Page4 Tuesday, September 24, 1985 The Michigan Daily
ie mtbtigant Bain
Edited and managed by students at The University of Michigan
Enumerating current projects
By Ingrid Kock
Second in a series
Vol. XCVI, No, 14
420 Maynard St.'
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Editorials represent a majority opinion of the Daily's Editorial Board
Black and white
M UCH OF THE public
discussion surrounding ap-
pointment of a new vice-president
for the Michigan Student Assembly
has concerned the experience and:
ability of the respective potential.
Unfortunately, such discussion
overlooks most of the story.
Like any other government, MSA
responds to political realities and
the political realities in this case
demanded that President Paul
Josephson nominate a minority
to fill the vacancy created by the.
departure of his running-mate
While MSA has continually
chided the University ad-
ministration for relegating
minority concerns to low priority
status, MSA has failed to address
similar problems within its own
Although black students in par-
ticular have a higher percentage of
representatives on MSA than any
other minority group they weild lit-
tle influence there. Only Minority
Affairs chairman Lawrence Norris.
sits on the steering committee and
as an appointed committee head -
as opposed to elected - he has no
vote within the Assembly.
During his campaign for the
presidency last spring, Josephson
promised to increase minority in-
volvement in the decision making
processes at MSA. Less than three
weeks ago he reaffirmed that
pledge when MSA minority affairs
researcher Roderick Linzie ten-
dered his resignation.
Throughout the interviewing
process for the position the field of
potential candidates was narrowed
to two former MSA representative
and Budget Priorities Committee
member Philip Cole, who is black,
and long-time MSA representative
Bruce Belcher, who is white.
Josephson has nominated Cole.
Of the two, Belcher has more ex-
perience with the Assembly. He
spent the summer on a committee
reviewing the bylaws governing
Student Legal Services, the chair-
manship of which is a major
responsibility of the vice-
president. He is also an active
member in the Committee on
Reorganization which is preparing-
a text on changes that might in-
crease MSA efficiency; the chair-
manship of that committee is also
a duty of the vice-president.
Cole is certainly not inexperien-
ced, however. He served one term.
as an MSA representative from
LSA and has spent two years on the
University's Budget Priorities Com-
mittee which allocates funds to
student groups on campus.
Josephson seems to have been
under a great deal of pressure to
appoint a minority candidate. And
in the first several days following
Feusse's resignation Cole emerged
as the leading black candidate for
While some may cry reverse
discrimination in Josephson's
nominating Cole, they are
overlooking the political realities
that forced the decision.
The fact that the pool of qualified
black candidates was as small as it
was demonstrated how effectively
blacks have been shut out of MSA
Some argue that Cole's appoin-
tment is an odd form of affirmative
action, but that categorization
overlooks an important difference:
MSA will not lose Belcher's ser-
vices as he will remain with the
Assembly in his present advisory
The crucial test of Cole's
capabilities will come, however, as
he tries to revive much of the
momentum that Feusse's
resignation cost the Assembly.
With the continued help of ex-
perienced representatives like
Belcher and increased input from
minorities, he and Josephson have
a strong chance to succeed.
Last year, the University of Michigan was
awarded over six million dollars worth of
research contracts from the Department of
Defense, many of these contracts related to
weapons and weapons systems.
Over the course of the summer, the Univer-
sity Regents ordered a review University
research policy, with the possible outcome of
bringing more weapons research to the
University. It is essential that before any
changes are made in the University policies
on weapons research, information about the
weapons projects already being done here is
Information about the followoing projects
was gathered in the course of studies done for
MSA and is intended to encourage debate on
whether this type of research is acceptable in
the University community.
" In 1982, Professor Isadore Bernstein from
the School of Public Health began a project
titled "Chemical Blistering: Cellular and
Macromolecular Components" for the U.S.
Army. The aim of the project was to "under-
stand the mechanisms by which applied.
BCES (mustard gas) causes ... destruction
of the epidermal basal and lower spinous
Bernstein claimed the project was defen-
sive in nature and that he wished only to
develop antidotes to mustard gas. MSA
responded "If one understands the
mechanism by which a poison operates, isn't
it possible to use this information to develop a
more effective poison?
Strong objections to the mustard gas project
have been raised from both inside and outside
of the School of Public Health.Bernstein
completed the three year project last March,
only to resubmit an almost identical proposal
on chemical blistering last April.
" Professor Thomas Senior has pursued two
areas of research for the military: the effects
of electromagnietic pulse, and the develop-
ment of "Stealth" technology. An Elec-
tromagnetic pulse (EMP) is emitted by a
nuclear blast. If there is a nuclear war EMP
will knock out electrical systems, including
aircraft systems. Guarding against this
phenomena will allow military aircraft to con-
tinue to function in the event of a nuclear war.
In 1982 and 1983, Senior looked into the ef-
fects of electromagnetic pulse in order to
design protection for aircraft against it. An
MSA report laid out the implications of this
research: "By carrying out EMP studies on
Kock is the Michigan Student Assem-
bly's military research researcher.
U.S. combat aircraft, Senior and his
colleagues are not simply contributing to U.S.
defense. They are in fact assisting the Pen-
tagon in developing a key element of the
technical capability to fight a nuclear war."
Senior is presently researching Stealth
technology to make military aircraft invisible
to enemy radar. In a 1984 project entitled
"Active Control of Radar Scattering" Senior
studies on various methods to alter radar signals
given off by aircraft so that their presence is
not detected by the enemy.
Senior's stated goal is to produce a "null in
the desired direction" of the radar scanners,
ensuring the signals would not be picked up.
Senior's research dis not needed for commer-
cial aircraft. Rather, Senior's explorations in-
to Stealth Technology will better enable
military aircraft to proceed undetected to
their targets in order to destroy them.
tical computes to overcome turbulent
weather and decoys in order pinpoint targets
on ballistic missiles so that those missiles
could be destroyed.
Professor Leith wrote in his project
proposal to the Ballistic Missile Defense Ad-
vanced Technology Center that his research
would be geared "to permit non-nuclear kill'
of ballistic missiles.
" Some of the most controvesial classified
research done on campus has been performed
by Professor Theodore Birdsall. For the past
20 years, his research has generally been
sponsored by the Naval Weapons Research
Birdsall analyzes sounds picked up by Navy
hydrophones. This signal processing is part of
a Navy effort to make the ocean more tran-
sparent so that the Navy can determine th
size, shape, and location of Soviet sub-
marines. Birdsall has said that his most
project on Acoustic Tomography will further
improve the Navy's ability to track sub-
marines in the ocean.
An article in Scientific American makes clear
the possible outcome of Birdsall's research,
"the result of improved undersea survillance
capabilities" could be a perceived erosion of
Russian missile submarine survivability in
these waters and a growing ability of the U.S.
to launch a first strike."
Last January, the University faculty and
student research policies committee rejected
Birdsall's project on signal processing
because it did not adhere*to the guidelines on
classified research barring research which
could lead to the destruction of human life.
Their decision was overruled by then Vice-
President for Research Alfred Sussman.
These projects on ballistic missiles, anti-
submarineywarfare, mustard gas, and Stealth
Technology represent only a few of the many
weapons projects currently being done or
campus. Other projects such as the un-
classified "Safety Analysis of Trident Missile
Transportation Equipment" or the classified
project "Development of a Methodology for
Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation of the
Worldwide Military Command and Control
System" represent other projects with clear
military applications that have and continue
to be performed on campus. .
In the face of a expected increase of Defen-
se funding at the University as a result of Star
Wars and other federal research initiative
and the upcoming review of research
plolicies; the University community must
address the issue of whether projects like
these should be shaping the research at-
mosphere at the University.
Tomorrow: "Star Wars on campus"
A three-part series
While the guidelines on classified research
are successful in preventing some University;
professors from submitting classified
research proplosals, there remain classified
projects with clear weapons applications. The
following projects are examples of such
classified projects, and the upcoming review
of the guidelines on classified research in or-
der to ensure that these types of projects, that
represent clear lapses in adherence to
University policy will not take place at the
" Engineering professor Emmet Leith had a
classified project in 1978 and 1979, the conten-
ts of which have only just recently been
released to MSA. The project was titled, "In-
vestigations of Applications of Coherent Op-
tics to the Ballistic Missile Defense
Problem," and in it Leith researched the
potential of holograms, interfometry, and op-
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Summing up the summit conferences
L AST SPRING, as most
University students were
glumly trudging to final classes, a
magnanimous event captured the
attention of the masses traversing
A group of green-garbed mystics
chanting and singing about
bicycles and oppression - or
something like that - introduced
to Ann Arbor the Green Bike
Project: an idea whose time had
The idea, however, embodied in
a fleet of 16 bicycles (which were
procured from Ann Arbor police
impoundment, painted green,
exorcised of their capital value,
and presented to the community in
the Diag ritual), rode off into the
proverbial sunset. The skeptics
were right: the "unlocked" green
bikes met a dismal fate.
Although intended to be shared
as communal property, the bikes
ri: nrw -a
guidelines" and a map detailing
green bike riding parameters.
Provisions for repair are being
made, and a local address will be
provided for drop off servicing of
And since they've done it before,
and they're going to do it again;
it's time to say it again:
Users are reminded to be safety
conscious. But above all, green
bike riders are asked, begged, and
cajoled not to lock a green bike. If
this inspired scheme is to function
optimally, practices such as
locking or "permanently adop-
ting" green bikes bust be avoided.
The idea is to hop on, cruise to
class, or wherever you're headed,
and leave the bike for the next per-
son who strolls by and wants a ride.
Don't repaint a green bike purple,
or let the air out of the tires, or
stuff one in your parents' station
wagon when you go home for
By Jonathan Corn
and Walter White
In two months, Geneva, Swit-
zerland will be the sight of the fir-
st U.S.-Soviet summit conferen-
ce in six years. The meeting bet-
ween President Reagan and
Soviet leader, Mikhail S. Gor-
bachev comes at a time when
relations between the two super-
powers have deteriorated to an
all-time low. And between these
nations exists an inferno of
suspicion and mistrust with the
arms race raging at the core of
The outcome of these talks
could help decide the direction of
the global peace process, but
what can the world expect frorr.
this Presidential rendezvous?
Unfortunately, history and an
arrogant U.S. attitude seems to
point to a thumbs down result.
Past summit meetings have
rarely accomplished significant
gains in U.S.-Soviet relations. In
fact, conferences between past
Presidents such as Nixon, Carter,
and Ford with the late Soviet
leader Leonid Brezhnev have
resulted in little more than an ex-
change of personal sympathies.
At each conference, they
managed to talk about their
families and what was in store for
them in the future. Mr. Brezhnev
even went to far as to hold Gerald
and how he hoped this "mur-
derous world conflict" would
never be repeated.
A U.S. President, due to the
nature of the U.S. decision-
making system, does not really
have the power to take any con-
crete action in a summit meeting.
Perhaps this is the reason past
meetings have yielded so little. If
history repeats itself, the two
leaders will sit down together to
discuss the perplexing problems
that exist between them, but in
the end, they will simply stand up
and agree to disagree. They both
go back to their respective coun-
tries to face the typical
bureaucratic rigamorale. Once
again, as soon as the romantic
charm of meeting wears off, they
will be right back where they
The real question is then, just
what do summit conferences ac-
complish? If the President does
not have the authority to take any
concrete action, what can be
achieved? The answer is that
these talks help mold an attitude.
They set the tone for the later,
more extensive negotiations.
This is why it is ever so important
for President Reagan to begin
these talks with the hope of filling
some of the deep divisions which
separate the two nations.
Unfortunately, the Reagan
Administration does not believe a
good attitude is important. Or at
least they have not shown that
they believe it.
On many occasions, President
Reagan has referred to the up-
coming summit in a half serious
manner. This reinforces the
Soviet feeling that the U.S. does
not want peace. This sort of pre-
summit attitude is like two
cigarette smokers trying to con-
vince each other to quit, yet, one
of them knows he will light-up on
the way home.
Therefore, these two months
before the summit are crucial for
each side. It is a time where they
will attempt to frame the agenda
and signal to the other side that
they are ready to come out of the
shadows and speak face to face.
It has been a tradition for both
nations to begin forming the
political atmosphere well before
the two sit down in Geneva to
begin the talks. The unfortunate
thing about this is that through
this cloud of propaganda, neither
President Reagan nor Mr. Gor-
bachev will be able to ignore
what they heard or what they
Summits are always risky
business. The chances are fifty-
fifty that you will not look like the
villian of progress. Surely Mr.
Reagan has a lot more at risk
coming into this summit since he
is the only President since World
War II who has failed to meet
with a Soviet leader.
. Thus, the White House is doin
its best to make sure the
American people do not expect
too much from this meeting. Ad-
ministration offficials are even
conceding that they are going to
blame the other side if nothing
significant comes from the sum-
What really needs to be done is
for the two leaders to come down
to earth. For once, they shoul
forget their roles, forget their dif-
ferences and just learn to
cooperate. They should learn to
be friends, to realize that they are
in the position to bring longevity
to peace and even to mankind.
Wouldn't it be interesting if
they just went out and played
some golf or went to the tracks
together and bet on the horses?
However, Reagan's attitude that
they don't need to love each othe@
or even like each other is what wi1'
keep the global peace process in
Ronald Reagan may not give
Mikhail Gorbachev a friendship
ring or anything, but he might be
dragged through the ringer if he
keeps failing to bring about a
change in U.S.-Soviet relations.
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