The Michigan Daily - Thursday, January 30, 1986-- Page 5
Two languages vital,
NEW YORK (AP) - A majority of
Americans believe it is vital for
children to learn a second language,
and most say language instruction
should begin in elementary school,
according to a Media General-
Associated Press poll.
Fifty-seven percent of the 1,462
adults who participated in the nation-
wide telephone poll said it was "very
important" for English-speaking
children to learn another language,
while 29 percent said it was
"somewhat important" and 11 per-
cent said it was not important at all.
The rest were unsure.
THE RESPONDENTS were less
sure when asked about the success of
bilingual education, that is, teaching
children most courses in their native
language rather than in English.
Non-English-speaking children are
usually taught basic subjects like
math and social studies in their own
language while they tackle English in
a separate class.
Forty-two percent of the responden-
ts believed this method was suc-
cessful in teaching children English,
while 24 percent said it was unsuc-
cessful. However, 34 percent of the
respondents didn't answer or didn't
know, indicating a great deal of un-
When asked if this traditional
method of bilingual education was
successful in teaching children such
basic subjects as math and social
studies, the responses were about the
same. Thirty-eight percent believed it
was successful, 23 percent believed it
was unsuccessful, and 39 percent
ON THE ISSUE of teaching
English-speaking children a foreign
language, 84 percent of the respon-
dents said foreign language instruc-
tion should be available in elementary
school. Of those, 24 percent said
language instruction should be
required and 60 percent said it should
Nearly all said it should be
available in high school. Forty-seven
percent said high school students
should be required to study a foreign
language, and 50 percent said it
should be available as an option.
Forty-six percent said foreign
languages should be a requirement
for college admission, while 49 per-
cent said they should not.
On bilingual education, Secretary of
Education William Bennett wants to
give local school districts more
flexibility in formulating programs
for students who don't speak English.
One alternative program involves
immersion classes where students are
taught basic subjects in English but
are allowed to ask questions in their
IN THE Media General-AP poll, 46
percent of the respondents said
students who don't speak English
should be placed in all English-
speaking classes, while 36 percent
said they should be taught basic sub-
jects in their own languages. Eighteen
percent were unsuer.
Respondents in the Media General-
Associated Press poll included a ran-
dom, scientific sampling of 1,462
adults across the country Nov. 8-14.
As with all sample surveys, the
results of Media General-AP
telephone polls can vary from the'
opinions of all Americans because of:
chance variation in the sample.
For a poll based on about 1,400 in-:
terviews, the results are subject to an
error margin of 3 percentage points
either way because of chance
variations in the sample. That is, if
one could have questioned all,
Americans with telephones, there is.
only 1 chance in 20 that the findings
would vary from the results of polls'
such as this one by more than 3 per-
Of course, the results could differ
from other polls for several reasons.
Differences in exact wording of
questions, in the timing of interviews,
and in the interview methods could
also cause variations.
Shuttle explosion may delay 'U'
Tribute Associated Press
A shopkeeper in Troy, Mich. pays tribute to the Challenger shuttle crew
SPassive smoke causes
cancer, EPA official says
(Continued from Page 1)
will be relayed to Earth by an orbiter
launch with the probe.
CARIGNAN said his part of the
Galileo probe has been completed and
is sitting at Cape Canaveral.
David Anderson, a professor of
electrical engineering and computer
science, was expecting to use data
from a shuttle flight scheduled for
next year to help find a cure for space
Anderson theorizes that there is
"something missing" in the coor-
dinationdbetween the eyes, inner ears,
and head movements in space, and he
has developed devices to measure
those factors. Originally, the gauges
were supposed to be tested on a shut-
tle mission next summer.
ANDERSON SAID he is confident
that his experiment will be conducted
eventually, but he will have to store
the computer programs for the ex-
periment until NASA is ready to use
Mureil Ross, a professor of
anatomy at the University was plan-
ning to do research into the motion
sickness problem using data from one
of the shuttle flights scheduled for
next year, but she too will have to
cope with the delay.
Ross said she was uncertain even
before Tuesday's tragedy when her
experiment would be conducted
because of NASA's frequent changes
ROSS SAID the delay will give her a
chance to do more preliminary
research so she will have a "better
handle" on what the material means
when another shuttle is sent up.
While the losses suffered in the ex-
plosion and the cost of the in-
vestigation will deplete the size of
NASA's research budget, University
researchers said yesterday that they
had been worried about budget cuts
even before the explosion.
"We had really fallen on hard times
even before this incident," said
Craven. "We were just trying to ad-
just to what Gramm-Rudman will
do," he said, referring to new
legislation which may force the
government to make budget cuts in
most departments to reduce the size
Nation grieves for crash victims
(Continued from Page 1)
drive the liquid gases to the shuttle's
main engines, ultimately leading to
The agency also disclosed that
although all data that was being
monitored looked good up to the point
of the explosion, controllers in
Houston do not keep tabs on con-
ditions in the giant external fuel tank
that blew up with the force of 1.6
million pounds of TNT.
"The data we look at in the control
room is fimited to that which is
operationally significant, that which
we can do something about," said
flight director Jay Greene.
THE NATION poured out its grief
yesterday for the seven men and
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women who died in pursuit of their
dreams aboard the space shuttle
Across the country flags fluttered at
half-staff and churches opened their
doors for memorial services.
President Reagan will fly to the
Johnson Space Center in Houston on
Friday to lead the nation in a tribute
to the seven Challenger astronauts
killed in the worst accident in the
history of space exploration, it was
THE president sent a written
message of condolence to students
and staff at Concord High School;
where McAuliffe has taught history
since 1982. The White House said con=
tents of the message would not be
relesed until the children returned to
Soviet leader Mikhail Qorbachev
sent a telegram to Reagan yesterday
expressing condolences to Americans
and the families of the shuttle crew
of the federal deficit.
Still, the explosion will result in in-
creased costs. Hays, said delays could,
be expensive because of the labor
"We can't fire everyone and rehire
them one year later," Hays said.
(Continued from Page 1)
San Francisco that have passed laws
on the subject. And he said public
health warnings, including some on
cigarette packs, would be a good idea.
Topping, speaking at a National
Academy of Sciences public hearing,
" Last year's projection, by gover-
nment and other researchers, of 5,000
annual lung-cancer deaths from non-
smokers' exposure to passive smoke
has "gained acceptance in the public
+ A "mountain of evidence" links
smoking parents with infants
* Other studies have indicated ex-
posure to passive smoke "may
significantly increase risks of heart
"The non-smokers' rights
movement has been portrayed by
tobacco interests as an assemblage of
finicky busybodies intent on imposing
their values on smokers," Topping
However, he said, freeing non-
smokers from exposure to others'
smoke "would save the lives of
thousands of non-smokers annually."
And it would save many more smokers'.
lives in the bargain, since protecting
non-smokers' lives would require
restricting smokers' opportunities to
light up, he said.
HIS COMMENTS were supported
by several scientists at the meeting
but were strongly disputed by others.
Sorell Schwartz, pharmacology
professor at Georgetown University
Medical Center, said information
gathered so far "is inadequate" to
show a real relationship between
passive smoke exposure and the
presence of chemical markets in a
He complained that one study
suggesting a link between disease and
passive smoke depended on inter-
views of lung cancer victims, relativ-
es or friends - for such crucial in-
formation as whether those victims
smoked and what exposure they had
to others' cigarette smoke.
PROF. S. James Kilpatrick of the
Department of Biostatistics of the
Medical College of Virginia, con-
cluded flatly that "the current
epidemiological literature consists of
seriously flawed studies that have, by
their very nature, been unable to
establish any causal relationships."
On the other hand, an author of the
study that was criticized for its
dependence on interviews, Dr.
Lawrence Garfinkel, said: "The
question of whether the involuntary
smoker faces a health risk has been
answered. The time to act is now."
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