Page A 4 - The Michigan Daily - Thursday, September 5, 1985
4 0 ftCtigan BatIt
Edited and managed by students at The University of Michigan
Editorials represent a majority opinion
of the Daily's Editorial Board
Mainstreaming maims muse
[Vol. XCVI -No. 1
420 Moynard St.
Ann Arbor, Ml48109
ONTROVERSIES of one sort or another come and
go at the University with enough frequency that it
- seems possible to chart certain tendencies.
A typical controversy, such as the proposed code of
student non-academic conduct or the debate over
classified research on campus tends to pit students against
the administration with parts of the faculty falling on
either side .
The reason students tend to be opposed to the ad-
ministration is simple: where the administration
measures the University's efficiency in cold figures such
as profits and research grants, a student measures its ef-
ficiency in the way it touches his own life and in the sort of
education it provides for him.
In spite of the fact that students constitute the vast
majority of the University community, they tend to be
overmatched in conflicts with the administration. Again,
the reason is simple: It is difficult for a student to come to
grips with the University's decision-making process in
only four years, and then still have time to have an impact
on that process.
It is possible to do so, however, and many individual
students have significantly affected University life with
their actions and ideas. In recent years, a handful of
students were largely responsible for shifting debate over a
non-academic code of conduct from criticism of the
University's proposal to constructive work on a mutually
Nevertheless, where a handful of students have been
successful in a community of 34,000, more students could
be even more effective. With greater numbers working
with them, organizations like the Michigan Student
Assembly gain credibility and are more effectively able to
negotiate with the administration on behalf of students.
Perhaps even more important than an increased ability
to negotiate is an improved understanding of just what
student concerns are. Even within the "typical" con-
troversy, there are many students who agree with the ad-
ministration - sometimes, perhaps a majority - but
when they don't speak out, their opinions go unnoticed.
Inevitably, what students appear to consider proper and
' decent is not the product of proclamations by MSA or the
Michigan Daily, but rather from the nearly indetectable
impact of all those who do speak out.
There are countless ways that an individual can voice
concern in the University community, ranging from
a staging protests to attending regents meetings as a con-
cerned citizen. The method is secondary. What counts is
that students realize the impact that University decisions
have on their lives and begin to speak out to effect those
T HIS TIME last year, the University was trying to push
something called the code for non-academic conduct
on the students. A set of rules to try to control students out-
side the classroom, the code was blasted by the University
community - students and faculty alike - as being totally
The role of the University is to educate, not to serve as
guardians of students' lives.
Fortunately, through protests, students were able to
persuade the University's administrators to reconsider
their move. One battle was won in November when the
administration decided to charge the University Council -
a panel made up of administrators, faculty, and students
nsr- with coming up with an alternate code. The ad-
ministration's attempt to implement a behavioral code
without student input was one of the main points of interest
with the previous code.
Now, a year later, the situation seems much brighter.
The University Council, after months of deliberations,
seems to be heading towards a code which protects, not
Under a new council idea, students could still be barred
from a classroom if, for example, they attacked the
teaching assistant, but a hearing would have to be held
within two weeks to continue the sanction.
But the main difference is that these sanctions - so far
- are only for life-threatening situations. Before, similar
sanctions could be applied for any action the University
" deemed unsatisfactory, such as protests that disrupt nor-
mal University activity.
The members of the council have stressed that the
University should do everything possible to make sure that
a student is not hurt academically while the sanctions are
Although the situation seems better, students must not.
become apathetic. The University Council has not con-
sidered how to deal with civil disobedience. Students must
be ready to fight any attempt by the administration to
limit students' freedom of expresssion.
Ukan +he nivrasity rnunil fAnnA nmwa n, with it c
When I was a little girl and people asked me
what I was going to be when I grew up, I said "I'm
gonna be the lady who feeds the monkeys in the
zoo," or "I'm gonna be an eskimo." It seemed like
everybody always laughed at me, but I didn't
think it was very funny.
Now I know whey they mocked me - they wanted
me to be an engineer, doctor, lawyer, or the
president. From the beginning I was being main-
streamed - labeled a pre-professional, groomed
for college and the great beyond ...
JUST WHAT is a pre-professional anyway? Is it
a permanent condition? When I meet one, should I
say "me Rachel, you pre-law," or is it a phase that
some people live through like adolescence,
adulthood, and menopause?
Sometimes I fear for my friends who succumb to
this "condition." They often become dillusional -
thinking that they are the embodiment of this
pseudo-field of study. A typical victim will say "I
am pre-med," when asked what he is studying.
When I hear this I think of the scene from
Wuthering Heights when Catherine declares "I
am Heathcliff," and the thunder roars, and the
I am never quite sure how to respond to such a
statement so I usually follow their lead, and with
the same dramatics say "I am Russian and
Eastern European Studies.."
BY THIS point it's best not to disillusion the poor
soul by telling him tht he is a human and not a
It's no secret how this phenomenon occurs. The
silent killer called mainstreaming strikes so many
young people every year that there is now a glut of
lawyers and doctors.
When I graduated from elementary school I was
the happiest girl in the world. Never again would I
have to walk in line (I was always the one to get
the class in trouble by stepping out of line.) But
more importantly, I thought graduation from
elementary school initiated me into the adult
world - you know, where you make your own
decisions and people treat you like a "real person"
IN ELEMENTARY school, even art class
wasn't sacred. Mr. Jacobson (my art teacher)
was the worst offender in the mainstreaming and
belittling department. He made us draw trees a
certain way and we had to use certain colors. My
creativity was stifled.
Seventh grade liberated me. Time to strike out
on my own - no mainstreaming for this girl.
When I had the choice of taking art or shop class I
was tempted to take art because all my girlfriends
were. I resisted the pressure and opted for the for-'
bidden fruit. I took shop with the boys.
Ah. . . yes ... junior high school was certainly
the time for being your own person and trying new
things. The catch was that everybody tried the
same things at the same time. Everybody (who
was anybody that is) had a denim jacket and read
the book Forever (at least page 69), and everyone
went to the same bad concerts - together.
IN HIGH SCHOOL the directed student took all
the right classes as preparation for college. That's
not to say that anything thought-provoking was
taught. History lessons were limited to uncon-
troversial material, the Vietnam war was never
mentioned, and who ever heard of Allende in Chile
and how the U.S. manipulated his overthrow?
High school was also the place to develop a
"real" writing style and to learn how to theorize.
My favorite comment was from an English
teacher who wrote "I never said this" in the
margin of one of my papers. No shit, Sherlock.
Ever the advocate for a well-rounded education,
I took photography and mythology while Hana
Harvard-bound took accounting and math. My
rationalizations were not for naught. Look where I
landed - at the Harvard of the Midwest (or is it the
other way around).
I must say though, I was a might skeptical about@
coming here when I leafed through my freshman
directory and half of the people were crazed and
claimed they were pre-__ . The rest had written
"people" as a hobby. WHAT DOES THAT
Anyway, one quick call to a University coun-
selor assured me that there is no such thing as a
pre-med, or a pre-law at Michigan. "They'll
snap out of it," he said.
To assure me that there is an abundance ,of
mind-expanding classes at the University, the
counselor sent me a course description book.
Sorcery, Witchcraft, and the Devil is a class at
the top of my list for must-takes. This class
"examines the social construction of 'evil.' " I
have a word or two to say on that note.
The course description for The Experience of
Arts and Ideas in the Nineteenth Century says "we
will explore the struggle of the romantic artist to
free himself from the bonds of social convention
and from the prison of history." A class for me!
But many people miss out on these classes
because they have tunnel vision - they only take
the classes that are supposed to get them places. I
imagine a little withcraft and sorcery could get
them to the same place.
On a totally selfish note, though, I can't help but
smile when I watch the mainstreamers climbing
all over each other at CRISP to get into the going-
somewhere-fast classes. That means MY classes
will be open.
But even funnier than the CRISP scene is the
bookstore scene. Hand-over-fist and head-over-
tails these people scramble to the stores to secure
All things considered, maybe mainstreaming
isn't such a bad thing - it gives people in my co-
ner of the world a little room to breathe.
Acquaintance rape happens at University
By Jennifer Faigel
It was late on a Thursday in March
when Karen and her friend Lynn
saw Kevin at the U-Club.
"I hadn't seen him (Kevin) in a few
months, so I walked over to say hello
and find out how he was doing. He
lived down the hall from me in the
dorm last year.
"LYNN AND I ended up spending a
couple of hours talking to him. He
bought us a drink. We had a good
time. It was all very innocent. It tur-
ned out that Kevin went to high school
with my roommate Carolyn. He told
me a bunch of stories about her."
At around 12:30 a.m., they left
Because Kevin lived in the same
general direction as Lynn and Karen,
he offered to walk them home. He
said, "I couldn't let anything happen
to you two lovely ladies, could I?"
"Because Lynn's apartment was on
the way to mine, we dropped her off
first. Kevin asked me if I had seen any
of the old gang from the dorm and he
asked how Carolyn was - really just
a lot of small talk. When we got to my
apartment, he asked if he could come
in to say hello to Carolyn. I said,
'Sure, why not.' After all, we were
pretty good friends last year. Besides,
he knew my roommate. It seemed like
no big deal. When we got inside, I
found a note from Carolyn saying she
had gone to Charlie's for a drink with
a couple of friends.
"SINCE Kevin was already inside, I
figured I'd offer him something to
drink before he headed home. We
talked for a while, and he flirted a lit-
tle, but I ignored it. Actually, I kind of
"I got up to put the glasses in the
sink, and as I was rinsing them, Kevin
came up behind me, yanked me
around and started groping and
kissing me! I tried to pull away, but I
couldn't. I told him to stop and leave
me alone. I said I wasn't that kind of a
girl. What a dumb thing to say. He
wouldn't let go. I didn't know what to
do. I yelled, 'Get away from me!' but
his grip only tightened. I panicked...
I ...I froze... I couldn't move! All I
could think was "I can't believe this is
happening to me.' What did I say ...
or do? 'Please leave me alone! Let me
go!' I couldn't break his grip. He pin-
ned me to the floor. I was trapped.
'Stop it! Leave me alone! Why are
you doing this to me?" He told me he
wasn't going to stopand that I wanted
this as much as he did. That's not
A woman is raped every 21/2
minutes in the United States. The
F.B.I. estimates that one out of every
three women, and one out of every ten
men will be sexually assaulted in his
or her lifetime.
RAPE happens at the University of
Michigan. It happens at parties, in
dorm rooms, apartments, houses,
co-ops, fraternities, University
buildings, sidewalks, alleys, and cars.
In 1984, 31 rapes and seven attempted
rapes were reported to Ann Arbor city
police. However, the F.B.I. estimates
that 90 percent of all rapes andattem-
pted rapes go unreported. That means
that fhara .ar ann..vinfah. 97
Assault Crisis Center, date and
acquaintance rape are the most
common types of sexual assault
against women on college campuses.
F.B.I. statistics confirm this: More
than 60 percent of sexual assaults
committed in the U.S. are 'committed 1
by acquaintances, but they account
for less than half the incidents repor-
ted to the police. Although it is easier
to conceptualize sexual assault in
terms of stranger rape, the majority
of sexual assaults are not committed
by psychopaths in trench coats who
leap out of bushes.
RAPES ARE committed by people
we know: friends, neighbors,
acquaintances, business associates,
husbands, fathers, stepfathers,
students, professors, co-workers
are all potential rapists. Dates com-
mit 12 percent of all rapes and attem-
It is important to understand that
any sexual activity involving a person
who does not consent is sexual
assault. This includes contact as well
as penetration. Mistakenly, many
date and acquaintance rape victims
do not realize they have been sexually
A characteristic response of the vic-
tim of a date or acquaintance rape is
an overwhelming feeling of guilt. In
Karen's case, she felt that she was to
blame because she allowed Kevin to
stay and talk for a while. She felt she
somehow must have given him the
"THE THING I can't get over is the
guilt. How could man I know, a friend
of mine, rape me unless I said or did
something that led him on? I trusted
For Karen and other sexual assault
victims, the worst part of the ordeal is
not always the actual assault, but the
insensitive responses from friends
and family members, and the
devastating feelings of guilt and
shame afterward. "I told one guy
about it just after it had happened. He
told me it was no big deal because I
knew him (Kevin), and that I must
have said something that gave him
the wrong impression." Somehow it
becomes the woman's fault if she is
Men are taught to believe they have
the right to impose their sexual
desires on women regardless of how
the woman feels. Women are taught to
be subservient in a male-
dominated world and to submit to
men's desires. The media provides
the same messages: when a woman
says no, she really means yes;
sexually active men are healthy,
while sexually active women are
whores. We are constantly bombar-
ded with these sexual stereotypes
which we are all expected to portray.
IN AN AGE of supposed equality,
we still have a long way to go to over-
come sexism in our society. Women
should not be blamed if they are
sexually assaulted. They are the vic-
tims, not the perpetrators of this
Rape is not exclusively a woman's
problem; it is a social problem and
must be treated as such. Everyone,
men as well as women, must be mad*
aware of the prevalence of sexual.
assault in our society and how, to
prevent it. When involved in a
relationship, here are some things' to
keep in mind. Always communicate
your feelings openly. Communicate
your intent and your expectations
clearly. Find out the other person's
expectations. Be respectful of others.
Do only what you feel comfortable
doing. It's o.k. to say "no." Say "no"
when you mean "no." Take "no" fo@
Be conscious of sex-role stereotypes
and how they affect you. Be alert to
your environment and the behavior of
others. Never force your desires upon
someone else. Be conscious that rape
does happen, even between people
who have known each other for a long
time. If you have been sexually
assaulted, remember, it is not your
fault. You'have done nothing wrong !
The characters in the above stor
are fictional, but the occurrence: of
date and acquaintance rape is very
common. If you have any questions,
or if you or someone yoU know has
been sexually assaulted, contact the
Ann Arbor Assault Crisis Center at
By the time you have finished
reading this article, three women
have been raped. What are you doing
about the affects of rape on your life?
Faigel was acting chairperson
of the Michigan Student
Assembly 's women's issues
The cholces Gorbachev faces
By Alexander Yanov
Apart from a strange exhortation (in the mouth of a
Soviet leader) for "revolutionary changes" in the Soviet
economy, and the business-like confession that the
U.S.S.R. has yet to capture "the technology of modern
generations," Mikhail Gorbachev's first meaningful
speech on April 23 contains at least one genuinely in-
triguing passage. He proposes to "consistently strengthen
social justice" in the U.S.S.R. A conventional expert's in-
terpretation of such a remark would stress, of course, that
the new leader, following in Brezhnev's footsteps, calls
for a more equal distribution of incomes among Soviet
Paradoxically enough, however, the following sentence
suggests something directly opposite: "to clear the
distributive mechanism from egalitarianism." This is not
just a phrase. New incentive bonuses, as well as limited
profet sharing for the workers' elite, are being introduced.
For someone who is used to the intricacies of the Soviet
euphemistical language (and Gorbachev is as subject to
censorship as anybody else in the U.S.S.R.), such an
exotic interpretation of social justice, if it has any
meaning at all, indicates that the recent leadership
change, unlike the previous ones, has a strong potential
for becoming a genuine regime change.
In fact, Gorbachev has two major models to choose
from. The first is the Brezhnev model of general recon-
ciliation of the elites in the realm and pacification of the
masses. In reality, this proved to be a prescription for
political stagnation and "muddling through," accom-
panied by the supression of dissent and the acceleration of
the arms race at home and expansion abroad.
The second is Nikita Khruschev's model of setting one
elite against another and of splitting the masses by
promoting "social justice," Soviet style - in the spirit of
Gorbachev's controversial remark on April 23. This is a
model of conflict necessary for a reformist breakthrough,
Khrushchev condemned in his memoirs even the
Brezhnev invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
It is true that most Soviet experts in the West, heavili
drawing on the prescriptions of American political scien-
ce, preferred Brezhnev's model of stagnation (they call it
"stabilization") to Khrushchev's model of internal con-
flict and breakthrough attempts. The dilemma Gorbachev
faces today, as it follows from his speech, is of a different
caliber, having nothing to do with whatever American
political science may prescribe - Can the "revolutionary
changes" in the Soviet economy which he calls for be af-
fected by "muddling through," or even by "muddling
up?" Can the lock of political stagnation that in-
capacitates the country be broken, or, in other words, ca
the Stalinist economic system be finally dismantled in this
way, or would it take a political breakthrough to handle
the job? The experience of James Kadar in Hungary and
Deng Xiaoping in China as well as Kruschev's ex-
perience in the U.S.S.R. tend to suggest the latter.
It was, after all, by setting the party professionals (the
full-time party officials) against the central bureaucracy
that Khrushchev was able to nearly rule the latter in 1957.
By setting the rural managerial elite against the rural
party professionals, he was able to eliminate the distirict
party committees in 1962. By setting liberal intelligentsia
against the Soviet "priests" (the profession*
ideologists), he was able to ultimately present the
Stalinist ideology of Russia as a besieged fortress. By
playing the "progressive" generals of the strategic forces
against the "conservative" commanders of the conven-
tional troops, he was able to reduce the miltary expen-
ditures and institute a short-lived Soviet variant of a
"minimum deterrence." But foremost, it was his open
support for the peasant elite that promised the greatest
breakthrough - in Soviet agriculture. Needless to say
that all of these most promising developments were either
reversed or arrested by Brezhnev's regime of politic