is to happen, a
better atmosphere is necessary."
Gorbachev did not elaborate, but he appeared to be referring to last
week's U.S. bombing raids on Libya and recent U.S. underground tests of
nuclear weapons. On Friday, Gorbachev told the East German Com-
munist Party congress those actions and the "increased (U.S.) threats"
against Nicaragua demonstrated that the United States was following a
"militarist and aggressive" policy that could damage U.S.-Soviet
Murdered American's body
returned from Lebanon
WASHINGTON - The corpse of Peter Kilburn, the American kidnap
victim reportedly killed last week in retaliation for the U.S. air raid on
Libya, was flown to Andrews Air Force Base near Washington yesterday
and taken for forensic tests, a State Department spokesman said.
Kilburn's body was discovered Tuesday with those of two Britons in
Lebanon's central mountains, along with a note saying they had been
"executed" by the Arab Revolutionary Cells to avenge the U.S. attack
against Libya the night before.
State Department spokesman Bruce Ammerman said Kilburn's body
"has arrived and is being sent for a forensic exam, but I don't know
where. When and if a forensic ID is made, a statement will be issued."
Kilburn, of San Francisco, was librarian at the American University of
Beirut for 20 years until he disappeared on Dec. 3, 1984.
He had not been seen in public since, although Tim Kilburn, his nephew,
.said the family had heard from unidentified sources that he was still alive
until the last week.
Five other American kidnap victims are still missing in Lebanon.
Experts study Titan explosion
VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif - Investigators will check
O-rings in the solid fuel boosters of a Titan rocket that exploded just after
liftoff last week.
"We will be looking at everything...(the solid fuel) boosters, rings,
propellants and electronics," said Maj. Gen. Jack Watkins, commander
of the 1st Strategic Aerospace Division at Vandenberg.
Sabotage is also "one of those things we must always take into con-
sideration," he said, adding that "things like terrorist activities and
sabotage would probably not be discussed in public."
The $65 million Titan 34D blew up five seconds into launch Friday mor-
ning with its classified payload, believed to be a spy satellite. The failure,
coupled with the shuttle disaster, interrupts the launch programs of the
United State's two principal satellite launch vehicles.
"We had been watching this one anxiously," Watkins told reporters
Saturday. "Coming hard on the heels of the Challenger loss, there was
more apprehension...It's a setback."
It was the second failed Titan 34D launch in a row. A rocket carrying a
KH-11 spy satellite exploded just after liftoff Aug. 28.
Killer tornado strikes Texas
SWEETWATER, Texas - Standing among debris that once was a
housing project for the elderly, Gov. Mark White yesterday promised
state loans and a plea for federal disaster aid for the estimated 1,500
residents of this West Texas town left homeless by a killer tornado.
"I don't see how anybody could have lived through this," White said.
"It's as bad as I've seen."
Two twisters converged just before touching down about 7 a.m. Satur-
day, cutting a path two miles long and a half-mile wide through the
southeastern section of the West Texas town of 12,000. No warning was
issued of the twister, which the National Weather Service said did not
show up on radar.
An 87-year-old man was killed and 92 people were injured, three
critically. The five people who were reported missing Saturday had all
beenacconted for yesterday.
s acnty as 1,500 people were homeless and property damage was
estimated at $15 million to $20 million, Mayor Rick Rhodes said yester-
day. An overnight curfew was posted to prevent looting.
01 he Michig~an ?fail
Vol. XCVI- No. 137
The Michigan Daily (ISSN 0745-967 X) is published Monday through
Friday during the fall and winter terms. Subscription rates: September
through April-$18 in Ann Arbor; $35 outside the city. One term-$10 in
town; $20 outside the city.
The Michigan Daily is a member of The Associated Press and subscribes
to United Press International, Pacific News Service, Los Angeles Times
Syndicate, and College Press Service.
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All you have to do is march spend on your education, or some-
yourself down to your campus thing really worthwhile.
microcomputer center before May And, for those of you with the
15th and spend five fun-packed average amount of luck, there are
minutes letting us demonstrate how free Apple® painter's caps for every-
a Macintosh' computer can make one who comes in and learns how
life much more pleasant for you. a Macintosh can help
In return,well enter your name you work better, faster,
into a drawing where one very and smarter
lucky person on campus will win the It's one demonstra-
Editor in Chief ...............ERIC MATTSON
Managing Editor..........RACHEL GOTTLIEB
News Editor ................JERRY MARKON
NEWS STAFF: Eve Becker, Melissa Birks, Laura
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Cohen, Adam Cort, Laura Coughlin, Tim Daly,
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Goldstein, Susan Grant, Stephen Gregory, Steve
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Opinion Page Editor........... KAREN KLEIN
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OPINION PAGE STAFF: Rosemary Chinnock,
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Arts Editor...............NOELLE BROWER
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Film ..................... SETH FLICKER
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MARK BOROWSKY, RICK KAPLAN,
ADAM MARTIN, PHIL NUSSEL
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